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Stony Creek Granite Sites Foundations of America - QU 201 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php 2017-11-19T19:23:09Z Joomla! 1.5 - Open Source Content Management SONY Building Sold for $1.1 billion 2016-04-25T13:45:00Z 2016-04-25T13:45:00Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=754:sony-building-sold-for-11-billion&catid=58:commercial-structures&Itemid=68 Joseph De Avila stleone@shorelineinternet.com <img src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/bn-ns341_nysony_m_20160425172013.jpg" alt="" width="700"/>Olayan America and Chelsfield Group to buy 550 Madison Ave. for $1.4 billion to $1.5 billion<p> By JOSEPH DE AVILA April 25, 2016 8:45 p.m. ET A pair of international property investors said Monday that they had bought the Sony Building, the Midtown icon known for its distinctive notched Chippendale top. Olayan America, a subsidiary of Saudi investment conglomerate Olayan Group, along with Chelsfield Group, a London-based property-investment company, agreed to buy the 850,000-square-foot office building for $1.4 billion to $1.5 billion, a person familiar with the transaction said. Chelsfield Group will be a minority partner in the deal, this person said. The buyers purchased the Philip Johnson-designed tower, at 550 Madison Ave., from the Chetrit Group, a real-estate firm, which bought the Sony Building in 2013 for $1.1 billion. “We are delighted to partner once again with Olayan on a trophy property in a world-class city,” said Elliott Bernerd, founder and joint chairman of Chelsfield. <img src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/bn-ns341_nysony_m_20160425172013.jpg" alt="" width="700"/>Olayan America and Chelsfield Group to buy 550 Madison Ave. for $1.4 billion to $1.5 billion<p> By JOSEPH DE AVILA April 25, 2016 8:45 p.m. ET A pair of international property investors said Monday that they had bought the Sony Building, the Midtown icon known for its distinctive notched Chippendale top. Olayan America, a subsidiary of Saudi investment conglomerate Olayan Group, along with Chelsfield Group, a London-based property-investment company, agreed to buy the 850,000-square-foot office building for $1.4 billion to $1.5 billion, a person familiar with the transaction said. Chelsfield Group will be a minority partner in the deal, this person said. The buyers purchased the Philip Johnson-designed tower, at 550 Madison Ave., from the Chetrit Group, a real-estate firm, which bought the Sony Building in 2013 for $1.1 billion. “We are delighted to partner once again with Olayan on a trophy property in a world-class city,” said Elliott Bernerd, founder and joint chairman of Chelsfield. Head House Philadelphia and Reading RR 2011-10-25T20:22:55Z 2011-10-25T20:22:55Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=632:head-house-philadelphia-and-reading-rr&catid=58:commercial-structures&Itemid=68 Leigh Michael <P>          <IMG alt="Original P&R Railroad Coal Locomotive" src="http://www.sjrail.com/wiki/images/f/f5/P%26R_G1_4-6-2_-120.jpg" width="645 height=140 mce_src=http://www.sjrail.com/wiki/images/f/f5/P%26R_G1_4-6-2_-120.jpg" /></P> <P> </P> <P>            The Reading Terminal is a complex of buildings in Philadelphia Pennsylvania in the Market East section of Center City. The complex consists of three different building: the head house, the train shed, and the Reading Terminal Market. The complex opened up in 1893 and was noted as the largest single span arched roof structure in the world during the late 19<SUP>th</SUP> Century. Today, the train shed remains the world’s oldest such structure and is a historic part of the Philadelphia area.</P> <P>            The Philadelphia and Reading Railroad was built as a coal road, spanning from Pottsville, Pennsylvania to Philadelphia. By the 1890’s the company was able to extend its rail lines while acquiring control of other railroads in the area. In the year 1889 the Reading Railroad announced that it was going to construct a new train depot for the Philadelphia services on the corner of 12<SUP>th</SUP> and Market Streets. In the plans, the construction would include a train shed and an eight story head house. By this time it had more than 2,000 miles of rail line which terminated in Philadelphia, at four located passenger terminals.</P> <P style="TEXT-ALIGN: center" mce_style="TEXT-ALIGN: center"><IMG alt="Reading Terminal in Philadelphia" src="http://www.philadelphia-reflections.com/images/readingterminal.jpg" width="400" /></P> <P>            The Reading Terminal consisted of two major buildings; the head house, which contained passenger facilities and offices, and a train shed, both of which were separated by a lobby. The eight story head house was designed by Francis H. Kimball in an Italianate style and was constructed by the Wilson Brothers & Company. The front of the head house, facing Market Street, was constructed using granite, brick, and terracotta finished with a copper cornice. The head house was built as a means to contain passenger waiting rooms, ticket office, baggage room, dining halls as well has being the corporate headquarters for the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company. The lobby was 50 feet in depth while extending the entire width of the main building. But the real engineering marvel of the entire project was the train shed with its three centered arch roof. In one single span it covered the whole width of the tracts which consisted of eight platforms and 13 tracks. The roof was made out of wrought iron and was required to be double rolled before installation. During this time period, the terminal was the widest single span train shed in the world. The Reading shed remains as the oldest long span roof structure in the world as well as the sole surviving single span arched train shed in the United States. <BR />       <IMG style="FLOAT: left" alt="P&R Railroad Trainshed" src="http://www.workshopoftheworld.com/center_city/reading_files/page133_1.jpg" width="377 mce_style=FLOAT: left" />                                                                                               </P> <P>  The train shed, which was located behind the head house, extended north to Arch Street. When the train shed was constructed, the track came into the shed 25 feet above the street level. Since the train shed wasn’t even with the street level, the ground floor was constructed into a market hall which housed two markets. “Descended from Philadelphia's original market, founded in 1693, their importance to the city was recognized, and the occupants of the old markets were transferred to the new market hall without interruption to business, even before construction of the headhouse.” To this day, the Reading Terminal Market remains Philadelphia's principal farmers' market.</P> <P><BR />            The Philadelphia and Reading Railroad was one of the first railroads that was built in the United States. Because fuel was transitioning from wood to fuel, the railroad was an instant success in the industry upon its 1893 completion. In the following years the company began to acquire most of the railroads in the Schuylkill Valley and Pennsylvania’s vast Coal Region. One of the biggest ventures that led to the railroads success was Port Richmond in Philadelphia. It was constructed as a port to load ships and barges with coal to sell as an exported commodity. This port was noted as the largest privately owned tidewater terminal in the world. Eventually, the P&R railroad created a company called the Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Company to buy up coal mines in the Coal Region. Because of this expansion, the P&R railroad gained almost full control of the coal market from mining and was considered the largest company in the world in the early 1870’s. The company was seen as one of the first true conglomerates in the world through its successful plan to gain control of many rail lines in the Northeast. In 1879, the Reading acquired the North Pennsylvania Railroad which gave them the ability to prosper from the booming steel industry in the Lehigh Valley. It further expanded by gaining access to New York City from the newly controlled Delaware and Bound Brook Railroad as well as the construction of the Port Reading Railroad. This allowed for the direct delivery of coal to New York City by rail and barge instead of the former delivery which required long trips by ships from Port Richmond up to New York Harbor.                                              <BR />          In 1890 the P&R railroad realized that revenues could increase by transforming the historical coal railroad into a trunk railroad, or a passenger railroad. It was able to gain control of the Lehigh Valley Railroad, Central Railroad of New Jersey, and the Boston and Maine Railroad. The railroad was close to becoming a true Trunk load rail line, but was unable to be certified because of the efforts of people who were against the competition that it would impose on the northeastern railroad business. From this point on, the Pennsylvania and Reading Railroad was relegated to a regional railroad for the rest of the company’s history.                                         </P> <P style="TEXT-ALIGN: center" mce_style="TEXT-ALIGN: center"><IMG alt="Editorial of P&R Railroad Terminal" src="http://www.west2k.com/papix/readingterminal.jpg" width="408" /></P> <P>           On November 23, 1971 the P&R railroad filed for bankruptcy due to the failure of regional rail lines which the company depended on since the coal business died off over the years. Upon the year 1976 the P&R railroad died off completely and many of the company’s assets were transferred to the federal financed Conrail while the commuter rail lines were acquired by SEPTA. The last train left the station in November of 1984 and a new station was soon constructed a block away which was called the new Market East Station. The old abandoned terminal building was supposed to be demolished or refurbished for additional use but a renewal effort in the downtown area stated that this building was located in the redevelopment area of the city. After multiple years of negotiation talks, the Reading Company agreed to allow the Redevelopment Authority of Philadelphia to acquire the historical terminal so it could be incorporated into the Pennsylvania Convention Center upon further reconstruction.</P> <P>             </P> <P> </P> <P><A href="http://viaductgreene.org/philadelphia-reading-railroad/" mce_href="http://viaductgreene.org/philadelphia-reading-railroad/">htt</A><A href="http://www.enjoyingphiladelphia.com/reading_terminal_market_history.html" mce_href="http://www.enjoyingphiladelphia.com/reading_terminal_market_history.html">http://www.enjoyingphiladelphia.com/reading_terminal_market_history.html</A></P> <P><A href="http://viaductgreene.org/philadelphia-reading-railroad/" mce_href="http://viaductgreene.org/philadelphia-reading-railroad/">p://viaductgreene.org/philadelphia-reading-railroad/</A></P> <P><A href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reading_Terminal" mce_href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reading_Terminal">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reading_Terminal</A></P> <P><A href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reading_Company" mce_href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reading_Company">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reading_Company</A></P> <P><A href="http://www.workshopoftheworld.com/center_city/reading.html" mce_href="http://www.workshopoftheworld.com/center_city/reading.html">http://www.workshopoftheworld.com/center_city/reading.html</A></P> <P> </P> <P>.</P> <P>          <IMG alt="Original P&R Railroad Coal Locomotive" src="http://www.sjrail.com/wiki/images/f/f5/P%26R_G1_4-6-2_-120.jpg" width="645 height=140 mce_src=http://www.sjrail.com/wiki/images/f/f5/P%26R_G1_4-6-2_-120.jpg" /></P> <P> </P> <P>            The Reading Terminal is a complex of buildings in Philadelphia Pennsylvania in the Market East section of Center City. The complex consists of three different building: the head house, the train shed, and the Reading Terminal Market. The complex opened up in 1893 and was noted as the largest single span arched roof structure in the world during the late 19<SUP>th</SUP> Century. Today, the train shed remains the world’s oldest such structure and is a historic part of the Philadelphia area.</P> <P>            The Philadelphia and Reading Railroad was built as a coal road, spanning from Pottsville, Pennsylvania to Philadelphia. By the 1890’s the company was able to extend its rail lines while acquiring control of other railroads in the area. In the year 1889 the Reading Railroad announced that it was going to construct a new train depot for the Philadelphia services on the corner of 12<SUP>th</SUP> and Market Streets. In the plans, the construction would include a train shed and an eight story head house. By this time it had more than 2,000 miles of rail line which terminated in Philadelphia, at four located passenger terminals.</P> <P style="TEXT-ALIGN: center" mce_style="TEXT-ALIGN: center"><IMG alt="Reading Terminal in Philadelphia" src="http://www.philadelphia-reflections.com/images/readingterminal.jpg" width="400" /></P> <P>            The Reading Terminal consisted of two major buildings; the head house, which contained passenger facilities and offices, and a train shed, both of which were separated by a lobby. The eight story head house was designed by Francis H. Kimball in an Italianate style and was constructed by the Wilson Brothers & Company. The front of the head house, facing Market Street, was constructed using granite, brick, and terracotta finished with a copper cornice. The head house was built as a means to contain passenger waiting rooms, ticket office, baggage room, dining halls as well has being the corporate headquarters for the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company. The lobby was 50 feet in depth while extending the entire width of the main building. But the real engineering marvel of the entire project was the train shed with its three centered arch roof. In one single span it covered the whole width of the tracts which consisted of eight platforms and 13 tracks. The roof was made out of wrought iron and was required to be double rolled before installation. During this time period, the terminal was the widest single span train shed in the world. The Reading shed remains as the oldest long span roof structure in the world as well as the sole surviving single span arched train shed in the United States. <BR />       <IMG style="FLOAT: left" alt="P&R Railroad Trainshed" src="http://www.workshopoftheworld.com/center_city/reading_files/page133_1.jpg" width="377 mce_style=FLOAT: left" />                                                                                               </P> <P>  The train shed, which was located behind the head house, extended north to Arch Street. When the train shed was constructed, the track came into the shed 25 feet above the street level. Since the train shed wasn’t even with the street level, the ground floor was constructed into a market hall which housed two markets. “Descended from Philadelphia's original market, founded in 1693, their importance to the city was recognized, and the occupants of the old markets were transferred to the new market hall without interruption to business, even before construction of the headhouse.” To this day, the Reading Terminal Market remains Philadelphia's principal farmers' market.</P> <P><BR />            The Philadelphia and Reading Railroad was one of the first railroads that was built in the United States. Because fuel was transitioning from wood to fuel, the railroad was an instant success in the industry upon its 1893 completion. In the following years the company began to acquire most of the railroads in the Schuylkill Valley and Pennsylvania’s vast Coal Region. One of the biggest ventures that led to the railroads success was Port Richmond in Philadelphia. It was constructed as a port to load ships and barges with coal to sell as an exported commodity. This port was noted as the largest privately owned tidewater terminal in the world. Eventually, the P&R railroad created a company called the Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Company to buy up coal mines in the Coal Region. Because of this expansion, the P&R railroad gained almost full control of the coal market from mining and was considered the largest company in the world in the early 1870’s. The company was seen as one of the first true conglomerates in the world through its successful plan to gain control of many rail lines in the Northeast. In 1879, the Reading acquired the North Pennsylvania Railroad which gave them the ability to prosper from the booming steel industry in the Lehigh Valley. It further expanded by gaining access to New York City from the newly controlled Delaware and Bound Brook Railroad as well as the construction of the Port Reading Railroad. This allowed for the direct delivery of coal to New York City by rail and barge instead of the former delivery which required long trips by ships from Port Richmond up to New York Harbor.                                              <BR />          In 1890 the P&R railroad realized that revenues could increase by transforming the historical coal railroad into a trunk railroad, or a passenger railroad. It was able to gain control of the Lehigh Valley Railroad, Central Railroad of New Jersey, and the Boston and Maine Railroad. The railroad was close to becoming a true Trunk load rail line, but was unable to be certified because of the efforts of people who were against the competition that it would impose on the northeastern railroad business. From this point on, the Pennsylvania and Reading Railroad was relegated to a regional railroad for the rest of the company’s history.                                         </P> <P style="TEXT-ALIGN: center" mce_style="TEXT-ALIGN: center"><IMG alt="Editorial of P&R Railroad Terminal" src="http://www.west2k.com/papix/readingterminal.jpg" width="408" /></P> <P>           On November 23, 1971 the P&R railroad filed for bankruptcy due to the failure of regional rail lines which the company depended on since the coal business died off over the years. Upon the year 1976 the P&R railroad died off completely and many of the company’s assets were transferred to the federal financed Conrail while the commuter rail lines were acquired by SEPTA. The last train left the station in November of 1984 and a new station was soon constructed a block away which was called the new Market East Station. The old abandoned terminal building was supposed to be demolished or refurbished for additional use but a renewal effort in the downtown area stated that this building was located in the redevelopment area of the city. After multiple years of negotiation talks, the Reading Company agreed to allow the Redevelopment Authority of Philadelphia to acquire the historical terminal so it could be incorporated into the Pennsylvania Convention Center upon further reconstruction.</P> <P>             </P> <P> </P> <P><A href="http://viaductgreene.org/philadelphia-reading-railroad/" mce_href="http://viaductgreene.org/philadelphia-reading-railroad/">htt</A><A href="http://www.enjoyingphiladelphia.com/reading_terminal_market_history.html" mce_href="http://www.enjoyingphiladelphia.com/reading_terminal_market_history.html">http://www.enjoyingphiladelphia.com/reading_terminal_market_history.html</A></P> <P><A href="http://viaductgreene.org/philadelphia-reading-railroad/" mce_href="http://viaductgreene.org/philadelphia-reading-railroad/">p://viaductgreene.org/philadelphia-reading-railroad/</A></P> <P><A href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reading_Terminal" mce_href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reading_Terminal">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reading_Terminal</A></P> <P><A href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reading_Company" mce_href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reading_Company">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reading_Company</A></P> <P><A href="http://www.workshopoftheworld.com/center_city/reading.html" mce_href="http://www.workshopoftheworld.com/center_city/reading.html">http://www.workshopoftheworld.com/center_city/reading.html</A></P> <P> </P> <P>.</P> Lefcourt Manhattan Building 2011-10-23T20:31:47Z 2011-10-23T20:31:47Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=625:lefcourt-manhattan-building&catid=58:commercial-structures&Itemid=68 <p><br mce_bogus="1" /></p> <p><br mce_bogus="1" /></p> Key Tower, Cleveland 2011-10-18T07:16:02Z 2011-10-18T07:16:02Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=615:key-tower-cleveland&catid=58:commercial-structures&Itemid=68 <P>One monumental structure that deserves to be recognized for its’ daily functions, benefits to society, and structural beauty is Key Tower. The majority of Key Tower is owned by the Richard E. Jacobs Group, the same company who came up with the plans for this building. Although they still own fifty percent of the tower, co-owners such as Wells Real Estate Funds exist. This building is located on Public Square in Cleveland, Ohio and peaks at a towering 948 feet high. To this day it is still the tallest building in Ohio, the eighteenth tallest building in the United States, and the seventieth tallest building in the world.<IMG style="MARGIN: 5px; FLOAT: left" alt="key tower" src="http://blog.cleveland.com/business/2007/12/large_key.jpg" width=213 mce_src="http://blog.cleveland.com/business/2007/12/large_key.jpg" mce_style="MARGIN: 5px; FLOAT: left"></P> <P>Originally known as the Society Center, it is fifty-seven stories tall and can be seen from roughly twenty miles away. The Society Center was renamed Key Tower when Key Bank acquired Society Bank. Between 1898 and 1955, before the construction of Key Tower, the Chamber of Commerce Building stood in its’ location. In 1939, Cleveland College of Western Reserve Univ. purchased the building and occupied it until 1953. Two years later, the Chamber of Commerce Building was demolished.<BR></P> <P><IMG style="MARGIN: 5px; FLOAT: left" alt="Cesar Pelli" src="http://1892club.org/speakers/details/2007/Cesar%20Pelli.jpg" width=168 mce_src="http://1892club.org/speakers/details/2007/Cesar%20Pelli.jpg" mce_style="MARGIN: 5px; FLOAT: left">Argentine architect César Pelli created Key Tower after outbidding Philip Johnson for the rights to work on the project. Pelli emigrated to the United States in 1952, became a U.S. citizen in 1964, and in 1991 became listed by the American Institute of Architects among the top ten most influential living American architects. From 1977 to 1984, Pelli was the dean of the School of Architecture at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. César Pelli was living in the same state where Stony Creek granite was quarried.</P> <P>It can be argued that Pelli only accepted the Key Tower project because he wanted to design it similar to his plans for the Wells Fargo Center, formerly known as Northwest Tower. The Wells Fargo Center was created three years prior and located in Minneapolis. At that time Pelli’s proposal for the building was rejected, which gives reason to believe he accepted the Key Tower project so he could still create his design.</P> <P>Pelli designed Key Tower following a postmodern architectural style. Known for its’ composite structure, it was created using a variety of different materials. The majority of the building’s facade is composed of Stony Creek granite, which is quarried in Connecticut. This granite is over 245 million years old. However, the first two floors of Key Tower are composed of Napoleon Red granite. The majority of the building’s facing was flamed, which is when a flame is used to roughen the surface of the granite. This granite is quarried from Vanga, Sweden. The interior of Key Tower, as well as the adjacent hotel complex, is composed primarily of Rosso (Red) Verona marble. This orange-colored limestone is quarried in Venice, Italy. Other materials used in the interior of Key Tower include purple Rosso Levanto marble quarried in the Mediterranean area and Breccia Pernice marble, from Italy. All of the interior materials, excluding Rosso Levanto marble, are over 200 million years old. They are from the Jurassic Age, while Rosso Levanto is from the Tertiary Age and is less than sixty-five million years old.</P> <P><IMG style="MARGIN: 5px; FLOAT: left" alt="patronas twin towers" src="http://www.101worldtravel.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/Petronas-Twin-Towers-4.jpg" width=213 mce_src="http://www.101worldtravel.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/Petronas-Twin-Towers-4.jpg" mce_style="MARGIN: 5px; FLOAT: left">Some of his most famous works, other than Key Tower, include the World Financial Center and the Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, which until 2004 were the tallest buildings in the world. In 2002, Pelli designed the JP MorganChase Building. This office building is located in San Francisco. Roughly 400,000 square feet of the building is leased by JPMorgan Chase &amp; Co., an American multinational banking corporation. This corporation was formed in 2000 when Chase Manhattan Corporation merged with J.P. Morgan and Co.</P> <P>Although the majority of materials used, the design, and the time period of the creation of Greek sculptor Kostas Dimitriadis’ “The Discus Thrower” and Key Tower differed, some similarities exist between the two creations. The general concept of using different materials for different layers of construction can be seen in both creations. In “The Discus Thrower,” the pedestal was composed of polished Stony Creek granite, while the actual statue was composed of bronze. As previously stated, the first two floors of Key Tower were composed of Napoleon Red granite, while the rest of the building was made of Stony Creek granite. This general architectural structure, as well as the use of Stony Creek granite, adapted over time and both are still used in modern society.</P> <P><A href="http://inhabitat.com/files/grancrete.gif" mce_href="http://inhabitat.com/files/grancrete.gif"><IMG style="MARGIN: 5px; FLOAT: left" src="http://inhabitat.com/files/grancrete.gif" width=120 height=118 mce_src="http://inhabitat.com/files/grancrete.gif" mce_style="MARGIN: 5px; FLOAT: left" http:="http:" creadvice.files.wordpress.com="creadvice.files.wordpress.com" 2011="2011" 08="08" leed.jpg?="leed.jpg?" ?="?"></A>Key Tower won a LEED gold certification for sustainable operations and maintenance. LEED stands for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design. Under LEED standards, a gold certification is the second-highest recognition that a building can earn. This certificate is given to buildings and communities that use strategies in an attempt to improve performance in energy savings, water efficiency, environmental quality, and CO<SUB>2</SUB> emission reductions. Key Tower was awarded this recognition by the United States Green Building Council. The chairman and founder, Robert K. Watson, developed LEED with the intentions to get companies to follow green building designs, operations, and maintenance. Key Tower received their recognition for their owner's and manager's attempts at cutting water and power use, recycling office waste, and using environmentally friendly cleaning materials. The most recent of Key Tower’s attempts to “Go Green” include cutting water usage by thirty percent and increasing office-space recycling by twenty-five percent.</P> <P>Most of the tower is occupied by Key Bank’s headquarters, although the top floor of Key Tower is currently being used by Amin, Turocy &amp; Calvin LLP. Amin, Turocy &amp; Calvin is an intellectual property law firm. From the moment David and Dick Jacobs opened the tower in 1991, until December 2007 when Amin, Turocy &amp; Calvin leased the office space; Key Tower’s top floor had been vacant and unfinished. Industry experts believe these 14,000-square-feet of office space must have cost roughly $420,000 per year. Amin, Turocy &amp; Calvin is a rather small company, but they can afford this office space because they represent over a dozen Fortune 500 companies. Some of their clients include AT&amp;T, Motorola, Wachovia Corporation, and Cisco Systems. If their office space proves to be a long-term investment, Amin, Turocy &amp; Calvin’s plans for the future will consist of increasing employment by twenty percent, leasing more office space on lower floors, and using local architect Steve Kordalski to design outdoor patios off of the top floor.</P> <P><IMG style="MARGIN: 5px; FLOAT: left" alt="cleveland marriott" src="http://cache.virtualtourist.com/1/1470306-Marriott_Cleveland_Key_Center-Cleveland.jpg" width=197 mce_src="http://cache.virtualtourist.com/1/1470306-Marriott_Cleveland_Key_Center-Cleveland.jpg" mce_style="MARGIN: 5px; FLOAT: left">Attached to the base of the tower is the Cleveland Marriot Downtown. The creation of this 403-room hotel sparked a hotel-building boom in downtown Cleveland and revolutionized the hotel industry. Not only does this correspond to the story of “The Comeback City,” which relates to the “Rags to Riches” idea displayed through the Baron Ashkenazy in Ragtime, but it also parallels the revolutionizing of the music industry that Scott Joplin helped to create. Combining the national landmark and tourist attraction that is Key Tower with a place where sight-seeing tourists can reside was one of the best business decisions The Jacob’s Group could have ever made. Now tourists, traveling sports teams, and local residents in need of a banquet hall can all visit and spend the night at Key Tower. Similar to shopping in a grocery store, the longer a potential customer stays in the store, the more inclined they are to buy something. By attaching a hotel to Key Tower, tourists that are spending the night will also be in need of dining services, transportation, and will have a longer time frame to go to the cocktail bar and souvenir shop. The Cleveland Marriot’s location is also ideal. Just out of Public Square, the Marriot is near every major office building, restaurant, and shopping destination in the city. Some famous local spots that make a stay at Key Tower’s Marriot more desirable are The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum, Jacob’s Field, The Great Lakes Science Center, and Cleveland Brown’s Stadium.</P> <P>Document References:</P> <P><A href="http://foundationsofamerica.com/Placemarks/Key-Tower-Cleveland.kmz" target=_blank mce_href="http://foundationsofamerica.com/Placemarks/Key-Tower-Cleveland.kmz">Key Tower, Cleveland.kmz</A>&nbsp;(Google Earth Placemark)</P> <P><A href="http://blog.cleveland.com/business/2007/12/key_towers_top_floor_finally_g.html" mce_href="http://blog.cleveland.com/business/2007/12/key_towers_top_floor_finally_g.html">http://blog.cleveland.com/business/2007/12/key_towers_top_floor_finally_g.html</A></P> <P><A href="http://ech.case.edu/ech-cgi/article.pl?id=COCB" mce_href="http://ech.case.edu/ech-cgi/article.pl?id=COCB">http://ech.case.edu/ech-cgi/article.pl?id=COCB</A></P> <P><A href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Key_Tower" mce_href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Key_Tower">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Key_Tower</A></P> <P><A href="http://www.cleveland.com/business/index.ssf/2010/06/key_tower_wins_leed_gold_certi.html" mce_href="http://www.cleveland.com/business/index.ssf/2010/06/key_tower_wins_leed_gold_certi.html">http://www.cleveland.com/business/index.ssf/2010/06/key_tower_wins_leed_gold_certi.html</A></P> <P><A href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leadership_in_Energy_and_Environmental_Design" mce_href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leadership_in_Energy_and_Environmental_Design">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leadership_in_Energy_and_Environmental_Design</A></P> <P><A href="http://www.emporis.com/application/?nav=building&amp;lng=3&amp;id=121788" mce_href="http://www.emporis.com/application/?nav=building&amp;lng=3&amp;id=121788">http://www.emporis.com/application/?nav=building&amp;lng=3&amp;id=121788</A></P> <P><A href="http://quarriesandbeyond.org/states/cn/cn-structures.html" mce_href="http://quarriesandbeyond.org/states/cn/cn-structures.html">http://quarriesandbeyond.org/states/cn/cn-structures.html</A></P> <P><A href="http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/portals/10/pdf/clevtour.pdf" mce_href="http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/portals/10/pdf/clevtour.pdf">http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/portals/10/pdf/clevtour.pdf</A></P> <P><A href="http://www.rejacobsgroup.com/index.aspx?id=42" mce_href="http://www.rejacobsgroup.com/index.aspx?id=42">http://www.rejacobsgroup.com/index.aspx?id=42</A></P> <P><A href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C%C3%A9sar_Pelli" mce_href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C%C3%A9sar_Pelli">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C%C3%A9sar_Pelli</A></P> <P><A href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J.P._Morgan_%26_Co" mce_href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J.P._Morgan_%26_Co">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J.P._Morgan_%26_Co</A>.</P> <P>One monumental structure that deserves to be recognized for its’ daily functions, benefits to society, and structural beauty is Key Tower. The majority of Key Tower is owned by the Richard E. Jacobs Group, the same company who came up with the plans for this building. Although they still own fifty percent of the tower, co-owners such as Wells Real Estate Funds exist. This building is located on Public Square in Cleveland, Ohio and peaks at a towering 948 feet high. To this day it is still the tallest building in Ohio, the eighteenth tallest building in the United States, and the seventieth tallest building in the world.<IMG style="MARGIN: 5px; FLOAT: left" alt="key tower" src="http://blog.cleveland.com/business/2007/12/large_key.jpg" width=213 mce_src="http://blog.cleveland.com/business/2007/12/large_key.jpg" mce_style="MARGIN: 5px; FLOAT: left"></P> <P>Originally known as the Society Center, it is fifty-seven stories tall and can be seen from roughly twenty miles away. The Society Center was renamed Key Tower when Key Bank acquired Society Bank. Between 1898 and 1955, before the construction of Key Tower, the Chamber of Commerce Building stood in its’ location. In 1939, Cleveland College of Western Reserve Univ. purchased the building and occupied it until 1953. Two years later, the Chamber of Commerce Building was demolished.<BR></P> <P><IMG style="MARGIN: 5px; FLOAT: left" alt="Cesar Pelli" src="http://1892club.org/speakers/details/2007/Cesar%20Pelli.jpg" width=168 mce_src="http://1892club.org/speakers/details/2007/Cesar%20Pelli.jpg" mce_style="MARGIN: 5px; FLOAT: left">Argentine architect César Pelli created Key Tower after outbidding Philip Johnson for the rights to work on the project. Pelli emigrated to the United States in 1952, became a U.S. citizen in 1964, and in 1991 became listed by the American Institute of Architects among the top ten most influential living American architects. From 1977 to 1984, Pelli was the dean of the School of Architecture at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. César Pelli was living in the same state where Stony Creek granite was quarried.</P> <P>It can be argued that Pelli only accepted the Key Tower project because he wanted to design it similar to his plans for the Wells Fargo Center, formerly known as Northwest Tower. The Wells Fargo Center was created three years prior and located in Minneapolis. At that time Pelli’s proposal for the building was rejected, which gives reason to believe he accepted the Key Tower project so he could still create his design.</P> <P>Pelli designed Key Tower following a postmodern architectural style. Known for its’ composite structure, it was created using a variety of different materials. The majority of the building’s facade is composed of Stony Creek granite, which is quarried in Connecticut. This granite is over 245 million years old. However, the first two floors of Key Tower are composed of Napoleon Red granite. The majority of the building’s facing was flamed, which is when a flame is used to roughen the surface of the granite. This granite is quarried from Vanga, Sweden. The interior of Key Tower, as well as the adjacent hotel complex, is composed primarily of Rosso (Red) Verona marble. This orange-colored limestone is quarried in Venice, Italy. Other materials used in the interior of Key Tower include purple Rosso Levanto marble quarried in the Mediterranean area and Breccia Pernice marble, from Italy. All of the interior materials, excluding Rosso Levanto marble, are over 200 million years old. They are from the Jurassic Age, while Rosso Levanto is from the Tertiary Age and is less than sixty-five million years old.</P> <P><IMG style="MARGIN: 5px; FLOAT: left" alt="patronas twin towers" src="http://www.101worldtravel.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/Petronas-Twin-Towers-4.jpg" width=213 mce_src="http://www.101worldtravel.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/Petronas-Twin-Towers-4.jpg" mce_style="MARGIN: 5px; FLOAT: left">Some of his most famous works, other than Key Tower, include the World Financial Center and the Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, which until 2004 were the tallest buildings in the world. In 2002, Pelli designed the JP MorganChase Building. This office building is located in San Francisco. Roughly 400,000 square feet of the building is leased by JPMorgan Chase &amp; Co., an American multinational banking corporation. This corporation was formed in 2000 when Chase Manhattan Corporation merged with J.P. Morgan and Co.</P> <P>Although the majority of materials used, the design, and the time period of the creation of Greek sculptor Kostas Dimitriadis’ “The Discus Thrower” and Key Tower differed, some similarities exist between the two creations. The general concept of using different materials for different layers of construction can be seen in both creations. In “The Discus Thrower,” the pedestal was composed of polished Stony Creek granite, while the actual statue was composed of bronze. As previously stated, the first two floors of Key Tower were composed of Napoleon Red granite, while the rest of the building was made of Stony Creek granite. This general architectural structure, as well as the use of Stony Creek granite, adapted over time and both are still used in modern society.</P> <P><A href="http://inhabitat.com/files/grancrete.gif" mce_href="http://inhabitat.com/files/grancrete.gif"><IMG style="MARGIN: 5px; FLOAT: left" src="http://inhabitat.com/files/grancrete.gif" width=120 height=118 mce_src="http://inhabitat.com/files/grancrete.gif" mce_style="MARGIN: 5px; FLOAT: left" http:="http:" creadvice.files.wordpress.com="creadvice.files.wordpress.com" 2011="2011" 08="08" leed.jpg?="leed.jpg?" ?="?"></A>Key Tower won a LEED gold certification for sustainable operations and maintenance. LEED stands for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design. Under LEED standards, a gold certification is the second-highest recognition that a building can earn. This certificate is given to buildings and communities that use strategies in an attempt to improve performance in energy savings, water efficiency, environmental quality, and CO<SUB>2</SUB> emission reductions. Key Tower was awarded this recognition by the United States Green Building Council. The chairman and founder, Robert K. Watson, developed LEED with the intentions to get companies to follow green building designs, operations, and maintenance. Key Tower received their recognition for their owner's and manager's attempts at cutting water and power use, recycling office waste, and using environmentally friendly cleaning materials. The most recent of Key Tower’s attempts to “Go Green” include cutting water usage by thirty percent and increasing office-space recycling by twenty-five percent.</P> <P>Most of the tower is occupied by Key Bank’s headquarters, although the top floor of Key Tower is currently being used by Amin, Turocy &amp; Calvin LLP. Amin, Turocy &amp; Calvin is an intellectual property law firm. From the moment David and Dick Jacobs opened the tower in 1991, until December 2007 when Amin, Turocy &amp; Calvin leased the office space; Key Tower’s top floor had been vacant and unfinished. Industry experts believe these 14,000-square-feet of office space must have cost roughly $420,000 per year. Amin, Turocy &amp; Calvin is a rather small company, but they can afford this office space because they represent over a dozen Fortune 500 companies. Some of their clients include AT&amp;T, Motorola, Wachovia Corporation, and Cisco Systems. If their office space proves to be a long-term investment, Amin, Turocy &amp; Calvin’s plans for the future will consist of increasing employment by twenty percent, leasing more office space on lower floors, and using local architect Steve Kordalski to design outdoor patios off of the top floor.</P> <P><IMG style="MARGIN: 5px; FLOAT: left" alt="cleveland marriott" src="http://cache.virtualtourist.com/1/1470306-Marriott_Cleveland_Key_Center-Cleveland.jpg" width=197 mce_src="http://cache.virtualtourist.com/1/1470306-Marriott_Cleveland_Key_Center-Cleveland.jpg" mce_style="MARGIN: 5px; FLOAT: left">Attached to the base of the tower is the Cleveland Marriot Downtown. The creation of this 403-room hotel sparked a hotel-building boom in downtown Cleveland and revolutionized the hotel industry. Not only does this correspond to the story of “The Comeback City,” which relates to the “Rags to Riches” idea displayed through the Baron Ashkenazy in Ragtime, but it also parallels the revolutionizing of the music industry that Scott Joplin helped to create. Combining the national landmark and tourist attraction that is Key Tower with a place where sight-seeing tourists can reside was one of the best business decisions The Jacob’s Group could have ever made. Now tourists, traveling sports teams, and local residents in need of a banquet hall can all visit and spend the night at Key Tower. Similar to shopping in a grocery store, the longer a potential customer stays in the store, the more inclined they are to buy something. By attaching a hotel to Key Tower, tourists that are spending the night will also be in need of dining services, transportation, and will have a longer time frame to go to the cocktail bar and souvenir shop. The Cleveland Marriot’s location is also ideal. Just out of Public Square, the Marriot is near every major office building, restaurant, and shopping destination in the city. Some famous local spots that make a stay at Key Tower’s Marriot more desirable are The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum, Jacob’s Field, The Great Lakes Science Center, and Cleveland Brown’s Stadium.</P> <P>Document References:</P> <P><A href="http://foundationsofamerica.com/Placemarks/Key-Tower-Cleveland.kmz" target=_blank mce_href="http://foundationsofamerica.com/Placemarks/Key-Tower-Cleveland.kmz">Key Tower, Cleveland.kmz</A>&nbsp;(Google Earth Placemark)</P> <P><A href="http://blog.cleveland.com/business/2007/12/key_towers_top_floor_finally_g.html" mce_href="http://blog.cleveland.com/business/2007/12/key_towers_top_floor_finally_g.html">http://blog.cleveland.com/business/2007/12/key_towers_top_floor_finally_g.html</A></P> <P><A href="http://ech.case.edu/ech-cgi/article.pl?id=COCB" mce_href="http://ech.case.edu/ech-cgi/article.pl?id=COCB">http://ech.case.edu/ech-cgi/article.pl?id=COCB</A></P> <P><A href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Key_Tower" mce_href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Key_Tower">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Key_Tower</A></P> <P><A href="http://www.cleveland.com/business/index.ssf/2010/06/key_tower_wins_leed_gold_certi.html" mce_href="http://www.cleveland.com/business/index.ssf/2010/06/key_tower_wins_leed_gold_certi.html">http://www.cleveland.com/business/index.ssf/2010/06/key_tower_wins_leed_gold_certi.html</A></P> <P><A href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leadership_in_Energy_and_Environmental_Design" mce_href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leadership_in_Energy_and_Environmental_Design">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leadership_in_Energy_and_Environmental_Design</A></P> <P><A href="http://www.emporis.com/application/?nav=building&amp;lng=3&amp;id=121788" mce_href="http://www.emporis.com/application/?nav=building&amp;lng=3&amp;id=121788">http://www.emporis.com/application/?nav=building&amp;lng=3&amp;id=121788</A></P> <P><A href="http://quarriesandbeyond.org/states/cn/cn-structures.html" mce_href="http://quarriesandbeyond.org/states/cn/cn-structures.html">http://quarriesandbeyond.org/states/cn/cn-structures.html</A></P> <P><A href="http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/portals/10/pdf/clevtour.pdf" mce_href="http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/portals/10/pdf/clevtour.pdf">http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/portals/10/pdf/clevtour.pdf</A></P> <P><A href="http://www.rejacobsgroup.com/index.aspx?id=42" mce_href="http://www.rejacobsgroup.com/index.aspx?id=42">http://www.rejacobsgroup.com/index.aspx?id=42</A></P> <P><A href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C%C3%A9sar_Pelli" mce_href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C%C3%A9sar_Pelli">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C%C3%A9sar_Pelli</A></P> <P><A href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J.P._Morgan_%26_Co" mce_href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J.P._Morgan_%26_Co">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J.P._Morgan_%26_Co</A>.</P> Central Railroad New Jersey 2011-10-16T04:26:59Z 2011-10-16T04:26:59Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=612:central-railroad-new-jersey&catid=58:commercial-structures&Itemid=68 Irene Ejianreh <p>Stony Creek Granite also known as Pink Stony has found its way into many of America’s greatest landmarks. The historic genesis of this exquisite natural resource is traced from a small coaster village to the grand monuments of the 19th century, reflecting a transformative change in evolving technology, science, research, labor, immigration and politics. Some of the most renowned architectural artifacts made with stony creek granite include bridges, schools, railroads, commercial and private buildings, monuments, Statue of Liberty, graves.</p> <p>The Central Railroad of New Jersey (CNJ) commonly known as Jersey Central Lines was a Class I railroad based on its high operating revenue returns. It existed in the 1830s and lasted until 1976 when it was absorbed into Conrail with the other bankrupt railroad of the Northeastern United States. Conrail commonly known as Consolidated Rail Corporation was the primary Class I railroad between 1976 and 1999 created to take over the potentially profitable lines of bankrupt carriers. With the benefit of regulatory changes, Conrail began to turn a profit in the 1980s and was turned over to private investors in 1987. Its main line ran from Jersey City west through New Jersey to Phillipsburg and across the Delaware River to Easton and Scranton in Pennsylvania. Branches stretched into southern New Jersey to Delaware Bay. In 1883, the Philadelphia and Reading Railway acquired the Central New Jersey, and used it for its New York terminal.</p> <p>In 1847, the CNJ was formed by buying the Elizabeth and Somerville at auction. At this point the operations were extended from Elizabeth to Bound Brook towards Easton.  Building continued through the towns of Raritan, North Branch, White House, Lebanon, Clinton, Clarksville, North Hampton, Asbury, Bethlehem, Bloomsbury, Springtown and finally to Phillipsburg in 1852. The eastern terminus was still Elizabeth port where ferry service ran into New York. In 1850’s the CNJ looked towards the Hudson, to meet the need of the rail station as a result of increased traffic.</p> <p>In 1864, a bridge was built over the Newark Bay which was connected to a new terminal. In mid-1864, the Jersey Central looked like one in operation over a century. It had a double tracked mainline fir its entire length. Expansion continued as the CNJ added into the trackage by buying smaller railroads over several years. The most important acquisition at that time was the Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad in 1871. Prior to this point, most of the money made was on Anthracite coal. It relied on other competing railroads to deliver the black diamonds. With the trackage from Easton to the coal fields, the CNJ eliminated the problem. The New Jersey Southern Railroad was next; it extended from Red Bank in the North all the way to Bayside in the South with connections to Atlantic City and Camden. In 1879 the CNJ leased the entire railroad without this acquisition there would have been no Blue Comet in the later years.</p> <p>The final major partnership was the New York and Long Branch, jointly operated by CNJ and the Pennsylvania. It connected both in South Amboy and extended along the coast until it reached Bay Head. In 1883, the Reading Railroad started a relationship with CNJ which fell apart the next year because Reading did not make the money needed to continue the operation. Reading passenger trains used the CNJ facilities in New Jersey. In 1933, the CNJ was under the control of the Reading for good, which lasted until Conrail. As the CNJ continued to buy small branch lines throughout the NJ region in the 20th century, the railroads became the very profitable at that time. However, it was smaller than expected and it fell out of the mining industry around the turn of the century. In 1939, the CNJ filed for bankruptcy, and World War II helped to restore the needed cash flow and the CNJ continued business. After World War II, it went to Baldwin and EDM to find suitable road power. In 1947, it fell into bankruptcy again as a result of costly programs needed to replace the steam engine. In 1950, business continued to go down, it had placed cheap BUDD cars on most commuter runs and costs had been cut down drastically. Commuter operating costs continued to rise and freight revenue continued to decline. In 1961, the CNJ began operating some of the lines of the Lehigh and New England. It was making money off of cement and coal. In 1967, the CNJ filed for bankruptcy the final time. It pulled out of Pennsylvania in 1972. Unlike the previous, it did not recover from this, rather, it went into Conrail system in 1976. Most of the passenger services, structures and equipment were picked up by the state. The CNJ has the honor of being the first railroad in the States to run a diesel electric locomotive.</p> <p>In 1924, there was a political dispute between City of Newark versus Central Railroad CO. of New Jersey over the construction of the railroad that was taken to court for a decision. Messes George W. Wickersham and Paxton Blair both of New York were appellants, Mr. R.V. Lindabury of Newark, an appellee Central Railroad Co. New Jersey. Mr. Julius Henry Cohen of New York appellee Port of New York Authority, Mr. Justice Butler delivered opinion of the court. This suit was brought by the city of Newark to enjoin the construction of a bridge across Newark Bay. Jersey City and the state of New Jersey by leave of court intervened as parties’ complainant. The argument is that Defendant Company constructed double-track wooden railroad bridge, with bascule draws across Newark Bay, which is below Newark, between Elizabeth and Bayonne and crosses the channel at an angle of 66 degrees. Newark Bay is a navigable estuary and its water at this place is wholly within the state of New Jersey. Construction work commenced construction without the consent of the State. Appellants maintained that the source of power to construct a bridge over navigable waters was within one state is in the state itself; that the concurrent consent of both states and federal governments were necessary before such a bridge lawfully may be erected.</p> <p>The complaint alleges that the city of Newark owns real estate above the bridge of the westerly shore of the bay, that neither the present nor the proposed bridge is necessary to the operation of the railroad; and that, if any bridge shall be constructed between Elizabeth and Bayonne, the free and unobstructed access of vessels to the Newark terminal will be prevented and the value of the terminal destroyed. The complaint showed that the defendant the Port of New York Authority is a body corporate and politic, established by a compact between New Jersey and New York for the creation of the port of New York district, and for the comprehensive development of that port. Congress gave its consent to the agreement. The district extends as far north as Irvington on the Hudson, N. Y., as far east as Long Beach, Long Island, as far south as Atlantic Highlands, and as far west as Summit, N. J., and so includes Newark Bay and the site of the bridge. A comprehensive plan for the development of the port of New York was approved by both states and consented to by Congress. The New Jersey city petitioned the decision saying, that it would be unjust and public nuisance; and that its construction without the permission of the New Jersey board of commerce and navigation and the Port Authority is unlawful. The complaint was dismissed on the ground that it fails to state a cause of action. The motion to build was granted and by the legislation empowering the company to construct, maintain and use the railroad, the state of New Jersey consented to the construction of the bridge in question. At the time the bridge was built, there was no applicable legislation by Congress. And it was within the power of the state to authorize its construction. Laws of New Jersey 1860, provides: 'That it shall and may be lawful for the Central Railroad Company of New Jersey to extend their railroad from some point in their track in the city of Elizabeth, to some point or points on New York Bay, in the county of Hudson, at or south of Jersey City; and for that purpose, in its construction and completion, maintenance, use and enjoyment, all and every provision of the act entitled, 'An act to incorporate the Somerville & Easton Railroad Company' was approved in 1847, and of the several supplements thereto was extended and be applicable to the railroad now authorized to be constructed, in every respect as if the same had been originally authorized under the said act to which this was a supplement. The company was empowered to have as many tracks, within the width specified, as it deemed necessary. It was also empowered to maintain and improve its railroad, as it might from time to time find necessary or expedient. It was not bound to have its performance limited to the capacity of the bridge first constructed, but it was free to add to its transportation facilities by laying down additional tracks over waters crossed by its bridges as well as upon land.</p> <p>In 2003, the abandoned railroad that ran from Barnegat to Beachwood, a distance of 13.6 miles was acquired by the Ocean Board of Freeholders. This part was known as Toms River and Waretown Railroad in 1870s. Operations of the railroad has been is steady progress and in phases. Phase I runs from West Bay Avenue in Barnegat North to Waretown at Pancoast Road, a distance of 2 miles; Phase II runs from Pancoast Road to Wells Mills Road (Route 532) a distance of  1.1 miles. Phase III runs from Route 532 to the Waretown-Lacey Township line and from Dudley Park to Serpentine Drive in Berkeley Township. Construction of the railroad on Township property has been delayed due to political differences. The township wants to construct a roadway with sidewalk along the railroad corridor versus a graveled Rail trail, this idea is opposed by the Lacey Rail –Trail Environmental Committee (LRTEC) with some other conservation groups backing this cause. Eventually, the Rail Trail will terminate in Toms River through a series of proposed road and sidewalk connections. In 2006, the Waretown’s Pancoast to Route 532 phase included a 1.65 acre trailhead site which the county acquired.</p> <p>Despite outcries and legal battles with local residents the railroad succeeded in further developing the location. The new terminal was constructed by architects Peabody & Stearns of Boston, Massachusetts and while the Jersey Central was never an extremely profitable railroad its new complex was quite stunning once completed in 1889. Jersey City Terminal was designed in the Richardsonian Romanesque style, so named after famed architect Henry Hobson Richardson who sculpted buildings to mimic Medieval Europe castles and ancient structures. It was built almost entirely of red brick, featured arched windows along its three main floors, dormer windows, and steep pitched roofs. Additionally, the building was accented with a central cupola and fine clock piece. The interior waiting room featured a balcony and cast iron trusses painted red and given a simple, but elegant starburst pattern.  It is said that between 1890 and 1915 Jersey Central Terminal witnessed several million, mostly Italian and Irish, immigrants passing through the complex.</p> <p>The Central Railroad of New Jersey Terminal which is now a part of The Liberty State Park area has always been historically significant as a major point of egress. Whether simply crossing the bay or heading for the open ocean, several different societies during the past centuries have utilized the Communipaw Cove area. The growing populations and the demand for transporting goods and supplies in the 1800s necessitated a means of transport that was fast and dependable. Railroads would supply the solution to the increasing transportation demands.</p> <p>In 1864, the CRRNJ bought extensive acreage in Jersey City, and opened its first terminal. By the mid 1880's, the need for a larger terminal became evident. The complex, constructed in 1889, represented the greatest concentration of rail facilities in the Now York Harbor area at the turn of the century. There was increased traffic in the terminal by several thousand immigrants each day. Approximately eight million immigrants traveled to their new homes via the Central Railroad. From 1890 - 1915 the combination of commuters, immigrants and freight brought between 30,000 - 50,000 people and almost 300 trains each day to the CRRNJ Terminal. The railroad became a way of life for most of the surrounding community.</p> <p>The decline of immigration and the Great Depression severely hurt the rail industry, railroad travel and traffic dropped which lead to the death of the Railroad operational activity within a time frame of twenty years from inception. In 1967 the CRRNJ discontinued commuter operations. The Terminal and adjacent waterfront were purchased through Federal, State and local funding. A major cleanup effort was begun and Liberty State Park opened on June 14, 1976. Today the park is the focus of many community and statewide special events. The CRRNJ Terminal stands with the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island marking an important era in American history.</p> <p>All in all, Jersey City Terminal was a very beautiful building that one would have thought was built by a prominent railroad but the CNJ never reached more than a few hundred miles in length at its largest. While the terminal played host to many commuter trains it never saw many well-known passenger trains.</p> <p>Currently, save for the terminal herself and its train shed little evidence remains of the once sprawling railroad operations that went on along the Jersey City waterfront known as Communipaw Cove. The station still stands and has been partially preserved as the Liberty State Park. However, train service had ended over 40 years ago and devoid of railroad tracks, saved for its train sheds which still stand but are severely deteriorated and in serious need of repair and maintenance. There are no immediate plans currently in place to revive the place.</p> <p>References</p> <p> </p> <p><a href="http://www.amazon.com/Flesh-Stone-Stony-Creek-Granite/dp/0918172292" mce_href="http://www.amazon.com/Flesh-Stone-Stony-Creek-Granite/dp/0918172292" target="_blank">http://www.amazon.com/Flesh-Stone-Stony-Creek-Granite/dp/0918172292</a></p> <p><a href="http://njrails.tripod.com/20th_Century/CNJ/CNJ.htm" mce_href="http://njrails.tripod.com/20th_Century/CNJ/CNJ.htm" target="_blank">http://njrails.tripod.com/20th_Century/CNJ/CNJ.htm</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.pineypower.com/railtrail.htm" mce_href="http://www.pineypower.com/railtrail.htm" target="_blank">http://www.pineypower.com/railtrail.htm</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/267/377" mce_href="http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/267/377" target="_blank">http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/267/377</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.american-rails.com/jersey-city-terminal.html" mce_href="http://www.american-rails.com/jersey-city-terminal.html" target="_blank">http://www.american-rails.com/jersey-city-terminal.html</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.libertystatepark.org/statueislandtrain.html" mce_href="http://www.libertystatepark.org/statueislandtrain.html" target="_blank">http://www.libertystatepark.org/statueislandtrain.html</a></p> <p>Stony Creek Granite also known as Pink Stony has found its way into many of America’s greatest landmarks. The historic genesis of this exquisite natural resource is traced from a small coaster village to the grand monuments of the 19th century, reflecting a transformative change in evolving technology, science, research, labor, immigration and politics. Some of the most renowned architectural artifacts made with stony creek granite include bridges, schools, railroads, commercial and private buildings, monuments, Statue of Liberty, graves.</p> <p>The Central Railroad of New Jersey (CNJ) commonly known as Jersey Central Lines was a Class I railroad based on its high operating revenue returns. It existed in the 1830s and lasted until 1976 when it was absorbed into Conrail with the other bankrupt railroad of the Northeastern United States. Conrail commonly known as Consolidated Rail Corporation was the primary Class I railroad between 1976 and 1999 created to take over the potentially profitable lines of bankrupt carriers. With the benefit of regulatory changes, Conrail began to turn a profit in the 1980s and was turned over to private investors in 1987. Its main line ran from Jersey City west through New Jersey to Phillipsburg and across the Delaware River to Easton and Scranton in Pennsylvania. Branches stretched into southern New Jersey to Delaware Bay. In 1883, the Philadelphia and Reading Railway acquired the Central New Jersey, and used it for its New York terminal.</p> <p>In 1847, the CNJ was formed by buying the Elizabeth and Somerville at auction. At this point the operations were extended from Elizabeth to Bound Brook towards Easton.  Building continued through the towns of Raritan, North Branch, White House, Lebanon, Clinton, Clarksville, North Hampton, Asbury, Bethlehem, Bloomsbury, Springtown and finally to Phillipsburg in 1852. The eastern terminus was still Elizabeth port where ferry service ran into New York. In 1850’s the CNJ looked towards the Hudson, to meet the need of the rail station as a result of increased traffic.</p> <p>In 1864, a bridge was built over the Newark Bay which was connected to a new terminal. In mid-1864, the Jersey Central looked like one in operation over a century. It had a double tracked mainline fir its entire length. Expansion continued as the CNJ added into the trackage by buying smaller railroads over several years. The most important acquisition at that time was the Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad in 1871. Prior to this point, most of the money made was on Anthracite coal. It relied on other competing railroads to deliver the black diamonds. With the trackage from Easton to the coal fields, the CNJ eliminated the problem. The New Jersey Southern Railroad was next; it extended from Red Bank in the North all the way to Bayside in the South with connections to Atlantic City and Camden. In 1879 the CNJ leased the entire railroad without this acquisition there would have been no Blue Comet in the later years.</p> <p>The final major partnership was the New York and Long Branch, jointly operated by CNJ and the Pennsylvania. It connected both in South Amboy and extended along the coast until it reached Bay Head. In 1883, the Reading Railroad started a relationship with CNJ which fell apart the next year because Reading did not make the money needed to continue the operation. Reading passenger trains used the CNJ facilities in New Jersey. In 1933, the CNJ was under the control of the Reading for good, which lasted until Conrail. As the CNJ continued to buy small branch lines throughout the NJ region in the 20th century, the railroads became the very profitable at that time. However, it was smaller than expected and it fell out of the mining industry around the turn of the century. In 1939, the CNJ filed for bankruptcy, and World War II helped to restore the needed cash flow and the CNJ continued business. After World War II, it went to Baldwin and EDM to find suitable road power. In 1947, it fell into bankruptcy again as a result of costly programs needed to replace the steam engine. In 1950, business continued to go down, it had placed cheap BUDD cars on most commuter runs and costs had been cut down drastically. Commuter operating costs continued to rise and freight revenue continued to decline. In 1961, the CNJ began operating some of the lines of the Lehigh and New England. It was making money off of cement and coal. In 1967, the CNJ filed for bankruptcy the final time. It pulled out of Pennsylvania in 1972. Unlike the previous, it did not recover from this, rather, it went into Conrail system in 1976. Most of the passenger services, structures and equipment were picked up by the state. The CNJ has the honor of being the first railroad in the States to run a diesel electric locomotive.</p> <p>In 1924, there was a political dispute between City of Newark versus Central Railroad CO. of New Jersey over the construction of the railroad that was taken to court for a decision. Messes George W. Wickersham and Paxton Blair both of New York were appellants, Mr. R.V. Lindabury of Newark, an appellee Central Railroad Co. New Jersey. Mr. Julius Henry Cohen of New York appellee Port of New York Authority, Mr. Justice Butler delivered opinion of the court. This suit was brought by the city of Newark to enjoin the construction of a bridge across Newark Bay. Jersey City and the state of New Jersey by leave of court intervened as parties’ complainant. The argument is that Defendant Company constructed double-track wooden railroad bridge, with bascule draws across Newark Bay, which is below Newark, between Elizabeth and Bayonne and crosses the channel at an angle of 66 degrees. Newark Bay is a navigable estuary and its water at this place is wholly within the state of New Jersey. Construction work commenced construction without the consent of the State. Appellants maintained that the source of power to construct a bridge over navigable waters was within one state is in the state itself; that the concurrent consent of both states and federal governments were necessary before such a bridge lawfully may be erected.</p> <p>The complaint alleges that the city of Newark owns real estate above the bridge of the westerly shore of the bay, that neither the present nor the proposed bridge is necessary to the operation of the railroad; and that, if any bridge shall be constructed between Elizabeth and Bayonne, the free and unobstructed access of vessels to the Newark terminal will be prevented and the value of the terminal destroyed. The complaint showed that the defendant the Port of New York Authority is a body corporate and politic, established by a compact between New Jersey and New York for the creation of the port of New York district, and for the comprehensive development of that port. Congress gave its consent to the agreement. The district extends as far north as Irvington on the Hudson, N. Y., as far east as Long Beach, Long Island, as far south as Atlantic Highlands, and as far west as Summit, N. J., and so includes Newark Bay and the site of the bridge. A comprehensive plan for the development of the port of New York was approved by both states and consented to by Congress. The New Jersey city petitioned the decision saying, that it would be unjust and public nuisance; and that its construction without the permission of the New Jersey board of commerce and navigation and the Port Authority is unlawful. The complaint was dismissed on the ground that it fails to state a cause of action. The motion to build was granted and by the legislation empowering the company to construct, maintain and use the railroad, the state of New Jersey consented to the construction of the bridge in question. At the time the bridge was built, there was no applicable legislation by Congress. And it was within the power of the state to authorize its construction. Laws of New Jersey 1860, provides: 'That it shall and may be lawful for the Central Railroad Company of New Jersey to extend their railroad from some point in their track in the city of Elizabeth, to some point or points on New York Bay, in the county of Hudson, at or south of Jersey City; and for that purpose, in its construction and completion, maintenance, use and enjoyment, all and every provision of the act entitled, 'An act to incorporate the Somerville & Easton Railroad Company' was approved in 1847, and of the several supplements thereto was extended and be applicable to the railroad now authorized to be constructed, in every respect as if the same had been originally authorized under the said act to which this was a supplement. The company was empowered to have as many tracks, within the width specified, as it deemed necessary. It was also empowered to maintain and improve its railroad, as it might from time to time find necessary or expedient. It was not bound to have its performance limited to the capacity of the bridge first constructed, but it was free to add to its transportation facilities by laying down additional tracks over waters crossed by its bridges as well as upon land.</p> <p>In 2003, the abandoned railroad that ran from Barnegat to Beachwood, a distance of 13.6 miles was acquired by the Ocean Board of Freeholders. This part was known as Toms River and Waretown Railroad in 1870s. Operations of the railroad has been is steady progress and in phases. Phase I runs from West Bay Avenue in Barnegat North to Waretown at Pancoast Road, a distance of 2 miles; Phase II runs from Pancoast Road to Wells Mills Road (Route 532) a distance of  1.1 miles. Phase III runs from Route 532 to the Waretown-Lacey Township line and from Dudley Park to Serpentine Drive in Berkeley Township. Construction of the railroad on Township property has been delayed due to political differences. The township wants to construct a roadway with sidewalk along the railroad corridor versus a graveled Rail trail, this idea is opposed by the Lacey Rail –Trail Environmental Committee (LRTEC) with some other conservation groups backing this cause. Eventually, the Rail Trail will terminate in Toms River through a series of proposed road and sidewalk connections. In 2006, the Waretown’s Pancoast to Route 532 phase included a 1.65 acre trailhead site which the county acquired.</p> <p>Despite outcries and legal battles with local residents the railroad succeeded in further developing the location. The new terminal was constructed by architects Peabody & Stearns of Boston, Massachusetts and while the Jersey Central was never an extremely profitable railroad its new complex was quite stunning once completed in 1889. Jersey City Terminal was designed in the Richardsonian Romanesque style, so named after famed architect Henry Hobson Richardson who sculpted buildings to mimic Medieval Europe castles and ancient structures. It was built almost entirely of red brick, featured arched windows along its three main floors, dormer windows, and steep pitched roofs. Additionally, the building was accented with a central cupola and fine clock piece. The interior waiting room featured a balcony and cast iron trusses painted red and given a simple, but elegant starburst pattern.  It is said that between 1890 and 1915 Jersey Central Terminal witnessed several million, mostly Italian and Irish, immigrants passing through the complex.</p> <p>The Central Railroad of New Jersey Terminal which is now a part of The Liberty State Park area has always been historically significant as a major point of egress. Whether simply crossing the bay or heading for the open ocean, several different societies during the past centuries have utilized the Communipaw Cove area. The growing populations and the demand for transporting goods and supplies in the 1800s necessitated a means of transport that was fast and dependable. Railroads would supply the solution to the increasing transportation demands.</p> <p>In 1864, the CRRNJ bought extensive acreage in Jersey City, and opened its first terminal. By the mid 1880's, the need for a larger terminal became evident. The complex, constructed in 1889, represented the greatest concentration of rail facilities in the Now York Harbor area at the turn of the century. There was increased traffic in the terminal by several thousand immigrants each day. Approximately eight million immigrants traveled to their new homes via the Central Railroad. From 1890 - 1915 the combination of commuters, immigrants and freight brought between 30,000 - 50,000 people and almost 300 trains each day to the CRRNJ Terminal. The railroad became a way of life for most of the surrounding community.</p> <p>The decline of immigration and the Great Depression severely hurt the rail industry, railroad travel and traffic dropped which lead to the death of the Railroad operational activity within a time frame of twenty years from inception. In 1967 the CRRNJ discontinued commuter operations. The Terminal and adjacent waterfront were purchased through Federal, State and local funding. A major cleanup effort was begun and Liberty State Park opened on June 14, 1976. Today the park is the focus of many community and statewide special events. The CRRNJ Terminal stands with the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island marking an important era in American history.</p> <p>All in all, Jersey City Terminal was a very beautiful building that one would have thought was built by a prominent railroad but the CNJ never reached more than a few hundred miles in length at its largest. While the terminal played host to many commuter trains it never saw many well-known passenger trains.</p> <p>Currently, save for the terminal herself and its train shed little evidence remains of the once sprawling railroad operations that went on along the Jersey City waterfront known as Communipaw Cove. The station still stands and has been partially preserved as the Liberty State Park. However, train service had ended over 40 years ago and devoid of railroad tracks, saved for its train sheds which still stand but are severely deteriorated and in serious need of repair and maintenance. There are no immediate plans currently in place to revive the place.</p> <p>References</p> <p> </p> <p><a href="http://www.amazon.com/Flesh-Stone-Stony-Creek-Granite/dp/0918172292" mce_href="http://www.amazon.com/Flesh-Stone-Stony-Creek-Granite/dp/0918172292" target="_blank">http://www.amazon.com/Flesh-Stone-Stony-Creek-Granite/dp/0918172292</a></p> <p><a href="http://njrails.tripod.com/20th_Century/CNJ/CNJ.htm" mce_href="http://njrails.tripod.com/20th_Century/CNJ/CNJ.htm" target="_blank">http://njrails.tripod.com/20th_Century/CNJ/CNJ.htm</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.pineypower.com/railtrail.htm" mce_href="http://www.pineypower.com/railtrail.htm" target="_blank">http://www.pineypower.com/railtrail.htm</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/267/377" mce_href="http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/267/377" target="_blank">http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/267/377</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.american-rails.com/jersey-city-terminal.html" mce_href="http://www.american-rails.com/jersey-city-terminal.html" target="_blank">http://www.american-rails.com/jersey-city-terminal.html</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.libertystatepark.org/statueislandtrain.html" mce_href="http://www.libertystatepark.org/statueislandtrain.html" target="_blank">http://www.libertystatepark.org/statueislandtrain.html</a></p> Central Railroad New Jersey 2011-10-14T21:27:18Z 2011-10-14T21:27:18Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=611:central-railroad-new-jersey&catid=58:commercial-structures&Itemid=68 Ejianreh Irene <p><img style="margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black; float: left;" mce_style="margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black; float: left;" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/cnj_jc.jpg" mce_src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/cnj_jc.jpg" width="350" />Stony Creek Granite also known as Pink Stony has found its way into many of America’s greatest landmarks. The historic genesis of this exquisite natural resource is traced from a small coaster village to the grand monuments of the 19<sup>th</sup> century, reflecting a transformative change in evolving technology, science, research, labor, immigration and politics. Some of the most renowned architectural artifacts made with stony creek granite include bridges, schools, railroads, commercial and private buildings, monuments, Statue of Liberty, graves.</p> <p>The Central Railroad of New Jersey (CNJ) commonly known as Jersey Central Lines was a Class I railroad based on its high operating revenue returns. It existed in the 1830s and lasted until 1976 when it was absorbed into Conrail with the other bankrupt railroad of the Northeastern United States. Conrail commonly known as Consolidated Rail Corporation was the primary Class I railroad between 1976 and 1999 created to take over the potentially profitable lines of bankrupt carriers. With the benefit of regulatory changes, Conrail began to turn a profit in the 1980s and was turned over to private investors in 1987. Its main line ran from Jersey City west through New Jersey to Phillipsburg and across the Delaware River to Easton and Scranton in Pennsylvania. Branches stretched into southern New Jersey to Delaware Bay. In 1883, the Philadelphia and Reading Railway acq<img style="float: left; border: 1px solid black; margin-left: 5px; margin-right: 5px;" mce_style="float: left; border: 1px solid black; margin-left: 5px; margin-right: 5px;" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/220px-new_york_city_railroads_ca_1900.png" mce_src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/220px-new_york_city_railroads_ca_1900.png" height="300" width="300" />uired the Central New Jersey, and used it for its New York terminal.</p> <p>In 1847, the CNJ was formed by buying the Elizabeth and Somerville at auction. At this point the operations were extended from Elizabeth to Bound Brook towards Easton. Building continued through the towns of Raritan, North Branch, White House, Lebanon, Clinton, Clarksville, North Hampton, Asbury, Bethlehem, Bloomsbury, Springtown and finally to Phillipsburg in 1852. The eastern t<img style="border: 1px solid black; margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; float: right;" mce_style="border: 1px solid black; margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; float: right;" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/3813_1194066000.jpg" mce_src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/3813_1194066000.jpg" height="250" width="350" />erminus was still Elizabeth port where ferry service ran into New York. In 1850’s the CNJ looked towards the Hudson, to meet the need of the rail station as a result of increased traffic.</p> <p>In 1864, a bridge was built over the Newark Bay which was connected to a new terminal. In mid 1864, the Jersey Central looked like one in operation over a century. It had a double tracked mainline fir its entire length. Expansion continued as the CNJ added into the trackage by buying smaller railroads over several years. The most important acquisition at that time was the Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad in 1871. Prior to this point, most of the money made was on Anthracite coal. It relied on other competing railroads to deliver the black diamonds. With the trackage from Easton to the coal fields, the CNJ eliminated the problem. The New Jersey Southern Railroad was next; it extended from Red Bank in the North all the way to Bayside in the South with connections to Atlantic City and Camden. In 1879 the CNJ leased the entire railroad without this acquisition there would have been no Blue Comet in the later years.</p> <p>The final major partnership was the New York and Long Branch, jointly operated by CNJ and the Pennsylvania. It connected both in South Amboy and extended along the coast until it reached Bay Head. In 1883, the Reading Railroad started a relationshi<img style="float: right; margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black;" mce_style="float: right; margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black;" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/800px-crrnj_terminal_liberty_state_park_jersey_city_nj.jpg" mce_src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/800px-crrnj_terminal_liberty_state_park_jersey_city_nj.jpg" height="250" width="333" />p with CNJ which fell apart the next year because Reading did not make the money needed to continue the operation. Reading passenger trains used the CNJ facilities in New Jersey. In 1933, the CNJ was under the control of the Reading for good, which lasted until Conrail. As the CNJ continued to buy small branch lines throughout the NJ region in the 20<sup>th</sup> century, the railroads became the very profitable at that time. However, it was smaller than expected and it fell out of the mining industry around the turn of the century. In 1939, the CNJ filed for bankruptcy, and World War II helped to restore the needed cash flow and the CNJ continued business. After World War II, it went to Baldwin and EDM to find suitable road power. In 1947, it fell into bankruptcy again as a result of costly programs needed to replace the steam engine. In 1950, business continued to go down, it had placed cheap BUDD cars on most commuter runs and costs had been cut down drastically. Commuter operating costs continued to rise and freight revenue continued to decline. In 1961, the CNJ began operating some of the lines of the Lehigh and New England. It was making money off of cement and coal. In 1967, the CNJ filed for bankruptcy the final time. It pulled out of Pennsylvania in 1972. Unlike the previous, it did not recover from this, rather, it went into Conrail system in 1976. Most of the passenger services, structures and equipment were picked up by the state. The CNJ has the honor of being the first railroad in the States to run a diesel electric locomotive.</p> <p>In 1924, there was a political dispute between City of Newark versus Central Railroad CO. of New Jersey over the con<img style="margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black; float: left;" mce_style="margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black; float: left;" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/central_railroad_festival_web.jpg" mce_src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/central_railroad_festival_web.jpg" height="207" width="350" />struction of the railroad that was taken to court for a decision. Messes George W. Wickersham and Paxton Blair both of New York were appellants, Mr. R.V. Lindabury of Newark, an appellee Central Railroad Co. New Jersey. Mr. Julius Henry Cohen of New York appellee Port of New York Authority, Mr. Justice Butler delivered opinion of the court. This suit was brought by the city of Newark to enjoin the construction of a bridge across Newark Bay. Jersey City and the state of New Jersey by leave of court intervened as parties complainant. The argument is that Defendant Company constructed double-track wooden railroad bridge, with bascule draws across Newark Bay, which is below Newark, between Elizabeth and Bayonne and crosses the channel at an angle of 66 degrees. Newark Bay is a navigable estuary and its water at this place is wholly within the state of New Jersey. Construction work commenced construction without the consent of the State. Appellants maintained that the source of power to construct a bridge over navigable waters was within one state is in the state itself; that the concurrent consent of both states and federal governments were necessary before such a bridge lawfully may be erected.<img style="margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black; float: right;" mce_style="margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black; float: right;" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/w3ek8iwr.jpg" mce_src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/w3ek8iwr.jpg" height="228" width="350" /></p> <p>The complaint alleges that the city of Newark owns real estate above the bridge of the westerly shore of the bay, that neither the present nor the proposed bridge is necessary to the operation of the railroad; and that, if any bridge shall be constructed between Elizabeth and Bayonne, the free and unobstructed access of vessels to the Newark terminal will be prevented and the value of the terminal destroyed. The complaint showed that the defendant the Port of New York Authority is a body corporate and politic, established by a compact between New Jersey and New York for the creation of the port of New York district, and for the comprehensive development of that port. Congress gave its consent to the agreement. The district extends as far north as Irvington on the Hudson, N. Y., as far east as Long Beach, Long Island, as far south as Atlantic Highlands, and as far west as Summit, N. J., and so includes Newark Bay and the site of the bridge. A comprehensive plan for the development of the port of New York was approved by both states and consented to by Congress. The New Jersey city petitioned the decision saying, that it would be unjust and public nuisance; and that its construction without the permission of the New Jersey board of commerce and navigation and the Port Authority is unlawful. The complaint was dismissed on the ground that it fails to state a cause of action. The motion to build was granted and by the legislation empowering the company to construct, maintain and use the railroad, the state of New Jersey consented to the construction of the bridge in question. At the time the bridge was built, there was no applicable legislation by Congress. And it was within the power of the state to authorize its construction. Laws of New Jersey 1860, provides: 'That it shall and may be lawful for the Central Railroad Company of New Jersey to extend their railroad from some point in their track in the city of Elizabeth, to some point or points on New York Bay, in the county of Hudson, at or south of Jersey City; and for that purpose, in its construction and completion, maintenance, use and enjoyment, all and every provision of the act entitled, 'An act to incorporate the Somerville & Easton Railroad Company' was approved in 1847, and of the several supplements thereto was extended and be applicable to the railroad now authorized to be constructed, in every respect as if the same had been originally authorized under the said act to which this was a supplement. The company was empowered to have as many tracks, within the width specified, as it deemed necessary. It was also empowered to maintain and improve its railroad, as it might from time to time find necessary or expedient. It was not bound to have its performance limited to the capacity of the bridge first constructed, but it was free to add to its transportation facilities by laying down additional tracks over waters crossed by its bridges as well as upon land.</p> <p>In 2003, the abandoned railroad that ran from Barnegat to Beachwood, a distance of 13.6 miles was acquired by the Ocean Board of Freeholders. This part was known as Toms River and Waretown Railroad in 1870s. Operations of the railroad has been is steady progress and in phases. Phase I runs from West Bay Avenue in Barnegat North to Waretown at Pancoast Road, a distance of 2 miles; Phase II runs from Pancoast Road to Wells Mills Road (Route 532) a distance of 1.1 miles. Phase III runs from Route 532 to the Waretown-Lacey Township line and from Dudley Park to Serpentine Drive in Berkeley Township. Construction of the railroad on Township property has been delayed due to political differences. The township wants to construct a roadway with sidewalk along the railroad corridor versus a graveled Rail trail, this idea is opposed by the Lacey Rail –Trail Environmental Committee (LRTEC) with some other conservation groups backing this cause. Eventually, the Rail Trail will terminate in Toms River through a series of proposed road and sidewalk connections. In 2006, the Waretown’s Pancoast to Route 532 phase included a 1.65 acre trailhead site which the county acquired.<img style="margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black; float: right;" mce_style="margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black; float: right;" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/5887_1195297200.jpg" mce_src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/5887_1195297200.jpg" height="247" width="350" /></p> <p>Despite outcries and legal battles with local residents the railroad succeeded in further developing the location. The new terminal was constructed by architects Peabody & Stearns of Boston, Massachusetts and while the Jersey Central was never an extremely profitable railroad its new complex was quite stunning once completed in 1889. Jersey City Terminal was designed in the Richardsonian Romanesque style, so named after famed architect Henry Hobson Richardson who sculpted buildings to mimic Medieval Europe castles and ancient structures. It was built almost entirely of red brick, featured arched windows along its three main floors, dormer windows, and steep pitched roofs. Additionally, the building was accented with a central cupola and fine clock piece. The interior waiting room featured a balcony and cast iron trusses painted red and given a simple, but elegant starburst pattern. It is said that between 1890 and 1915 Jersey Central Terminal witnessed several million, mostly Italian and Irish, immigrants passing through the complex.</p> <p>The Central Railroad of New Jersey Terminal which is now a part of The Liberty State Park area has always been historically significant as a major point of egress. Whether simply crossing the bay or heading for the open ocean, several different societies during the past centuries have utilized the Communipaw Cove area.</p> <p><img style="float: left; margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black;" mce_style="float: left; margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black;" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/5507_1288321109.jpg" mce_src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/5507_1288321109.jpg" width="350" />The growing populations and the demand for transporting goods and supplies in the 1800s necessitated a means of transport that was fast and dependable. Railroads would supply the solution to the increasing transportation demands.</p> <p>In 1864, the CRRNJ bought extensive acreage in Jersey City, and opened its first terminal. By the mid 1880's, the need for a larger terminal became evident. The complex, constructed in 1889, represented the greatest concentration of rail facilities in the Now York Harbor area at the turn of the century. There was increased traffic in the terminal by several thousand immigrants each day. Approximately eight million immigrants traveled to their new homes via the Central Railroad. From 1890 - 1915 the combination of commuters, immigrants and freight brought between 30,000 - 50,000 people and almost 300 trains each day to the CRRNJ Terminal. The railroad became a way of life for most of the surrounding community.</p> <p>The decline of immigration and the Great Depression severely hurt the rail industry, railroad travel and traffic dropped which lead to the death of the Railroad operational activity within a time frame of twenty years from inception. In 1967 the CRRNJ discontinued commuter operations. The Terminal and adjacent waterfront were purchased through Federal, State and local funding. A major cleanup effort was begun and Liberty State Park opened on June 14, 1976. Today the park is the focus of many community and statewide special events. The CRRNJ Terminal stands with the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island marking an important era in American history.</p> <p><img style="margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black; float: right;" mce_style="margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black; float: right;" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/5891_1195218000.jpg" mce_src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/5891_1195218000.jpg" height="244" width="350" />All in all, Jersey City Terminal was a very beautiful building that one would have thought was built by a prominent railroad but the CNJ never reached more than a few hundred miles in length at its largest. While the terminal played host to many commuter trains it never saw many well known passenger trains.</p> <p>Currently, save for the terminal herself and its train shed little evidence remains of the once sprawling railroad operations that went on along the Jersey City waterfront known as Communipaw Cove. The station still stands and has been partially preserved as the Liberty State Park. However, train service had ended over 40 years ago and devoid of railroad tracks, saved for its train sheds which still stand but are severely deteriorated and in serious need of repair and maintenance. There are no immediate plans currently in place to revive the place.</p><p><br /></p><p>References:</p><p>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Railroad_of_New_Jersey</p><p><br /></p><p>http://www.railpictures.net/viewphoto.php?id=212043&nseq=4</p><p><br /></p><p><br /></p><p><br /></p><p><br /></p> <p><img style="margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black; float: left;" mce_style="margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black; float: left;" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/cnj_jc.jpg" mce_src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/cnj_jc.jpg" width="350" />Stony Creek Granite also known as Pink Stony has found its way into many of America’s greatest landmarks. The historic genesis of this exquisite natural resource is traced from a small coaster village to the grand monuments of the 19<sup>th</sup> century, reflecting a transformative change in evolving technology, science, research, labor, immigration and politics. Some of the most renowned architectural artifacts made with stony creek granite include bridges, schools, railroads, commercial and private buildings, monuments, Statue of Liberty, graves.</p> <p>The Central Railroad of New Jersey (CNJ) commonly known as Jersey Central Lines was a Class I railroad based on its high operating revenue returns. It existed in the 1830s and lasted until 1976 when it was absorbed into Conrail with the other bankrupt railroad of the Northeastern United States. Conrail commonly known as Consolidated Rail Corporation was the primary Class I railroad between 1976 and 1999 created to take over the potentially profitable lines of bankrupt carriers. With the benefit of regulatory changes, Conrail began to turn a profit in the 1980s and was turned over to private investors in 1987. Its main line ran from Jersey City west through New Jersey to Phillipsburg and across the Delaware River to Easton and Scranton in Pennsylvania. Branches stretched into southern New Jersey to Delaware Bay. In 1883, the Philadelphia and Reading Railway acq<img style="float: left; border: 1px solid black; margin-left: 5px; margin-right: 5px;" mce_style="float: left; border: 1px solid black; margin-left: 5px; margin-right: 5px;" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/220px-new_york_city_railroads_ca_1900.png" mce_src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/220px-new_york_city_railroads_ca_1900.png" height="300" width="300" />uired the Central New Jersey, and used it for its New York terminal.</p> <p>In 1847, the CNJ was formed by buying the Elizabeth and Somerville at auction. At this point the operations were extended from Elizabeth to Bound Brook towards Easton. Building continued through the towns of Raritan, North Branch, White House, Lebanon, Clinton, Clarksville, North Hampton, Asbury, Bethlehem, Bloomsbury, Springtown and finally to Phillipsburg in 1852. The eastern t<img style="border: 1px solid black; margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; float: right;" mce_style="border: 1px solid black; margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; float: right;" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/3813_1194066000.jpg" mce_src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/3813_1194066000.jpg" height="250" width="350" />erminus was still Elizabeth port where ferry service ran into New York. In 1850’s the CNJ looked towards the Hudson, to meet the need of the rail station as a result of increased traffic.</p> <p>In 1864, a bridge was built over the Newark Bay which was connected to a new terminal. In mid 1864, the Jersey Central looked like one in operation over a century. It had a double tracked mainline fir its entire length. Expansion continued as the CNJ added into the trackage by buying smaller railroads over several years. The most important acquisition at that time was the Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad in 1871. Prior to this point, most of the money made was on Anthracite coal. It relied on other competing railroads to deliver the black diamonds. With the trackage from Easton to the coal fields, the CNJ eliminated the problem. The New Jersey Southern Railroad was next; it extended from Red Bank in the North all the way to Bayside in the South with connections to Atlantic City and Camden. In 1879 the CNJ leased the entire railroad without this acquisition there would have been no Blue Comet in the later years.</p> <p>The final major partnership was the New York and Long Branch, jointly operated by CNJ and the Pennsylvania. It connected both in South Amboy and extended along the coast until it reached Bay Head. In 1883, the Reading Railroad started a relationshi<img style="float: right; margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black;" mce_style="float: right; margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black;" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/800px-crrnj_terminal_liberty_state_park_jersey_city_nj.jpg" mce_src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/800px-crrnj_terminal_liberty_state_park_jersey_city_nj.jpg" height="250" width="333" />p with CNJ which fell apart the next year because Reading did not make the money needed to continue the operation. Reading passenger trains used the CNJ facilities in New Jersey. In 1933, the CNJ was under the control of the Reading for good, which lasted until Conrail. As the CNJ continued to buy small branch lines throughout the NJ region in the 20<sup>th</sup> century, the railroads became the very profitable at that time. However, it was smaller than expected and it fell out of the mining industry around the turn of the century. In 1939, the CNJ filed for bankruptcy, and World War II helped to restore the needed cash flow and the CNJ continued business. After World War II, it went to Baldwin and EDM to find suitable road power. In 1947, it fell into bankruptcy again as a result of costly programs needed to replace the steam engine. In 1950, business continued to go down, it had placed cheap BUDD cars on most commuter runs and costs had been cut down drastically. Commuter operating costs continued to rise and freight revenue continued to decline. In 1961, the CNJ began operating some of the lines of the Lehigh and New England. It was making money off of cement and coal. In 1967, the CNJ filed for bankruptcy the final time. It pulled out of Pennsylvania in 1972. Unlike the previous, it did not recover from this, rather, it went into Conrail system in 1976. Most of the passenger services, structures and equipment were picked up by the state. The CNJ has the honor of being the first railroad in the States to run a diesel electric locomotive.</p> <p>In 1924, there was a political dispute between City of Newark versus Central Railroad CO. of New Jersey over the con<img style="margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black; float: left;" mce_style="margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black; float: left;" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/central_railroad_festival_web.jpg" mce_src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/central_railroad_festival_web.jpg" height="207" width="350" />struction of the railroad that was taken to court for a decision. Messes George W. Wickersham and Paxton Blair both of New York were appellants, Mr. R.V. Lindabury of Newark, an appellee Central Railroad Co. New Jersey. Mr. Julius Henry Cohen of New York appellee Port of New York Authority, Mr. Justice Butler delivered opinion of the court. This suit was brought by the city of Newark to enjoin the construction of a bridge across Newark Bay. Jersey City and the state of New Jersey by leave of court intervened as parties complainant. The argument is that Defendant Company constructed double-track wooden railroad bridge, with bascule draws across Newark Bay, which is below Newark, between Elizabeth and Bayonne and crosses the channel at an angle of 66 degrees. Newark Bay is a navigable estuary and its water at this place is wholly within the state of New Jersey. Construction work commenced construction without the consent of the State. Appellants maintained that the source of power to construct a bridge over navigable waters was within one state is in the state itself; that the concurrent consent of both states and federal governments were necessary before such a bridge lawfully may be erected.<img style="margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black; float: right;" mce_style="margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black; float: right;" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/w3ek8iwr.jpg" mce_src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/w3ek8iwr.jpg" height="228" width="350" /></p> <p>The complaint alleges that the city of Newark owns real estate above the bridge of the westerly shore of the bay, that neither the present nor the proposed bridge is necessary to the operation of the railroad; and that, if any bridge shall be constructed between Elizabeth and Bayonne, the free and unobstructed access of vessels to the Newark terminal will be prevented and the value of the terminal destroyed. The complaint showed that the defendant the Port of New York Authority is a body corporate and politic, established by a compact between New Jersey and New York for the creation of the port of New York district, and for the comprehensive development of that port. Congress gave its consent to the agreement. The district extends as far north as Irvington on the Hudson, N. Y., as far east as Long Beach, Long Island, as far south as Atlantic Highlands, and as far west as Summit, N. J., and so includes Newark Bay and the site of the bridge. A comprehensive plan for the development of the port of New York was approved by both states and consented to by Congress. The New Jersey city petitioned the decision saying, that it would be unjust and public nuisance; and that its construction without the permission of the New Jersey board of commerce and navigation and the Port Authority is unlawful. The complaint was dismissed on the ground that it fails to state a cause of action. The motion to build was granted and by the legislation empowering the company to construct, maintain and use the railroad, the state of New Jersey consented to the construction of the bridge in question. At the time the bridge was built, there was no applicable legislation by Congress. And it was within the power of the state to authorize its construction. Laws of New Jersey 1860, provides: 'That it shall and may be lawful for the Central Railroad Company of New Jersey to extend their railroad from some point in their track in the city of Elizabeth, to some point or points on New York Bay, in the county of Hudson, at or south of Jersey City; and for that purpose, in its construction and completion, maintenance, use and enjoyment, all and every provision of the act entitled, 'An act to incorporate the Somerville & Easton Railroad Company' was approved in 1847, and of the several supplements thereto was extended and be applicable to the railroad now authorized to be constructed, in every respect as if the same had been originally authorized under the said act to which this was a supplement. The company was empowered to have as many tracks, within the width specified, as it deemed necessary. It was also empowered to maintain and improve its railroad, as it might from time to time find necessary or expedient. It was not bound to have its performance limited to the capacity of the bridge first constructed, but it was free to add to its transportation facilities by laying down additional tracks over waters crossed by its bridges as well as upon land.</p> <p>In 2003, the abandoned railroad that ran from Barnegat to Beachwood, a distance of 13.6 miles was acquired by the Ocean Board of Freeholders. This part was known as Toms River and Waretown Railroad in 1870s. Operations of the railroad has been is steady progress and in phases. Phase I runs from West Bay Avenue in Barnegat North to Waretown at Pancoast Road, a distance of 2 miles; Phase II runs from Pancoast Road to Wells Mills Road (Route 532) a distance of 1.1 miles. Phase III runs from Route 532 to the Waretown-Lacey Township line and from Dudley Park to Serpentine Drive in Berkeley Township. Construction of the railroad on Township property has been delayed due to political differences. The township wants to construct a roadway with sidewalk along the railroad corridor versus a graveled Rail trail, this idea is opposed by the Lacey Rail –Trail Environmental Committee (LRTEC) with some other conservation groups backing this cause. Eventually, the Rail Trail will terminate in Toms River through a series of proposed road and sidewalk connections. In 2006, the Waretown’s Pancoast to Route 532 phase included a 1.65 acre trailhead site which the county acquired.<img style="margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black; float: right;" mce_style="margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black; float: right;" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/5887_1195297200.jpg" mce_src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/5887_1195297200.jpg" height="247" width="350" /></p> <p>Despite outcries and legal battles with local residents the railroad succeeded in further developing the location. The new terminal was constructed by architects Peabody & Stearns of Boston, Massachusetts and while the Jersey Central was never an extremely profitable railroad its new complex was quite stunning once completed in 1889. Jersey City Terminal was designed in the Richardsonian Romanesque style, so named after famed architect Henry Hobson Richardson who sculpted buildings to mimic Medieval Europe castles and ancient structures. It was built almost entirely of red brick, featured arched windows along its three main floors, dormer windows, and steep pitched roofs. Additionally, the building was accented with a central cupola and fine clock piece. The interior waiting room featured a balcony and cast iron trusses painted red and given a simple, but elegant starburst pattern. It is said that between 1890 and 1915 Jersey Central Terminal witnessed several million, mostly Italian and Irish, immigrants passing through the complex.</p> <p>The Central Railroad of New Jersey Terminal which is now a part of The Liberty State Park area has always been historically significant as a major point of egress. Whether simply crossing the bay or heading for the open ocean, several different societies during the past centuries have utilized the Communipaw Cove area.</p> <p><img style="float: left; margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black;" mce_style="float: left; margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black;" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/5507_1288321109.jpg" mce_src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/5507_1288321109.jpg" width="350" />The growing populations and the demand for transporting goods and supplies in the 1800s necessitated a means of transport that was fast and dependable. Railroads would supply the solution to the increasing transportation demands.</p> <p>In 1864, the CRRNJ bought extensive acreage in Jersey City, and opened its first terminal. By the mid 1880's, the need for a larger terminal became evident. The complex, constructed in 1889, represented the greatest concentration of rail facilities in the Now York Harbor area at the turn of the century. There was increased traffic in the terminal by several thousand immigrants each day. Approximately eight million immigrants traveled to their new homes via the Central Railroad. From 1890 - 1915 the combination of commuters, immigrants and freight brought between 30,000 - 50,000 people and almost 300 trains each day to the CRRNJ Terminal. The railroad became a way of life for most of the surrounding community.</p> <p>The decline of immigration and the Great Depression severely hurt the rail industry, railroad travel and traffic dropped which lead to the death of the Railroad operational activity within a time frame of twenty years from inception. In 1967 the CRRNJ discontinued commuter operations. The Terminal and adjacent waterfront were purchased through Federal, State and local funding. A major cleanup effort was begun and Liberty State Park opened on June 14, 1976. Today the park is the focus of many community and statewide special events. The CRRNJ Terminal stands with the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island marking an important era in American history.</p> <p><img style="margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black; float: right;" mce_style="margin-left: 6px; margin-right: 6px; border: 1px solid black; float: right;" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/5891_1195218000.jpg" mce_src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/5891_1195218000.jpg" height="244" width="350" />All in all, Jersey City Terminal was a very beautiful building that one would have thought was built by a prominent railroad but the CNJ never reached more than a few hundred miles in length at its largest. While the terminal played host to many commuter trains it never saw many well known passenger trains.</p> <p>Currently, save for the terminal herself and its train shed little evidence remains of the once sprawling railroad operations that went on along the Jersey City waterfront known as Communipaw Cove. The station still stands and has been partially preserved as the Liberty State Park. However, train service had ended over 40 years ago and devoid of railroad tracks, saved for its train sheds which still stand but are severely deteriorated and in serious need of repair and maintenance. There are no immediate plans currently in place to revive the place.</p><p><br /></p><p>References:</p><p>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Railroad_of_New_Jersey</p><p><br /></p><p>http://www.railpictures.net/viewphoto.php?id=212043&nseq=4</p><p><br /></p><p><br /></p><p><br /></p><p><br /></p> SONY/AT&T Building 2010-12-20T00:37:38Z 2010-12-20T00:37:38Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=428:sonyatat-building&catid=58:commercial-structures&Itemid=68 <p> </p> <p> </p> <p align="center"><strong>The Development of the AT&T/Sony Building</strong></p> <p align="center"><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong> </strong>The Sony Building of New York City is an iconic structure built with incredible poise and talent. The former AT&T Building is 647 feet high and has over 37 stories high. The high-rise skyscraper in Manhattan is situated at 550 Madison Avenue between 55<sup>th</sup> Street and 56<sup>th</sup> Street. The construction ended in 1984 and the architects that designed the beautiful masterpiece were Philip Johnson and John Burgee as his assistant. The structure had very interesting and different appeals to it. The top of the building had an oval type circle called an ornamental top, also referred to as “Chippendale”. It displayed a beautiful archway in the entrance of the building. It was at least 7 stories high. It was very unusual and first of its kind. “With these ornamental additions, the building challenged architectural modernism’s demand for stark functionalism and purely efficient design. It is therefore considered by many critics to be a prime example of postmodern architecture.” It has been concluded that the Sony Tower was at the forefront of creating history and was the first to create a type of architecture that was so profound and beautiful.</p> <p>Being the first Postmodern building, it contained “ornamental pink granite neo-Georgian pediment”. All granite used was unpolished stony creek granite. The grey pink granite known as stony creek granite comes from the same quarry that provided the front of Grand Central Station, which is located a few blocks from the Sony/AT&T Building. The building is such a complex structure built inside and outside to impress any eye. The stony creek granite columns on the outside of the building let the eye go upward. When guests approach the entrance, they are introduced with decorative cuts and turnings. When viewing it from across the street, the color and richness of the granite is so evident that you can see the pink perfectly. The reason for the granite to be unpolished was to create the illusion that it is soft and comfortable. When creating the base for the AT&T Building, Johnson used the base modeled by the New York Municipal Building. The modeling could be related to famous arches or building types in European countries. Although using different references and decorations to form a new building, it “brought back the representational and historicizing architecture of New York’s skyscrapers” (Johnson 2). The old is getting mixed in with the new that is adding to the modernism of NYC but meshing some old forms to create a better structure.</p> <p align="center"> </p> <p align="center">Sony/AT&T Building</p> <p align="center"> </p> <p>In October of 1978, AT&T received permission to build the building. They were able to construct almost 82,000 sq. ft. of space. Because they were allowed to construct that much, the architects had to build a museum for communications and provide space for tourists or the public. The building complied, so they were granted an extra 14,000 sq. ft. to do whatever they so chose. The previous headquarters to the AT&T Building was located on 195 Broadway. They would have to move most of their employees, as much as 600, to the new location and move the rest to the other AT&T location in Basking Ridge, New Jersey. In 1982, the company had to find tenants for half the building and selling each square foot for $60. When moving out of the old building, AT&T did not want to change much concerning their company. They wanted everything to be a simple and cost effective change. The bronze statue outside of the old AT&T Building was taken apart and brought to the operation headquarters in New Jersey. The <em>Spirit of Communications </em>statue was 20,000 lbs and 22 feet high. It was a structure that could not be wasted but was not allowed in the new building. In 1984, due to zoning issues, the museum could not be allowed. Instead, they build the annex that still is there today that connects the walkway for pedestrians. Due to a tax break given to AT&T and under constant scrutiny, the building was sold to Sony on 1992.</p> <p align="center"> </p> <p align="center">Spirit of Communications Statue</p> <p> </p> <p>Sony wanted to make some changes. They wanted to convert some parts of the multi-story atrium into retail space and rent it out to retailers. Sony wanted to comply with zoning, so they agreed to add more space to the pedestrian walkway and add more open public space. Sony headquarters thought they were adding more space and providing more retail opportunities for the best of the population. Since the building was on Madison Ave., it would only made sense to provide more retail space and give more retail value to the building and the companies that would eventually move into the rented space. In 1996, Sony bought out space across the street where renovations were done on the lobby, bathrooms, and windows. Through 2013, Sony signed rent leases where each square foot was $34. Sony eventually connected the two buildings. Using fiber optic cables, they also created microwave communications equipment necessary for the businesses and buildings to become closer together.</p> <p>Along with the beautiful outer structure of the stony creek granite, the inside of the building is just as spectacular. The architecture is so complex that some builders, contractors, or architects would ever dream of constructing something like this. There is so much detail and features associated with every step you take. When walking into the building, people are welcomed by the sun. The atrium is full of glass ceiling with radiant light shining into the building. The first floor of the atrium includes an arcade, stores, a restaurant, and public open space for people to relax and drink coffee from the café. In the building, there is the Sony flagship store that is a respective two floors. There is also a four story annex that connects to the roof of the atrium to the other side of the street. The annex connects to the Sony Wonder Technology Lab. The Lab is a type of museum for all ages that are interested in the future of technology, science and entertainment. This area replaced what had been the Infoquest Center constructed by the AT&T Building. The Infoquest Center was an exhibit created for the Building, where its purpose was for telecommunications. Now the Technology Lab is open almost every day to the public audience for children and adults alike. Sony wants people to become knowledgeable about technology for what comes next. They want the population to know what they know and the Lab will give them insight as to what they are doing.</p> <p>There might be a lot to learn about one building but to learn more about the stone, itself, and where it came from is just as important and will benefit from it. Stony creek granite can be traced back to 600 million years ago where unordinary processes were taking place. Intense pressure and increased and decreased temperatures played a role by which magma started forming, then cooled, then the solid substance. Where the plasma ended up was the Connecticut River which ultimately led to the water. “The ‘long water’ river shafted eastward since the last ice age, exposing the luxurious pink granite throughout the remaining Stony Creek area and Thimble Island region.</p> <p>The first piece of pink granite was found and first quarried in 1858 by Benjamin Green. One was called the Branford Granite Co. What made everything move so much easier was the arrival of trains in 1852, which was beneficial for the workers, the industry, transportation, and labor. Quarry workers came from all over the world and made Stony Creek, CT their permanent residences. Quarry workers were French, Spanish, Italian, Irish, Finnish, English, or Scottish. Other quarries included the Stony Creek Red Granite Company, Norcross Brothers, and the Guilford’s Beattie Quarry. The Red Granite Company was created in 1876, taken over by New Yorkers and eventually renamed it the Stony Creek Red Granite Company. It was right next to the Castelluci Quarry. The Norcross Brothers heard about the stony creek in 1887 and bought property. They built Quarry Rd in Stony Creek and built various things for the railroad tracks. The conditions in the 19<sup>th</sup> century were so difficult and every piece of equipment was so simple. It was so dirty and black powder scattered everywhere. The Norcross Brothers were in charge of West Point Monument. 75, 000 lbs had to be transported down the Hudson River and up by train to West Point. The quarries in Stony Creek and the companies have been a highlight of the town ever since the 18<sup>th</sup> Century where tourists and villagers saw the beauty of the town. There were stores, restaurants, markets, and a movie theatre that made up the quaint village.</p> <p>Today, much has changed with technology. Castelluci and Sons have new innovative technology where stone that can be cut in 3 months rather than the 200 years if they didn’t have the new equipment and technology. Johnson was one of the most influential and most well-known architects after the Sony Building was built. He was at the forefront of new architecture and architects that will always be referring back to his work for his advice. Castelluci and Sons because very popular. After constructing the Building, they became “one of the top five stone companies in the country”. (Charm 1) “The Castellucis ascribe the changes their company has gone through to a mixture of luck, ability and opportunity. Johnson’s liking for the pink flush of Stony Creek granite was a piece of luck, and the ability was always waiting in the wings. All they needed was an opening.” (Charm 4) It was a win-win situation for everyone. Johnson, Castelluci and Sons, and Stony Creek along with the other granite companies positively benefitted from the beautiful pink stony creek. People wonder how long the stony creek granite is going to last for in Stony Creek, but the villagers respond back for hundreds of years to come. The stony creek granite has benefitted many building including the Sony/AT&T Building and will benefit for many years with the advanced technology and complex architectural design.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p align="center">Bibliography</p> <p>Charm, R. (1986). Granite's rise to rick of this age puts providence stoneworkers in the pink; castellucci & son builds success on recent popularity of rose-colored stone. <em>New England Business</em>, 1-5.</p> <p><a href="http://www.stonycreekquarry.com/ATT_building.shtml">http://www.stonycreekquarry.com/ATT_building.shtml</a></p> <p><em>At&t (sony) building, new york</em>. (1984). Retrieved from <a href="http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/att/">http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/att/</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.stonycreekquarry.com/about.shtml">http://www.stonycreekquarry.com/about.shtml</a></p> <p>Carroll, L. (n.d.). <em>Stony creek quarries</em>. Retrieved from http://www.branford-ct.gov/History/stony%20creek%20quarries.htm</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p align="center"><strong>The Development of the AT&T/Sony Building</strong></p> <p align="center"><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong> </strong>The Sony Building of New York City is an iconic structure built with incredible poise and talent. The former AT&T Building is 647 feet high and has over 37 stories high. The high-rise skyscraper in Manhattan is situated at 550 Madison Avenue between 55<sup>th</sup> Street and 56<sup>th</sup> Street. The construction ended in 1984 and the architects that designed the beautiful masterpiece were Philip Johnson and John Burgee as his assistant. The structure had very interesting and different appeals to it. The top of the building had an oval type circle called an ornamental top, also referred to as “Chippendale”. It displayed a beautiful archway in the entrance of the building. It was at least 7 stories high. It was very unusual and first of its kind. “With these ornamental additions, the building challenged architectural modernism’s demand for stark functionalism and purely efficient design. It is therefore considered by many critics to be a prime example of postmodern architecture.” It has been concluded that the Sony Tower was at the forefront of creating history and was the first to create a type of architecture that was so profound and beautiful.</p> <p>Being the first Postmodern building, it contained “ornamental pink granite neo-Georgian pediment”. All granite used was unpolished stony creek granite. The grey pink granite known as stony creek granite comes from the same quarry that provided the front of Grand Central Station, which is located a few blocks from the Sony/AT&T Building. The building is such a complex structure built inside and outside to impress any eye. The stony creek granite columns on the outside of the building let the eye go upward. When guests approach the entrance, they are introduced with decorative cuts and turnings. When viewing it from across the street, the color and richness of the granite is so evident that you can see the pink perfectly. The reason for the granite to be unpolished was to create the illusion that it is soft and comfortable. When creating the base for the AT&T Building, Johnson used the base modeled by the New York Municipal Building. The modeling could be related to famous arches or building types in European countries. Although using different references and decorations to form a new building, it “brought back the representational and historicizing architecture of New York’s skyscrapers” (Johnson 2). The old is getting mixed in with the new that is adding to the modernism of NYC but meshing some old forms to create a better structure.</p> <p align="center"> </p> <p align="center">Sony/AT&T Building</p> <p align="center"> </p> <p>In October of 1978, AT&T received permission to build the building. They were able to construct almost 82,000 sq. ft. of space. Because they were allowed to construct that much, the architects had to build a museum for communications and provide space for tourists or the public. The building complied, so they were granted an extra 14,000 sq. ft. to do whatever they so chose. The previous headquarters to the AT&T Building was located on 195 Broadway. They would have to move most of their employees, as much as 600, to the new location and move the rest to the other AT&T location in Basking Ridge, New Jersey. In 1982, the company had to find tenants for half the building and selling each square foot for $60. When moving out of the old building, AT&T did not want to change much concerning their company. They wanted everything to be a simple and cost effective change. The bronze statue outside of the old AT&T Building was taken apart and brought to the operation headquarters in New Jersey. The <em>Spirit of Communications </em>statue was 20,000 lbs and 22 feet high. It was a structure that could not be wasted but was not allowed in the new building. In 1984, due to zoning issues, the museum could not be allowed. Instead, they build the annex that still is there today that connects the walkway for pedestrians. Due to a tax break given to AT&T and under constant scrutiny, the building was sold to Sony on 1992.</p> <p align="center"> </p> <p align="center">Spirit of Communications Statue</p> <p> </p> <p>Sony wanted to make some changes. They wanted to convert some parts of the multi-story atrium into retail space and rent it out to retailers. Sony wanted to comply with zoning, so they agreed to add more space to the pedestrian walkway and add more open public space. Sony headquarters thought they were adding more space and providing more retail opportunities for the best of the population. Since the building was on Madison Ave., it would only made sense to provide more retail space and give more retail value to the building and the companies that would eventually move into the rented space. In 1996, Sony bought out space across the street where renovations were done on the lobby, bathrooms, and windows. Through 2013, Sony signed rent leases where each square foot was $34. Sony eventually connected the two buildings. Using fiber optic cables, they also created microwave communications equipment necessary for the businesses and buildings to become closer together.</p> <p>Along with the beautiful outer structure of the stony creek granite, the inside of the building is just as spectacular. The architecture is so complex that some builders, contractors, or architects would ever dream of constructing something like this. There is so much detail and features associated with every step you take. When walking into the building, people are welcomed by the sun. The atrium is full of glass ceiling with radiant light shining into the building. The first floor of the atrium includes an arcade, stores, a restaurant, and public open space for people to relax and drink coffee from the café. In the building, there is the Sony flagship store that is a respective two floors. There is also a four story annex that connects to the roof of the atrium to the other side of the street. The annex connects to the Sony Wonder Technology Lab. The Lab is a type of museum for all ages that are interested in the future of technology, science and entertainment. This area replaced what had been the Infoquest Center constructed by the AT&T Building. The Infoquest Center was an exhibit created for the Building, where its purpose was for telecommunications. Now the Technology Lab is open almost every day to the public audience for children and adults alike. Sony wants people to become knowledgeable about technology for what comes next. They want the population to know what they know and the Lab will give them insight as to what they are doing.</p> <p>There might be a lot to learn about one building but to learn more about the stone, itself, and where it came from is just as important and will benefit from it. Stony creek granite can be traced back to 600 million years ago where unordinary processes were taking place. Intense pressure and increased and decreased temperatures played a role by which magma started forming, then cooled, then the solid substance. Where the plasma ended up was the Connecticut River which ultimately led to the water. “The ‘long water’ river shafted eastward since the last ice age, exposing the luxurious pink granite throughout the remaining Stony Creek area and Thimble Island region.</p> <p>The first piece of pink granite was found and first quarried in 1858 by Benjamin Green. One was called the Branford Granite Co. What made everything move so much easier was the arrival of trains in 1852, which was beneficial for the workers, the industry, transportation, and labor. Quarry workers came from all over the world and made Stony Creek, CT their permanent residences. Quarry workers were French, Spanish, Italian, Irish, Finnish, English, or Scottish. Other quarries included the Stony Creek Red Granite Company, Norcross Brothers, and the Guilford’s Beattie Quarry. The Red Granite Company was created in 1876, taken over by New Yorkers and eventually renamed it the Stony Creek Red Granite Company. It was right next to the Castelluci Quarry. The Norcross Brothers heard about the stony creek in 1887 and bought property. They built Quarry Rd in Stony Creek and built various things for the railroad tracks. The conditions in the 19<sup>th</sup> century were so difficult and every piece of equipment was so simple. It was so dirty and black powder scattered everywhere. The Norcross Brothers were in charge of West Point Monument. 75, 000 lbs had to be transported down the Hudson River and up by train to West Point. The quarries in Stony Creek and the companies have been a highlight of the town ever since the 18<sup>th</sup> Century where tourists and villagers saw the beauty of the town. There were stores, restaurants, markets, and a movie theatre that made up the quaint village.</p> <p>Today, much has changed with technology. Castelluci and Sons have new innovative technology where stone that can be cut in 3 months rather than the 200 years if they didn’t have the new equipment and technology. Johnson was one of the most influential and most well-known architects after the Sony Building was built. He was at the forefront of new architecture and architects that will always be referring back to his work for his advice. Castelluci and Sons because very popular. After constructing the Building, they became “one of the top five stone companies in the country”. (Charm 1) “The Castellucis ascribe the changes their company has gone through to a mixture of luck, ability and opportunity. Johnson’s liking for the pink flush of Stony Creek granite was a piece of luck, and the ability was always waiting in the wings. All they needed was an opening.” (Charm 4) It was a win-win situation for everyone. Johnson, Castelluci and Sons, and Stony Creek along with the other granite companies positively benefitted from the beautiful pink stony creek. People wonder how long the stony creek granite is going to last for in Stony Creek, but the villagers respond back for hundreds of years to come. The stony creek granite has benefitted many building including the Sony/AT&T Building and will benefit for many years with the advanced technology and complex architectural design.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p align="center">Bibliography</p> <p>Charm, R. (1986). Granite's rise to rick of this age puts providence stoneworkers in the pink; castellucci & son builds success on recent popularity of rose-colored stone. <em>New England Business</em>, 1-5.</p> <p><a href="http://www.stonycreekquarry.com/ATT_building.shtml">http://www.stonycreekquarry.com/ATT_building.shtml</a></p> <p><em>At&t (sony) building, new york</em>. (1984). Retrieved from <a href="http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/att/">http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/att/</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.stonycreekquarry.com/about.shtml">http://www.stonycreekquarry.com/about.shtml</a></p> <p>Carroll, L. (n.d.). <em>Stony creek quarries</em>. Retrieved from http://www.branford-ct.gov/History/stony%20creek%20quarries.htm</p> AT&T (Sony) Headquarters 2010-10-25T23:30:32Z 2010-10-25T23:30:32Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=403:atat-sony-headquarters&catid=58:commercial-structures&Itemid=68 <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-align: center; font: 16.0px Cambria;">AT&T Corporate Headquarters (Sony Building)</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-align: center; font: 16.0px Cambria;">By Mete Seker</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-align: center; font: 16.0px Cambria; min-height: 19.0px;"> </p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Cambria;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span>The 37- story Sony building (formerly known as AT&T Corporate Headquarters) located on 550 Madison Avenue, New York City has become an emblem of postmodernist structure. Designed by the famous architect Philip Johnson, this landmark blends more classic architecture with modern materials such as the pink granite used. Pink Stony Creek granite is applied all throughout the building creating an eye-catching glare all through Madison Avenue. It was an unusual material to be used for a skyscraper instead many buildings supported a glass frame that was very popular at the time. The design itself is unique, with a Chippendale top resembling an 18<sup>th</sup> century cabinet. John Burgee, Johnson’s Partner at Burgee& Johnson’s firm, contributed to the design of the building. The structure has a bolder and defined style for the executive floors than of the mid- level floors.</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-indent: 36.0px; font: 12.0px Cambria;">The AT&T building by Philip Johnson is believed to be the uprising against mainstream “Modernist” supremacy in Manhattan, with its influences of a historical wardrobe. The building has been the most widely discussed skyscraper for its time for the following reasons. Other modernist buildings of the era had a decent size entrance arch, glass veneer and a flat top. The AT&T building on the other hand had an 80-foot entrance, far too big for a medium- sized skyscraper; pink stony creek granite as veneer, and a Chippendale style top. This style furniture included a broken pediment at the top, called the rococo ornamentation. A pediment is a triangular shaped element surmounting the façade of the building.</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-indent: 36.0px; font: 12.0px Cambria;">The pictures shown are of a very nice detailing of pink stony creek granite with 10- feet diamond patterns along a gigantic arch on the main entrance. This 80-foot narrow arch is located on the building’s main entrance towering over its visitors. Since it was way to lofty for the building to support, it was sustained in place by a bridge connecting the two “halves” of the building. Inside the entrance stands a 65-foot tall lobby that has beautiful black and white marbles. Originally the building’s ground level was an open air space where people could use. In 1994, after Sony took the ownership of the building, the ground floor was enclosed in order to make better use of the public space. Now, Sony sells all of its product lines in its store called the “Sony Style.”</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-indent: 36.0px; font: 12.0px Cambria;">Along with the street- level part of the structure, art and architecture critics also praised the upper- executive floors. Seen from the photo below, the suppressed and defined areas around the window openings give the building a deeper detail. This detail included taller and wider windows that gave it the look of the classic cabinet. The mid- section floors, containing small windows, have received disapproval from critics as not being detailed enough. These floors started from 7<sup>th</sup> and escalated until the 25<sup>th </sup>floor. Philip Johnson himself is said to be unhappy with the results of this section because he wanted “deeper window reveals, rounded mullions, and glazing other than black tinted glass.” The architect was not able to get these designs and materials due to the fact of budget limits. The budget that AT&T has set aside for its new plaza was around $200 million, a vast amount of investment in the mid- seventies. The planning and projecting took place in the seventies but the building itself was completed in 1984.</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Cambria;">Philip Cortelyou Johnson was born in Cleveland, Ohio in 1906 to a wealthy family. Johnson was a descendant of the original Huguenots and his family have owned vast amount of real estate in the New England area. Johnson went to Harvard University in 1930, majoring in philosophy. Although Johnson has studied philosophy, he chose architecture as a career. After graduating, Johnson became the founder and the first director of Department of Architecture at New York’s Modern Museum of Art (MOMA). This was a big contribution to the study of architecture as it was the first museum- associated program that devoted itself to the architectural study. In 1932, Johnson released his first book, <em>The International Style: Study of Architecture since 1922, </em>on a type of style practiced by Ludwig Miles van der Kohe, Johnson’s mentor. The international style was a practice used in Europe and was brought back to United States by Johnson and his colleague, Henry- Russell Hitchcock. This style is very common in American skyscrapers and involves the use of concrete, glass, and steel. It also emphasizes the importance of “simple, functional, and unadorned” structures. Returning to Harvard in 1940, Johnson studied architecture in order to practice this profession. After finishing his studies, he joined with van der Kohe as the associate architect to build the Seagram building in New York City in 1956. Johnson gained a lot of publicity and fame when he constructed his own residence in 1949, the “glass house”, located in New Canaan Connecticut. The house had a very minimalistic design, using glass panels as walls, but ironically resembling the work of 18<sup>th</sup> and 19<sup>th</sup> century architects. This idea was the same with the Sony building. Using this fame, Johnson formed a partnership with John Burgee in 1967 and constructed many highly valued and publicized structures across the country such as the Pennzoil Place in Houston and New York State Theater at Lincoln Center. By then, Johnson had stopped using the word “International” to describe his works and structures and shifted to more classic architecture with decorative motifs. This phase of Johnson’s career was characterized by the creation of Boston Library’s New Wing. The Boston Public Library is also made out of stony creek granite and was constructed by Charles Follen Mckim of McKim, Mead, and White. Johnson’s last change of style occurred when working on the AT&T building. The planning and construction of the AT&T building almost took 4 years.</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Cambria;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span>AT&T contacted 25 of the largest architectural firms in the country in the fall of 1975. The former AT&T headquarters at 195 Broadway was aging and also the investors were expecting a building that was more suited to the U.S.’s biggest company by revenue at the time. It had sent out four pages regarding that it was considering building a new corporate headquarters facility that would be a prestigious symbol. At first, Johnson and Burgee did not pay any attention to this work particularly because they believed that a firm needs large sums of money in order to complete a grand project such as this. Because of Johnson and Burgee’s fame, the firm was shortlisted as one of the three prospective companies. Johnson and Burgee conducted a “smooth” presentation to John deButts, the CEO of AT&T at the time, with only two photographs of the Seagram building and the Pennzoil Place. Because deButts admired their interesting characters and the fame of their previous works, Johnson & Burgee was chosen.</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-indent: 36.0px; font: 12.0px Cambria;">When Johnson decided they would choose pink Stony Creek granite for the veneer of the building, he contacted the Castelucci& Sons, who had supplied granite to Johnson’s previous projects such as the New Wing of the Boston Public Library. The quarry was located in Branford, Connecticut where granite to various buildings and statues has been provided for 150 years. The Castelucci’s acquired the quarry in 1956 and supplied granite to landmark structures such as the South Station in Boston. The rock itself had a soft flowing grain and the color of rose that attracted many architects over the years. With the funds that have become available to Castelucci& Son’s, the company grew tenfold during the early eighties.</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-indent: 36.0px; font: 12.0px Cambria;">In 1992, Sony acquired the building because AT&T had decreased in size and had trouble paying the taxes for the plaza. This was a time where Japanese investors were flocking to United States in order to buy property in New York City.</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-indent: 36.0px; font: 12.0px Cambria; min-height: 14.0px;"> </p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-align: center; font: 12.0px Cambria;"><strong>Bibliography</strong></p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Cambria; min-height: 14.0px;"> </p> <p style="margin: 5.0px 0.0px 5.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Times New Roman';">Charm, Robert E.. "Granite's rise to rock of this age puts Providence stoneworkers in the pink; Castellucci & Sons builds success on recent popularity of rose-colored stone. (company profile)." <span style="text-decoration: underline;">New England Business</span>. 1986. Retrieved October 22, 2010 from accessmylibrary: <a href="http://www.accessmylibrary.com/article-1G1-4450402/granite-rise-rock-age.html"><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #1e39f6;">http://www.accessmylibrary.com/article-1G1-4450402/granite-rise-rock-age.html</span></a></p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Times New Roman';">Harmon, Justin. "Philip Johnson." <em>Pop Culture Universe: Icons, Idols, Ideas</em>. ABC CLIO, n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2010.</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Times New Roman'; color: #1e39f6;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href="http://popculture2.abcclio.com/Search/Display/1468987?terms=sony%20building%20&webSiteCode=SLN_PCU_AC&returnToPage=%2fSearch%2fDisplay%2f1468987%3fterms%3dsony+building+&token=32DFEDF6AC2FC0E7A02BA3BD5EA4DBE8&casError=False">http://popculture2.abcclio.com/Search/Display/1468987?terms=sony%20building%20&webSiteCode=SLN_PCU_AC&returnToPage=%2fSearch%2fDisplay%2f1468987%3fterms%3dsony+building+&token=32DFEDF6AC2FC0E7A02BA3BD5EA4DBE8&casError=False</a></span><span style="color: #000000;">>.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Times New Roman'; min-height: 15.0px;"> </p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Times New Roman'; color: #333233;">"<strong>Philip C. Johnson</strong>." <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Encyclopædia Britannica</span>. 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 23 Oct. 2010</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Times New Roman'; color: #014d99;"><span style="color: #333233;"> <<a href="http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/305408/Philip-C-Johnson"><span style="color: #014d99;"><strong>http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/305408/Philip-C-Johnson</strong></span></a>>.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Times New Roman'; min-height: 15.0px;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span> <span style="white-space: pre;"> </span></p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Times New Roman';">Varnelis, Kazys. "Philip Johnson's Empire: Network Power and the ATT&T Building ." Editorial. <em>Varnelis.net</em>. N.p., 19 Feb. 2006. Web. 23 Oct. 2010.</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Times New Roman';">.</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-align: center; font: 16.0px Cambria;">AT&T Corporate Headquarters (Sony Building)</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-align: center; font: 16.0px Cambria;">By Mete Seker</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-align: center; font: 16.0px Cambria; min-height: 19.0px;"> </p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Cambria;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span>The 37- story Sony building (formerly known as AT&T Corporate Headquarters) located on 550 Madison Avenue, New York City has become an emblem of postmodernist structure. Designed by the famous architect Philip Johnson, this landmark blends more classic architecture with modern materials such as the pink granite used. Pink Stony Creek granite is applied all throughout the building creating an eye-catching glare all through Madison Avenue. It was an unusual material to be used for a skyscraper instead many buildings supported a glass frame that was very popular at the time. The design itself is unique, with a Chippendale top resembling an 18<sup>th</sup> century cabinet. John Burgee, Johnson’s Partner at Burgee& Johnson’s firm, contributed to the design of the building. The structure has a bolder and defined style for the executive floors than of the mid- level floors.</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-indent: 36.0px; font: 12.0px Cambria;">The AT&T building by Philip Johnson is believed to be the uprising against mainstream “Modernist” supremacy in Manhattan, with its influences of a historical wardrobe. The building has been the most widely discussed skyscraper for its time for the following reasons. Other modernist buildings of the era had a decent size entrance arch, glass veneer and a flat top. The AT&T building on the other hand had an 80-foot entrance, far too big for a medium- sized skyscraper; pink stony creek granite as veneer, and a Chippendale style top. This style furniture included a broken pediment at the top, called the rococo ornamentation. A pediment is a triangular shaped element surmounting the façade of the building.</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-indent: 36.0px; font: 12.0px Cambria;">The pictures shown are of a very nice detailing of pink stony creek granite with 10- feet diamond patterns along a gigantic arch on the main entrance. This 80-foot narrow arch is located on the building’s main entrance towering over its visitors. Since it was way to lofty for the building to support, it was sustained in place by a bridge connecting the two “halves” of the building. Inside the entrance stands a 65-foot tall lobby that has beautiful black and white marbles. Originally the building’s ground level was an open air space where people could use. In 1994, after Sony took the ownership of the building, the ground floor was enclosed in order to make better use of the public space. Now, Sony sells all of its product lines in its store called the “Sony Style.”</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-indent: 36.0px; font: 12.0px Cambria;">Along with the street- level part of the structure, art and architecture critics also praised the upper- executive floors. Seen from the photo below, the suppressed and defined areas around the window openings give the building a deeper detail. This detail included taller and wider windows that gave it the look of the classic cabinet. The mid- section floors, containing small windows, have received disapproval from critics as not being detailed enough. These floors started from 7<sup>th</sup> and escalated until the 25<sup>th </sup>floor. Philip Johnson himself is said to be unhappy with the results of this section because he wanted “deeper window reveals, rounded mullions, and glazing other than black tinted glass.” The architect was not able to get these designs and materials due to the fact of budget limits. The budget that AT&T has set aside for its new plaza was around $200 million, a vast amount of investment in the mid- seventies. The planning and projecting took place in the seventies but the building itself was completed in 1984.</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Cambria;">Philip Cortelyou Johnson was born in Cleveland, Ohio in 1906 to a wealthy family. Johnson was a descendant of the original Huguenots and his family have owned vast amount of real estate in the New England area. Johnson went to Harvard University in 1930, majoring in philosophy. Although Johnson has studied philosophy, he chose architecture as a career. After graduating, Johnson became the founder and the first director of Department of Architecture at New York’s Modern Museum of Art (MOMA). This was a big contribution to the study of architecture as it was the first museum- associated program that devoted itself to the architectural study. In 1932, Johnson released his first book, <em>The International Style: Study of Architecture since 1922, </em>on a type of style practiced by Ludwig Miles van der Kohe, Johnson’s mentor. The international style was a practice used in Europe and was brought back to United States by Johnson and his colleague, Henry- Russell Hitchcock. This style is very common in American skyscrapers and involves the use of concrete, glass, and steel. It also emphasizes the importance of “simple, functional, and unadorned” structures. Returning to Harvard in 1940, Johnson studied architecture in order to practice this profession. After finishing his studies, he joined with van der Kohe as the associate architect to build the Seagram building in New York City in 1956. Johnson gained a lot of publicity and fame when he constructed his own residence in 1949, the “glass house”, located in New Canaan Connecticut. The house had a very minimalistic design, using glass panels as walls, but ironically resembling the work of 18<sup>th</sup> and 19<sup>th</sup> century architects. This idea was the same with the Sony building. Using this fame, Johnson formed a partnership with John Burgee in 1967 and constructed many highly valued and publicized structures across the country such as the Pennzoil Place in Houston and New York State Theater at Lincoln Center. By then, Johnson had stopped using the word “International” to describe his works and structures and shifted to more classic architecture with decorative motifs. This phase of Johnson’s career was characterized by the creation of Boston Library’s New Wing. The Boston Public Library is also made out of stony creek granite and was constructed by Charles Follen Mckim of McKim, Mead, and White. Johnson’s last change of style occurred when working on the AT&T building. The planning and construction of the AT&T building almost took 4 years.</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Cambria;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span>AT&T contacted 25 of the largest architectural firms in the country in the fall of 1975. The former AT&T headquarters at 195 Broadway was aging and also the investors were expecting a building that was more suited to the U.S.’s biggest company by revenue at the time. It had sent out four pages regarding that it was considering building a new corporate headquarters facility that would be a prestigious symbol. At first, Johnson and Burgee did not pay any attention to this work particularly because they believed that a firm needs large sums of money in order to complete a grand project such as this. Because of Johnson and Burgee’s fame, the firm was shortlisted as one of the three prospective companies. Johnson and Burgee conducted a “smooth” presentation to John deButts, the CEO of AT&T at the time, with only two photographs of the Seagram building and the Pennzoil Place. Because deButts admired their interesting characters and the fame of their previous works, Johnson & Burgee was chosen.</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-indent: 36.0px; font: 12.0px Cambria;">When Johnson decided they would choose pink Stony Creek granite for the veneer of the building, he contacted the Castelucci& Sons, who had supplied granite to Johnson’s previous projects such as the New Wing of the Boston Public Library. The quarry was located in Branford, Connecticut where granite to various buildings and statues has been provided for 150 years. The Castelucci’s acquired the quarry in 1956 and supplied granite to landmark structures such as the South Station in Boston. The rock itself had a soft flowing grain and the color of rose that attracted many architects over the years. With the funds that have become available to Castelucci& Son’s, the company grew tenfold during the early eighties.</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-indent: 36.0px; font: 12.0px Cambria;">In 1992, Sony acquired the building because AT&T had decreased in size and had trouble paying the taxes for the plaza. This was a time where Japanese investors were flocking to United States in order to buy property in New York City.</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-indent: 36.0px; font: 12.0px Cambria; min-height: 14.0px;"> </p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; text-align: center; font: 12.0px Cambria;"><strong>Bibliography</strong></p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Cambria; min-height: 14.0px;"> </p> <p style="margin: 5.0px 0.0px 5.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Times New Roman';">Charm, Robert E.. "Granite's rise to rock of this age puts Providence stoneworkers in the pink; Castellucci & Sons builds success on recent popularity of rose-colored stone. (company profile)." <span style="text-decoration: underline;">New England Business</span>. 1986. Retrieved October 22, 2010 from accessmylibrary: <a href="http://www.accessmylibrary.com/article-1G1-4450402/granite-rise-rock-age.html"><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #1e39f6;">http://www.accessmylibrary.com/article-1G1-4450402/granite-rise-rock-age.html</span></a></p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Times New Roman';">Harmon, Justin. "Philip Johnson." <em>Pop Culture Universe: Icons, Idols, Ideas</em>. ABC CLIO, n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2010.</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Times New Roman'; color: #1e39f6;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href="http://popculture2.abcclio.com/Search/Display/1468987?terms=sony%20building%20&webSiteCode=SLN_PCU_AC&returnToPage=%2fSearch%2fDisplay%2f1468987%3fterms%3dsony+building+&token=32DFEDF6AC2FC0E7A02BA3BD5EA4DBE8&casError=False">http://popculture2.abcclio.com/Search/Display/1468987?terms=sony%20building%20&webSiteCode=SLN_PCU_AC&returnToPage=%2fSearch%2fDisplay%2f1468987%3fterms%3dsony+building+&token=32DFEDF6AC2FC0E7A02BA3BD5EA4DBE8&casError=False</a></span><span style="color: #000000;">>.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Times New Roman'; min-height: 15.0px;"> </p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Times New Roman'; color: #333233;">"<strong>Philip C. Johnson</strong>." <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Encyclopædia Britannica</span>. 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 23 Oct. 2010</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Times New Roman'; color: #014d99;"><span style="color: #333233;"> <<a href="http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/305408/Philip-C-Johnson"><span style="color: #014d99;"><strong>http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/305408/Philip-C-Johnson</strong></span></a>>.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Times New Roman'; min-height: 15.0px;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span> <span style="white-space: pre;"> </span></p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Times New Roman';">Varnelis, Kazys. "Philip Johnson's Empire: Network Power and the ATT&T Building ." Editorial. <em>Varnelis.net</em>. N.p., 19 Feb. 2006. Web. 23 Oct. 2010.</p> <p style="margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Times New Roman';">.</p> Comerica Bank Tower 2010-10-21T18:26:05Z 2010-10-21T18:26:05Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=398:bank-one-building&catid=58:commercial-structures&Itemid=68 <p><strong> </strong></p> <p align="center"><a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pDR_YWFoMGc"><strong><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Comerica Bank Tower</span></strong></a></p> <p><img src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/397px-comerica_bank_tower_1987.jpg" border="0" width="139" height="320" style="float: left;" />The Comerica Bank Tower has been known under many different names such as the "Bank One Building," “Momentum Place,” or, “The Chase Center,” but it is now known as the “<a href="http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=225">Comerica Bank Tower</a>.” It is a 60-story skyscraper that is located at <a href="http://foundationsofamerica.com/file:///C:/Users/NYCE/Documents/Comerica%20Bank%20Tower.kmz">1717 Main Street, Dallas, Texas</a>. At 240 meters tall, it is the third tallest building in Dallas, the sixth tallest in Texas, and the fourty-ninth tallest in the United States. </p> <p>It was designed by <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/09/arts/design/09archive.html">master architects</a> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Burgee">John Burgee</a> and <a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PzfQ7UnbNU8&feature=fvw">Philip Johnson</a>. Johnson was born in 1906 in Cleveland Ohio and founded the Museum of Modern art in 1930.  With his thick round framed glasses, he was the most recognizable figure in American architecture for decades.  Johnson is responsible for designing many other buildings such as the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PPG_Place" title="PPG Place">PPG Place</a> in <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pittsburgh,_Pennsylvania" title="Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania">Pittsburgh</a>, the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystal_Cathedral" title="Crystal Cathedral">Crystal Cathedral</a> in <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garden_Grove,_California" title="Garden Grove, California">Garden Grove, California</a>, and the <a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A18pzPVp29A&feature=fvw">Glass House</a> in CT. He is also known for some of <a href="http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/p/philip_johnson.html">his quotes</a>.  He once said, “I hate vacations. If you can build buildings, why sit on the beach?” and “Architects are pretty much high-class whores. We can turn down projects the way they can turn down some clients, but we've both got to say yes to someone if we want to stay in business.” Burgee specializes in postmodern buildings and collaborated with Johnson on many buildings.  They established <a href="http://johnsonburgee.ning.com/">Johnson/Burgee Architects</a> in Manhattan in 1968. Their collaborations include the <a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HuM9BdHumg8">Water Wall</a> in Houston, Texas, the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipstick_Building">Lipstick Building</a> in New York City, New York, and the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sony_Building_(New_York)">Sony Building</a> also in New York City. They began the Comerica Bank Tower not long ago in 1985 but it was not finished until 1987. It was built to have one and a half million square feet of office space and was considered the most expensive construction of its time. </p> <p>When the Comerica Bank Tower was built, it was originally known as Momentum place and was on one of the busiest blocks in downtown Dallas.  It stands only 25 minutes from DFW Airport and 10 minutes from Love field. Initially, it was intended to be home to a hotel, a mall, and several offices, but it ended up being home to MCorp Bank, the Woolf Brothers department store, and the Volk Brothers department store.  Today, it features a full service bank, diniing, a full time concierge, a retail concourse, and an impressive conference facility. Other buildings making it the busiest block in Dallas were the <a href="http://www.dallasarchitecture.info/n-m.htm">Neiman Marcus Building</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilson_Building_(Dallas,_Texas)">Wilson Building</a>, and the Merca<img src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/200px-bank_one_center.jpg" border="0" width="133" height="233" style="float: right;" />ntile National Bank Building.  Together, these buildings accounted for the highest trafficking sections of Dallas.</p> <p>The Comerica Building also serves as the hub for the downtown <a href="http://dallastunnels.taitlifto.net/dallastunnelmap_big.html">Dallas underground walkway system</a>..   It provides immediate access to the railway system and to over 62 dining and retail amenities. </p> <p>When the Comerica Building was finished, it was one of the most economically tested buildings in Dallas due to the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_1980s_recession">economic downturn of the late 1980s</a>. Because of this downturn, the Comerica Building was the last high rise constructed in downtown Dallas. MCorp bank eventually collapsed and was bought out by Bank One. Without a lead tenant for the building it was turned into completely free leasable space.  Ten years later, Crescent Real Estate Equities bought the building for $238 million.  The building would be bought and sold a few more times until it became the Comerica Banks Tower that we see today.  In 2006 Crescent Real Estate Equities sold the building for $216 million to a Los Angeles based real-estate company and finally in <a href="http://web.archive.org/web/20071030093619/http:/comerica.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases&item=832">2007 Comerica Bank</a> announced that they would be using the building as their headquarters. "We are pleased to enhance our pres<img src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/imagescap67y1k.jpg" border="0" width="153" height="162" style="margin: 2px 6px; float: left; border: 0pt;" />ence in the central business district of downtown Dallas through the lease of a building considered a landmark in Texas," said Ralph W. Babb Jr., chairman and chief executive officer, Comerica Incorporated and Comerica Bank.</p> <p>Although the tenants of the building have changed significantly, the magnificently crafted design of the building has remained untouched.  The tower uses a traditional three sectioned skyscraper form with upper level setbacks. The building features a three level parking garage and a small plaza with trees and benches. It is very clear that Johnson and Burgee did not plan on this building being just another normal looking office building.  They dressed it up as much as they could.  The main lobby has clad walls with polished <a href="http://www.google.com/images?um=1&hl=en&client=firefox-a&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&biw=1079&bih=630&tbs=isch:1&btnG=Search&aq=f&aqi=&oq=&gs_rfai=&q=Botticino%20marble">Botticino</a> marble from Central Italy.  The base and moldings are made up of <a href="http://www.google.com/images?um=1&hl=en&client=firefox-a&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&biw=1079&bih=630&tbs=isch:1&sa=1&q=Rojo+Alicante+marble&btnG=Search&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai">Rojo Alicante marble</a> from the Mediterranean Coast of Spain and the flooring has both polished Botticino and <a href="http://www.google.com/images?um=1&hl=en&client=firefox-a&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&biw=1079&bih=630&tbs=isch:1&sa=1&q=Negro+Marquina+marble&btnG=Search&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai">Negro Marquina</a> marble.  The exterior is made up of hand-set veneer panels of flame-finished Stony Creek granite.  The base of the whole building is also made up of <a href="http://www.stonycreekquarry.com/landscape.shtml">Stony Creek granite</a>, supplied by Castellucci and sons, which hails from the <a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W4BWqnstrxM">Thimble Islands</a> in Branford CT.</p> <p>Its safe to say that Philip Johnson and John Burgee did a marvelous job when constructing this building.  It brings beauty, style, convenience, and luxury together into one structure.  It may be the 3rd tallest in Dallas, but it definitely ranks number one in appeal. </p> <p style="text-align: center;"> Works Cited</p> <p style="text-align: left;"><a href="http://www.comericabanktower.com/building_features.html">http://www.comericabanktower.com/building_features.html</a></p> <p style="text-align: left;"><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comerica_Bank_Tower">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comerica_Bank_Tower</a></p> <p style="text-align: left;"><a href="http://www.dallasnews.com/sharedcontent/dws/bus/stories/081006dnbusbankone.1f29ac9.html">http://www.dallasnews.com/sharedcontent/dws/bus/stories/081006dnbusbankone.1f29ac9.html</a></p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p align="center"><a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pDR_YWFoMGc"><strong><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Comerica Bank Tower</span></strong></a></p> <p><img src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/397px-comerica_bank_tower_1987.jpg" border="0" width="139" height="320" style="float: left;" />The Comerica Bank Tower has been known under many different names such as the "Bank One Building," “Momentum Place,” or, “The Chase Center,” but it is now known as the “<a href="http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=225">Comerica Bank Tower</a>.” It is a 60-story skyscraper that is located at <a href="http://foundationsofamerica.com/file:///C:/Users/NYCE/Documents/Comerica%20Bank%20Tower.kmz">1717 Main Street, Dallas, Texas</a>. At 240 meters tall, it is the third tallest building in Dallas, the sixth tallest in Texas, and the fourty-ninth tallest in the United States. </p> <p>It was designed by <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/09/arts/design/09archive.html">master architects</a> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Burgee">John Burgee</a> and <a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PzfQ7UnbNU8&feature=fvw">Philip Johnson</a>. Johnson was born in 1906 in Cleveland Ohio and founded the Museum of Modern art in 1930.  With his thick round framed glasses, he was the most recognizable figure in American architecture for decades.  Johnson is responsible for designing many other buildings such as the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PPG_Place" title="PPG Place">PPG Place</a> in <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pittsburgh,_Pennsylvania" title="Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania">Pittsburgh</a>, the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystal_Cathedral" title="Crystal Cathedral">Crystal Cathedral</a> in <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garden_Grove,_California" title="Garden Grove, California">Garden Grove, California</a>, and the <a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A18pzPVp29A&feature=fvw">Glass House</a> in CT. He is also known for some of <a href="http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/p/philip_johnson.html">his quotes</a>.  He once said, “I hate vacations. If you can build buildings, why sit on the beach?” and “Architects are pretty much high-class whores. We can turn down projects the way they can turn down some clients, but we've both got to say yes to someone if we want to stay in business.” Burgee specializes in postmodern buildings and collaborated with Johnson on many buildings.  They established <a href="http://johnsonburgee.ning.com/">Johnson/Burgee Architects</a> in Manhattan in 1968. Their collaborations include the <a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HuM9BdHumg8">Water Wall</a> in Houston, Texas, the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipstick_Building">Lipstick Building</a> in New York City, New York, and the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sony_Building_(New_York)">Sony Building</a> also in New York City. They began the Comerica Bank Tower not long ago in 1985 but it was not finished until 1987. It was built to have one and a half million square feet of office space and was considered the most expensive construction of its time. </p> <p>When the Comerica Bank Tower was built, it was originally known as Momentum place and was on one of the busiest blocks in downtown Dallas.  It stands only 25 minutes from DFW Airport and 10 minutes from Love field. Initially, it was intended to be home to a hotel, a mall, and several offices, but it ended up being home to MCorp Bank, the Woolf Brothers department store, and the Volk Brothers department store.  Today, it features a full service bank, diniing, a full time concierge, a retail concourse, and an impressive conference facility. Other buildings making it the busiest block in Dallas were the <a href="http://www.dallasarchitecture.info/n-m.htm">Neiman Marcus Building</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilson_Building_(Dallas,_Texas)">Wilson Building</a>, and the Merca<img src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/200px-bank_one_center.jpg" border="0" width="133" height="233" style="float: right;" />ntile National Bank Building.  Together, these buildings accounted for the highest trafficking sections of Dallas.</p> <p>The Comerica Building also serves as the hub for the downtown <a href="http://dallastunnels.taitlifto.net/dallastunnelmap_big.html">Dallas underground walkway system</a>..   It provides immediate access to the railway system and to over 62 dining and retail amenities. </p> <p>When the Comerica Building was finished, it was one of the most economically tested buildings in Dallas due to the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_1980s_recession">economic downturn of the late 1980s</a>. Because of this downturn, the Comerica Building was the last high rise constructed in downtown Dallas. MCorp bank eventually collapsed and was bought out by Bank One. Without a lead tenant for the building it was turned into completely free leasable space.  Ten years later, Crescent Real Estate Equities bought the building for $238 million.  The building would be bought and sold a few more times until it became the Comerica Banks Tower that we see today.  In 2006 Crescent Real Estate Equities sold the building for $216 million to a Los Angeles based real-estate company and finally in <a href="http://web.archive.org/web/20071030093619/http:/comerica.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases&item=832">2007 Comerica Bank</a> announced that they would be using the building as their headquarters. "We are pleased to enhance our pres<img src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/imagescap67y1k.jpg" border="0" width="153" height="162" style="margin: 2px 6px; float: left; border: 0pt;" />ence in the central business district of downtown Dallas through the lease of a building considered a landmark in Texas," said Ralph W. Babb Jr., chairman and chief executive officer, Comerica Incorporated and Comerica Bank.</p> <p>Although the tenants of the building have changed significantly, the magnificently crafted design of the building has remained untouched.  The tower uses a traditional three sectioned skyscraper form with upper level setbacks. The building features a three level parking garage and a small plaza with trees and benches. It is very clear that Johnson and Burgee did not plan on this building being just another normal looking office building.  They dressed it up as much as they could.  The main lobby has clad walls with polished <a href="http://www.google.com/images?um=1&hl=en&client=firefox-a&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&biw=1079&bih=630&tbs=isch:1&btnG=Search&aq=f&aqi=&oq=&gs_rfai=&q=Botticino%20marble">Botticino</a> marble from Central Italy.  The base and moldings are made up of <a href="http://www.google.com/images?um=1&hl=en&client=firefox-a&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&biw=1079&bih=630&tbs=isch:1&sa=1&q=Rojo+Alicante+marble&btnG=Search&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai">Rojo Alicante marble</a> from the Mediterranean Coast of Spain and the flooring has both polished Botticino and <a href="http://www.google.com/images?um=1&hl=en&client=firefox-a&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&biw=1079&bih=630&tbs=isch:1&sa=1&q=Negro+Marquina+marble&btnG=Search&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai">Negro Marquina</a> marble.  The exterior is made up of hand-set veneer panels of flame-finished Stony Creek granite.  The base of the whole building is also made up of <a href="http://www.stonycreekquarry.com/landscape.shtml">Stony Creek granite</a>, supplied by Castellucci and sons, which hails from the <a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W4BWqnstrxM">Thimble Islands</a> in Branford CT.</p> <p>Its safe to say that Philip Johnson and John Burgee did a marvelous job when constructing this building.  It brings beauty, style, convenience, and luxury together into one structure.  It may be the 3rd tallest in Dallas, but it definitely ranks number one in appeal. </p> <p style="text-align: center;"> Works Cited</p> <p style="text-align: left;"><a href="http://www.comericabanktower.com/building_features.html">http://www.comericabanktower.com/building_features.html</a></p> <p style="text-align: left;"><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comerica_Bank_Tower">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comerica_Bank_Tower</a></p> <p style="text-align: left;"><a href="http://www.dallasnews.com/sharedcontent/dws/bus/stories/081006dnbusbankone.1f29ac9.html">http://www.dallasnews.com/sharedcontent/dws/bus/stories/081006dnbusbankone.1f29ac9.html</a></p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </p> Garden City Hotel 2010-10-16T16:39:04Z 2010-10-16T16:39:04Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=384:garden-city-hotel&catid=58:commercial-structures&Itemid=68 201-06-PappasA <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="color: #000000;"> </span></span></span><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><img src="http://www.kioli.org/longisland/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/Garden-City-Hotel-300x200.jpg" border="0" title="The Garden City Hotel" width="295" height="208" style="border: 0pt none; float: left; margin: 2px 6px;" /></span></span><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="color: #000000;">The Garden City Hotel is a four star hotel in Garden City in Long Island, New York.  Alexander Turney Stewart, a multi-millionaire, planned the Garden City Hotel on 7,000 acres of land he had purchased approximately 15 to 20 miles away from New York City.  Stewart wanted to create something so epic, that it would attract famous and wealthy clientele from all over the world.  The hotel opened in 1874 and became an immediate success; it was built from lavish materials such as Stony Creek granite.  Tons of people flocked to spend the night and experience elaborate events and enjoy the lavish hotel rooms. </span></span></span><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="color: #000000;"><img src="http://top-10-list.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/charles-lindbergh.jpg" border="0" title="Charles Lindbergh" width="200" height="151" style="border: 0pt none; float: right; margin: 2px 6px;" /></span></span></span><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="color: #000000;">A new Garden City Hotel had opened in 1895; this was designed by architects McKim, Mead and White using the precious stony creek granite.  In 1897 a nine hole golf course opened which then became known has "The Garden City Golf Club."  Tragically, after four successful years since opening the new hotel, it had burned down the morning of September 7th in 1899.  Finally, a third and the most famous incarnation of the hotel was opened in the same location in 1901 and this too included Stony Creek granite. <br /> </span></span></span><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="color: #000000;"> </span></span></span><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="color: #000000;">It is known that famous elite families such as the Vanderbilts and Pierpont Morgans had quiet, enjoyable stays at the Garden City Hotel.  It was rather popular for socialites to attend extravagant parties in the hotel's ballroom. Events such as these were the main reasons why the hotel remained the forefront of Long Island's activity within the years of 1910 to 1930. The most notable event was when Charles Lindbergh spent the night as a guest before his historic flight in May of 1927.<br /><br /> The hotel's downfall came with the Great Depression around the Gatsby-era.  It wasn't until after World War II, that the hotel as well as the community began to flourish and grow once again.  Many socialites and even world leaders such as President John F. Kennedy in 1959 and more recently Hillary Clinton and former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher have spent their time at the hotel. The hotel has provided its community with the highest quality of services and accommodations from its post Civil war beginnings to </span></span></span><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="color: #000000;"><img src="http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MA01/Davis/wharton/images/mmw2.jpg" border="0" title="McKim, Mead and White" width="345" height="234" style="border: 0pt none; margin: 2px 6px; float: left;" /></span></span></span><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="color: #000000;">the Roaring Twenties till present day. In time, the hotel had declared bankruptcy and was demolished in 1973.   In 1980, the current owner of the hotel, Myron Nelkin, built the present day Garden City Hotel that opened May 20th in 1983.  Since then, this sophisticated and luxurious hotel has been overseen by the Nelkins who continue to uphold the hotel's elegance and service that has been established for over the past one hundred and twenty-five years. The Garden City Hotel is currently a member of the Preferred Hotels and Resorts Worldwide and its current President is Cathy Nelkin Miller.  One can get a better look and feel of the Garden City Hotel by clicking this link and watching a <a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LUyofvcAysk">virtual tour</a>.</span><span style="color: #000000;"> </span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="color: #000000;">The architects of the hotel, <strong>McKim, Mead, and White</strong>, were partners in a leading American architectural firm.  They were known to create memorable Beaux Arts architecture in the United States. Some of their most famous works besides the hotel would be The Boston Public Library, Isaac Bell House, Morgan Library, New York Herald Building, New York Racquet Club, Newport Casino, Pennsylvania Station, Rhode Island State Capitol, University club and W.G. Low House. The majority of these historical foundations are created tastefully with the use of Stony Creek Granite.  They even received international attention once they created the American Academy in Rome, Italy.<br /><br /><br /><img src="http://www.homegranite.com/granite/sunset_beige.jpg" border="0" title="Stony Creek Granite" width="250" height="250" style="border: 0pt none; float: left; margin: 2px 6px;" /></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="color: #000000;">It was not uncommon for McKim, Mead, and White to have used Stony Creek granite in their pieces of work. Since 1850, designers, artists, architects and builders have used Stony Creek granite for its durability, workability and distinct appearance.  The old world reliability and craftsmanship of this granite is preserved still to this day and it provides the same timeless energy and presence to all uses it is applied to.  According to the book <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Flesh and Stone: Stony Creek and the Age of Granite</span>, “Across several miles of Connecticut shoreline and extending into Long Island Sound stretches a formation of pink granite that one hundred and fifty years ago propelled a region into the industrial revolution. The granite, known as ‘Stony Creek pink’ brought hundreds and more immigrants to the area and precipitated the opening of numerous private and commercial granite quarries, one of which continues to operate up to the present.” <br /><br /><br />Stony Creek granite created a huge industry in the United States.  Newcomers came from all over to extract the granite from the earth.  They all had the same goal in mind; to provide for their families. These immigrants invaded small and quiet farming and fishing villages with their heavy machinery and technology that would extract the durable granite from beneath.  New businesses and services sprang up along with the population and the immediate housing shortages. <br /></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"> </span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><img src="http://img.agoda.net/hotels/61517/OTHERS/OTHERS_61517_4.jpg" border="0" title="Lobby" width="312" height="235" style="border: 0pt none; float: right; margin: 2px 6px;" /></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="color: #000000;">Each of the region’s locations gave its own characteristic to the granite; whether it is the color, coarseness or the hardness.  Some stoneworkers would exploit the granite sites to some degree which left a negative and sometimes everlasting effect on the region.  Once the cost of steel and labor changed, and the beginning of concrete usage in building, the demand for stone fell.  Many stoneworkers who would dig for granite were changing fields, and taking jobs in other trades or plants such as the iron factory or the wire mills in Branford, however they were still staying in the area. <br /><br /> It was never a question as to why architects such as McKim, Mead and White used materials like Stony Creek granite.  The granite sparkled with feldspar and it had an attractive pink color that humanized large architectural creations and made them more inviting to the eye.   Structures such as churches, fraternal organizations, museums, hospitals, libraries, governmental offices, railroad terminals, banks, hotels, educational institutions, offices and loft buildings, were all commonly known for using Stony Creek granite.  <br /></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><img src="http://www.gusto.com/gusto_images/1_10000/2572/feature.jpg" border="0" width="293" height="238" style="border: 0pt none; float: left; margin: 2px 6px;" /></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-size: small;">The Garden City Hotel is still operating today and it is still a large tourist attraction for Long Island.  The Stony Creek granite helps to make the hotel more warm and inviting to its guests.  It is a versatile material that is easy to work with but durable enough to last.</span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="color: #000000;"> </span></span></span><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><img src="http://www.kioli.org/longisland/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/Garden-City-Hotel-300x200.jpg" border="0" title="The Garden City Hotel" width="295" height="208" style="border: 0pt none; float: left; margin: 2px 6px;" /></span></span><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="color: #000000;">The Garden City Hotel is a four star hotel in Garden City in Long Island, New York.  Alexander Turney Stewart, a multi-millionaire, planned the Garden City Hotel on 7,000 acres of land he had purchased approximately 15 to 20 miles away from New York City.  Stewart wanted to create something so epic, that it would attract famous and wealthy clientele from all over the world.  The hotel opened in 1874 and became an immediate success; it was built from lavish materials such as Stony Creek granite.  Tons of people flocked to spend the night and experience elaborate events and enjoy the lavish hotel rooms. </span></span></span><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="color: #000000;"><img src="http://top-10-list.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/charles-lindbergh.jpg" border="0" title="Charles Lindbergh" width="200" height="151" style="border: 0pt none; float: right; margin: 2px 6px;" /></span></span></span><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="color: #000000;">A new Garden City Hotel had opened in 1895; this was designed by architects McKim, Mead and White using the precious stony creek granite.  In 1897 a nine hole golf course opened which then became known has "The Garden City Golf Club."  Tragically, after four successful years since opening the new hotel, it had burned down the morning of September 7th in 1899.  Finally, a third and the most famous incarnation of the hotel was opened in the same location in 1901 and this too included Stony Creek granite. <br /> </span></span></span><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="color: #000000;"> </span></span></span><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="color: #000000;">It is known that famous elite families such as the Vanderbilts and Pierpont Morgans had quiet, enjoyable stays at the Garden City Hotel.  It was rather popular for socialites to attend extravagant parties in the hotel's ballroom. Events such as these were the main reasons why the hotel remained the forefront of Long Island's activity within the years of 1910 to 1930. The most notable event was when Charles Lindbergh spent the night as a guest before his historic flight in May of 1927.<br /><br /> The hotel's downfall came with the Great Depression around the Gatsby-era.  It wasn't until after World War II, that the hotel as well as the community began to flourish and grow once again.  Many socialites and even world leaders such as President John F. Kennedy in 1959 and more recently Hillary Clinton and former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher have spent their time at the hotel. The hotel has provided its community with the highest quality of services and accommodations from its post Civil war beginnings to </span></span></span><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="color: #000000;"><img src="http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MA01/Davis/wharton/images/mmw2.jpg" border="0" title="McKim, Mead and White" width="345" height="234" style="border: 0pt none; margin: 2px 6px; float: left;" /></span></span></span><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="color: #000000;">the Roaring Twenties till present day. In time, the hotel had declared bankruptcy and was demolished in 1973.   In 1980, the current owner of the hotel, Myron Nelkin, built the present day Garden City Hotel that opened May 20th in 1983.  Since then, this sophisticated and luxurious hotel has been overseen by the Nelkins who continue to uphold the hotel's elegance and service that has been established for over the past one hundred and twenty-five years. The Garden City Hotel is currently a member of the Preferred Hotels and Resorts Worldwide and its current President is Cathy Nelkin Miller.  One can get a better look and feel of the Garden City Hotel by clicking this link and watching a <a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LUyofvcAysk">virtual tour</a>.</span><span style="color: #000000;"> </span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="color: #000000;">The architects of the hotel, <strong>McKim, Mead, and White</strong>, were partners in a leading American architectural firm.  They were known to create memorable Beaux Arts architecture in the United States. Some of their most famous works besides the hotel would be The Boston Public Library, Isaac Bell House, Morgan Library, New York Herald Building, New York Racquet Club, Newport Casino, Pennsylvania Station, Rhode Island State Capitol, University club and W.G. Low House. The majority of these historical foundations are created tastefully with the use of Stony Creek Granite.  They even received international attention once they created the American Academy in Rome, Italy.<br /><br /><br /><img src="http://www.homegranite.com/granite/sunset_beige.jpg" border="0" title="Stony Creek Granite" width="250" height="250" style="border: 0pt none; float: left; margin: 2px 6px;" /></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="color: #000000;">It was not uncommon for McKim, Mead, and White to have used Stony Creek granite in their pieces of work. Since 1850, designers, artists, architects and builders have used Stony Creek granite for its durability, workability and distinct appearance.  The old world reliability and craftsmanship of this granite is preserved still to this day and it provides the same timeless energy and presence to all uses it is applied to.  According to the book <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Flesh and Stone: Stony Creek and the Age of Granite</span>, “Across several miles of Connecticut shoreline and extending into Long Island Sound stretches a formation of pink granite that one hundred and fifty years ago propelled a region into the industrial revolution. The granite, known as ‘Stony Creek pink’ brought hundreds and more immigrants to the area and precipitated the opening of numerous private and commercial granite quarries, one of which continues to operate up to the present.” <br /><br /><br />Stony Creek granite created a huge industry in the United States.  Newcomers came from all over to extract the granite from the earth.  They all had the same goal in mind; to provide for their families. These immigrants invaded small and quiet farming and fishing villages with their heavy machinery and technology that would extract the durable granite from beneath.  New businesses and services sprang up along with the population and the immediate housing shortages. <br /></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"> </span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><img src="http://img.agoda.net/hotels/61517/OTHERS/OTHERS_61517_4.jpg" border="0" title="Lobby" width="312" height="235" style="border: 0pt none; float: right; margin: 2px 6px;" /></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="color: #000000;">Each of the region’s locations gave its own characteristic to the granite; whether it is the color, coarseness or the hardness.  Some stoneworkers would exploit the granite sites to some degree which left a negative and sometimes everlasting effect on the region.  Once the cost of steel and labor changed, and the beginning of concrete usage in building, the demand for stone fell.  Many stoneworkers who would dig for granite were changing fields, and taking jobs in other trades or plants such as the iron factory or the wire mills in Branford, however they were still staying in the area. <br /><br /> It was never a question as to why architects such as McKim, Mead and White used materials like Stony Creek granite.  The granite sparkled with feldspar and it had an attractive pink color that humanized large architectural creations and made them more inviting to the eye.   Structures such as churches, fraternal organizations, museums, hospitals, libraries, governmental offices, railroad terminals, banks, hotels, educational institutions, offices and loft buildings, were all commonly known for using Stony Creek granite.  <br /></span></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><img src="http://www.gusto.com/gusto_images/1_10000/2572/feature.jpg" border="0" width="293" height="238" style="border: 0pt none; float: left; margin: 2px 6px;" /></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-size: small;">The Garden City Hotel is still operating today and it is still a large tourist attraction for Long Island.  The Stony Creek granite helps to make the hotel more warm and inviting to its guests.  It is a versatile material that is easy to work with but durable enough to last.</span></span></span></span></p>