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Flesh and Stone Foundations of America - QU 201 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=section&id=9&Itemid=57 Thu, 23 Nov 2017 11:15:13 +0000 Joomla! 1.5 - Open Source Content Management en-gb Grand Central Station 155 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=427:grand-central-station-155&catid=41:built-to-last&Itemid=57 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=427:grand-central-station-155&catid=41:built-to-last&Itemid=57 Grand Central Station was designed by Whitney Warren in 1913. The base of Warren's monumental style of structure was used with the famous Stony Creek pink granite. The distinctive stonework that frames the storefronts and lines the covered taxi area of the terminal is visible to pedestrians on 42nd Street and Vanderbilt Avenue. Grand Central took 10 years to build and employed a number of engineers and architects. Grand Central Terminal is the largest train station in the world by number of platforms. They are on two levels, both below ground, with 41 tracks on the upper level and 26 on the lower, though the total number of tracks along platforms and in rail yards exceeds 100. Stony Creek granite was supplied to finish the rest of the terminal and is displayed throughout the building.

Sources and Info:

Deford, Deborah. Flesh and Stone: Stony Creek and the Age of Granite. Stony Creek, Connecticut: Stony Creek Quarry Workers Celebration, 2000.

stleone@shorelineinternet.com (Administrator) Built to Last Fri, 17 Dec 2010 09:24:47 +0000
Immigration ond Anti-Catholicism 54 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=364:immigration-ond-anti-catholicism-54&catid=37:evolving-population&Itemid=57 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=364:immigration-ond-anti-catholicism-54&catid=37:evolving-population&Itemid=57 Veronica Nicolle Reserves this for midterm

Evolving Population Sun, 03 Oct 2010 03:49:32 +0000
Hand and Ox 46 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=362:hand-and-ox-46&catid=36:the-birth-of-an-industry&Itemid=57 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=362:hand-and-ox-46&catid=36:the-birth-of-an-industry&Itemid=57 When it comes to handling granite, there are three major challenges. The first and probably most

obvious difficulty would be freeing the blocks of stone form the ledge or the bedrock. The second challenge involves convertingthe blocks into the desired shapes and sizes of the consumers and thirdly, moving the granite to its final destination. Even to this day, a great deal of the work that goes into extracting and beautifying granite is done by hand. This hand method involves the use of a hand drill or a cross-pointed iron chisel, called a star chisel. This is used to drill a row of holes into the stone in which place a plug and feather (wedge-like system) is used to chip and flake of pieces of the granite. By placing a pair of iron pieces on either side of the wedge, the way the wedge meets the inside surface of the hole is changed, causing the pressure of the wedge to be distributed deeper into the stone. The combination of these tools will eventually cause the stone to split. This method of splitting stone was so effective that it continued to be a basis for quarrying, although there have been some industrial advancements.

The Birth of an Industry Wed, 29 Sep 2010 21:36:06 +0000
Hand and Ox 46 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=361:hand-and-ox-46&catid=35:in-the-beginning-&Itemid=57 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=361:hand-and-ox-46&catid=35:in-the-beginning-&Itemid=57 Hand and Ox 46

Katie DeGrazia

In the Beginning Wed, 29 Sep 2010 21:34:34 +0000
Units and Strikes 116 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=342:units-and-strikes-116&catid=39:life-in-the-quarries&Itemid=57 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=342:units-and-strikes-116&catid=39:life-in-the-quarries&Itemid=57 Reserved for Aida Babic

Life in the Quarries Wed, 22 Sep 2010 21:16:35 +0000
Henry Ives Cobb, Architect http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=355:henry-ives-cobb-architect&catid=41:built-to-last&Itemid=57 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=355:henry-ives-cobb-architect&catid=41:built-to-last&Itemid=57 Open Topic

stleone@shorelineinternet.com (Administrator) Built to Last Mon, 27 Sep 2010 21:32:27 +0000
The Immigrants 51 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=341:the-immigrants-51&catid=37:evolving-population&Itemid=57 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=341:the-immigrants-51&catid=37:evolving-population&Itemid=57 The Immigrants: An Evolving Population

There were numerous differences that caused many issues throughout the immigration movement of the Stony Creek Area.  Cultures clashed and many values were not understood or accepted by others.  On top of this, many of the immigrants did not speak English, making it that much harder to adapt to the ways of America. 

The Temperance Movement, leading up to the 20th century, was a social movement involving the abstinence of alcohol.  This controversy was occurring parallel to the time period when immigration was thriving, and a great deal of these new citizens were to blame.  The Americans believed some immigrants, such as the Irish and German, were invading protestant America with their drunken ways.  Some citizens believed the Vatican was using immigration as part of a conspiracy to take over the country.  Due to increasing poverty in the United States, many turned to alcohol for comfort.  The beating of wives from their husbands was also an effect of alcohol consumption and women began protesting for a change. However, women did not have the right to vote on temperance issues, and sadly, had to suffer the drunken abuse. Alcohol was to blame for many of society's demerits, including prostitution, crime, violent strikes, and child neglect.  The American Temperance Society was formed in 1826 and benefited from a renewed interest in religion and morality. Within 12 years it claimed more than 8,000 local groups and over 1,500,000 members.

In 1901, the Protestant Meeting House, Village Library, and Gilley's store and house had burnt down in Stony Creek.  Locals responded by creating a 20-page brochure, named "Stony Creek's Plea," to raise funds to rebuild the buildings.  Inside the brochure, numerous services were listed that the new buildings would hold.  Quarry workers, islanders, and natives all banded together to help rebuild these historic buildings.



Deford, Deborah, ed. Flesh and Stone: Stony Creek and the Age of Granite. Stony Creek, CT: Leete's Island Books, 2000.




Evolving Population Wed, 22 Sep 2010 21:05:02 +0000
Rock Farms 25 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=340:rock-farms-25&catid=36:the-birth-of-an-industry&Itemid=57 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=340:rock-farms-25&catid=36:the-birth-of-an-industry&Itemid=57 Reserved!

The Birth of an Industry Wed, 22 Sep 2010 19:39:49 +0000
Geology Terms 14 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=338:geology-terms-14&catid=35:in-the-beginning-&Itemid=57 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=338:geology-terms-14&catid=35:in-the-beginning-&Itemid=57

Geology Terms

Transform Boundary - the location at which plates scrape past one another alone a strike-slip fault line

* (ex: San Andreas fault of California: formed where the N.American and Pacific plates meet)

Subduction Zone- the location at which lithospheric plates sink or are thrust into the Earth's interior

Rift Zone- a zone of tension that acts to pull continental land masses or ocean basins apart

*over time, rifts become deep valleys with elevations allowing sea water to enter; rifting can form new ocean basins;

it is unknown whether or not this pattern can create a large new ocean

Quartz- one of the three minerals found in granite; made mostly of silicon and oxygen

*medium to dark grey, translucent in color

Potassium Feldspar- one of the three minerals found in granite; made mostly of potassium, silicon, aluminum, and oxygen

*its reddish color comes mainly from traces of iron in its structure

Plutons- masses of rock formed by magma that crystallizes underground

*named for Pluto, the Greek god of the underworld

Plate Tectonics- the theory that describes how lithospheric plates move

*explains how lithospheric plates "bump" into one another eventually colliding which can produce high mountains

(ex: India is colliding with Asia, forcing the Himalayan mountain chain)

Plagioclase Felspar- one of the three minerals found in granite; made mostly of sodium, calcium, silicon, aluminum, and oxygen

Mineral- a naturally formed, non living solid that has a characteristic chemical composition and crystal structure

*all minerals occur as crystals, but not all crystals occur as minerals (ex: rock candy is crystallized but not a mineral)

Magma- molten rock

*magma is usually less dense that its surroundings, and so it rises towards the Earth's surface, sometimes as quickly as 10ft per year

Lithospheric Plate - plates of rock that form the outermost shell of the Earth; today six major and numerous plates form this shell

*Stony Creek granite is part of the N.American plate; granite did not form in its present location but traveled from New England

on this drift

Lava- magma that erupts on the Earth's surface; the vent from which the lava emerges is called a volcano

Igneous Rock- rock formed by the cooling and solidification of magma or lava

Granite- igneous rock that crystalizes underground and is composed of relatively large crystals of a specific suite of minerals

Gondwanaland- composed of what we now know as Africa, South America, Australia, India, the southeastern United States, and parts of China and Europe, and names for a zone of specific rocks in India.

Gondwana- an enormous, ancient continental mass

Crystal- a solid, bounded by flat (planar) faces, composed of a regular, highly ordered, three-dimensional arrangement of atoms

*can be traced back to the Greek word krystallos, meaning "ice;" internal order creates its symmetrical appearance

Continental Drift- the movement of continents across the surface

*constant slow motion for billions of years to date

Collision Zone- the location at which one lithospheric plate collides with another

In the Beginning Wed, 22 Sep 2010 01:48:25 +0000
Stanford White http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=352:stanford-white-201-06-pappasa&catid=41:built-to-last&Itemid=57 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=352:stanford-white-201-06-pappasa&catid=41:built-to-last&Itemid=57 Stanford White

Stanford Wh
ite was born November 9, 1853; he was an American architect and a partner in the firm of McKim, Mead, and White in 1880.  This firm soon because the most famous in the country and was known for its Shingle-style country and seaside mansions.   As time progressed the firm led the trend to a Neoclassical architecture.  He was trained with Henry Richardson. White designed a series of houses for the wealthy, various public, religious, and institutional buildings. White created the
architecture for Madison Square Garden and the Washington Arch in New York.  He also designed jewelry, interior, and furniture.  In 1906, White was murdered by the millionaire Harry Thaw over his affair with Thaw's wife, Evelyn Nesbit. This lead to a trial which was known as the "Trial of the Century".

Stanford White

"Biography of Stanford White." Essortment Articles: Free Online Articles on Health, Science, Education & More.. Web. 27 Sept. 2010. http://www.essortment.com/all/stanfordwhiteb_rbyy.htm .

Built to Last Sat, 25 Sep 2010 21:39:43 +0000