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Flesh and Stone Foundations of America - QU 201 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php 2017-11-19T19:25:40Z Joomla! 1.5 - Open Source Content Management Grand Central Station 155 2010-12-17T09:24:47Z 2010-12-17T09:24:47Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=427:grand-central-station-155&catid=41:built-to-last&Itemid=57 Administrator stleone@shorelineinternet.com <p><span style="font-family: tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif;" mce_style="font-family: tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;" mce_style="font-size: small;"><b><img src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/220px-image-grand_central_station_outside_night_2.jpg" mce_src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/220px-image-grand_central_station_outside_night_2.jpg" style="border: 0pt none; float: left; margin: 2px 6px;" mce_style="border: 0pt none; float: left; margin: 2px 6px;" border="0"></b></span></span><span style="font-family: tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif;" mce_style="font-family: tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;" mce_style="font-size: small;">Grand Central Station was designed by Whitney Warren in 1913. The base of Warren's monumental style of structure was used with the famous Stony Creek pink granite. The distinctive stonework that frames the storefronts and lines the covered taxi area of the terminal is visible to pedestrians on 42nd Street and Vanderbilt Avenue. Grand Central took 10 years to build and employed a number of engineers and architects. Grand Central Terminal is the largest train station in the world by number of platforms. They are on two levels, both below ground, with 41&nbsp;tracks on the upper level and 26 on the lower, though the total number of tracks along platforms and in&nbsp;rail yards exceeds 100. Stony Creek granite was supplied to finish the rest of the terminal and is displayed throughout the building.</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif;" mce_style="font-family: tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;" mce_style="font-size: small;">Sources and Info:</span></span></p> <p><a href="http://www.grandcentralterminal.com/index.cfm" mce_href="http://www.grandcentralterminal.com/index.cfm"><img src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/grand-central-station-address-2.jpg" mce_src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/grand-central-station-address-2.jpg" border="0" height="213" width="408">http://www.grandcentralterminal.com/index.cfm</a><br />Deford, Deborah. <u>Flesh and Stone: Stony Creek and the Age of Granite</u>. Stony Creek, Connecticut: Stony Creek Quarry Workers Celebration, 2000.</p> <p><span style="font-family: tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif;" mce_style="font-family: tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;" mce_style="font-size: small;"><b><img src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/220px-image-grand_central_station_outside_night_2.jpg" mce_src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/220px-image-grand_central_station_outside_night_2.jpg" style="border: 0pt none; float: left; margin: 2px 6px;" mce_style="border: 0pt none; float: left; margin: 2px 6px;" border="0"></b></span></span><span style="font-family: tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif;" mce_style="font-family: tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;" mce_style="font-size: small;">Grand Central Station was designed by Whitney Warren in 1913. The base of Warren's monumental style of structure was used with the famous Stony Creek pink granite. The distinctive stonework that frames the storefronts and lines the covered taxi area of the terminal is visible to pedestrians on 42nd Street and Vanderbilt Avenue. Grand Central took 10 years to build and employed a number of engineers and architects. Grand Central Terminal is the largest train station in the world by number of platforms. They are on two levels, both below ground, with 41&nbsp;tracks on the upper level and 26 on the lower, though the total number of tracks along platforms and in&nbsp;rail yards exceeds 100. Stony Creek granite was supplied to finish the rest of the terminal and is displayed throughout the building.</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif;" mce_style="font-family: tahoma,arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;" mce_style="font-size: small;">Sources and Info:</span></span></p> <p><a href="http://www.grandcentralterminal.com/index.cfm" mce_href="http://www.grandcentralterminal.com/index.cfm"><img src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/grand-central-station-address-2.jpg" mce_src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/grand-central-station-address-2.jpg" border="0" height="213" width="408">http://www.grandcentralterminal.com/index.cfm</a><br />Deford, Deborah. <u>Flesh and Stone: Stony Creek and the Age of Granite</u>. Stony Creek, Connecticut: Stony Creek Quarry Workers Celebration, 2000.</p> Immigration ond Anti-Catholicism 54 2010-10-03T03:49:32Z 2010-10-03T03:49:32Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=364:immigration-ond-anti-catholicism-54&catid=37:evolving-population&Itemid=57 <p>Veronica Nicolle Reserves this for midterm</p> <p>Veronica Nicolle Reserves this for midterm</p> Hand and Ox 46 2010-09-29T21:36:06Z 2010-09-29T21:36:06Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=362:hand-and-ox-46&catid=36:the-birth-of-an-industry&Itemid=57 <p>When it comes to handling granite, there are three major challenges. The first and probably most</p> <p><img src="http://www.prodrill.com.cn/Images/Meditpic/201003/20100323115452821.jpg" border="0" width="200" height="150" style="float: right; margin-right: 3px; margin-left: 3px; margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;" />obvious difficulty would be freeing the blocks of stone form the ledge or the bedrock. The second challenge involves convertingthe blocks into the desired shapes and sizes of the consumers and thirdly, moving the granite to its final destination. Even to this day, a great deal of the work that goes into extracting and beautifying granite is done by hand. This hand method involves the use of a hand drill or a cross-pointed iron chisel, called a star chisel. This is used to drill a row of holes into the stone in which place a plug and feather (wedge-like system) is used to chip and flake of pieces of the granite. By placing a pair of iron pieces on either side of the wedge, the way the wedge meets the inside surface of the hole is changed, causing the pressure of the wedge to be distributed deeper into the stone. The combination of these tools will eventually cause the stone to split. This method of splitting stone was so effective that it continued to be a basis for quarrying, although there have been some industrial advancements.</p> <p>When it comes to handling granite, there are three major challenges. The first and probably most</p> <p><img src="http://www.prodrill.com.cn/Images/Meditpic/201003/20100323115452821.jpg" border="0" width="200" height="150" style="float: right; margin-right: 3px; margin-left: 3px; margin-top: 6px; margin-bottom: 6px;" />obvious difficulty would be freeing the blocks of stone form the ledge or the bedrock. The second challenge involves convertingthe blocks into the desired shapes and sizes of the consumers and thirdly, moving the granite to its final destination. Even to this day, a great deal of the work that goes into extracting and beautifying granite is done by hand. This hand method involves the use of a hand drill or a cross-pointed iron chisel, called a star chisel. This is used to drill a row of holes into the stone in which place a plug and feather (wedge-like system) is used to chip and flake of pieces of the granite. By placing a pair of iron pieces on either side of the wedge, the way the wedge meets the inside surface of the hole is changed, causing the pressure of the wedge to be distributed deeper into the stone. The combination of these tools will eventually cause the stone to split. This method of splitting stone was so effective that it continued to be a basis for quarrying, although there have been some industrial advancements.</p> Hand and Ox 46 2010-09-29T21:34:34Z 2010-09-29T21:34:34Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=361:hand-and-ox-46&catid=35:in-the-beginning-&Itemid=57 <p>Hand and Ox 46</p> <p>Katie DeGrazia</p> <p>Hand and Ox 46</p> <p>Katie DeGrazia</p> Units and Strikes 116 2010-09-22T21:16:35Z 2010-09-22T21:16:35Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=342:units-and-strikes-116&catid=39:life-in-the-quarries&Itemid=57 <p>Reserved for Aida Babic</p> <p>Reserved for Aida Babic</p> Henry Ives Cobb, Architect 2010-09-27T21:32:27Z 2010-09-27T21:32:27Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=355:henry-ives-cobb-architect&catid=41:built-to-last&Itemid=57 Administrator stleone@shorelineinternet.com <p style="text-align: left;">Open Topic</p> <p style="text-align: left;">Open Topic</p> The Immigrants 51 2010-09-22T21:05:02Z 2010-09-22T21:05:02Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=341:the-immigrants-51&catid=37:evolving-population&Itemid=57 201-16-AlberseK <p align="center">The Immigrants: An Evolving Population</p> <p>There were numerous differences that caused many issues throughout the immigration movement of the Stony Creek Area.  Cultures clashed and many values were not understood or accepted by others.  On top of this, many of the immigrants did not speak English, making it that much harder to adapt to the ways of America. </p> <p>The Temperance Movement, leading up to the 20th century, was a social movement involving the abstinence of alcohol.  This controversy was occurring parallel to the time period when immigration was thriving, and a great deal of these new citizens were to blame.  The Americans believed some immigrants, such as the Irish and German, were invading protestant America with their drunken ways.  Some citizens believed the Vatican was using immigration as part of a conspiracy to take over the country.  Due to increasing poverty in the United States, many turned to alcohol for comfort.  The beating of wives from their husbands was also an effect of alcohol consumption and women began protesting for a change. However, women did not have the right to vote on temperance issues, and sadly, had to suffer the drunken abuse. Alcohol was to blame for many of society's demerits, including prostitution, crime, violent strikes, and child neglect.  The American Temperance Society was formed in 1826 and benefited from a renewed interest in religion and morality. Within 12 years it claimed more than 8,000 local groups and over 1,500,000 members.</p> <p><img src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_473nrD5vEv8/SM4_WJX-DpI/AAAAAAAAAxI/WKM4I0Fubv4/s400/temperance-movement.jpg" border="0" /></p> <p>In 1901, the Protestant Meeting House, Village Library, and Gilley's store and house had burnt down in Stony Creek.  Locals responded by creating a 20-page brochure, named "Stony Creek's Plea," to raise funds to rebuild the buildings.  Inside the brochure, numerous services were listed that the new buildings would hold.  Quarry workers, islanders, and natives all banded together to help rebuild these historic buildings.</p> <p> </p> <p>References:</p> <p>Deford, Deborah, ed. <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Flesh and Stone: Stony Creek and the Age of Granite</span>. Stony Creek, CT: Leete's Island Books, 2000.</p> <p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temperance_movement">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temperance_movement</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1054.html">http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1054.html</a></p> <p> </p> <p align="center">The Immigrants: An Evolving Population</p> <p>There were numerous differences that caused many issues throughout the immigration movement of the Stony Creek Area.  Cultures clashed and many values were not understood or accepted by others.  On top of this, many of the immigrants did not speak English, making it that much harder to adapt to the ways of America. </p> <p>The Temperance Movement, leading up to the 20th century, was a social movement involving the abstinence of alcohol.  This controversy was occurring parallel to the time period when immigration was thriving, and a great deal of these new citizens were to blame.  The Americans believed some immigrants, such as the Irish and German, were invading protestant America with their drunken ways.  Some citizens believed the Vatican was using immigration as part of a conspiracy to take over the country.  Due to increasing poverty in the United States, many turned to alcohol for comfort.  The beating of wives from their husbands was also an effect of alcohol consumption and women began protesting for a change. However, women did not have the right to vote on temperance issues, and sadly, had to suffer the drunken abuse. Alcohol was to blame for many of society's demerits, including prostitution, crime, violent strikes, and child neglect.  The American Temperance Society was formed in 1826 and benefited from a renewed interest in religion and morality. Within 12 years it claimed more than 8,000 local groups and over 1,500,000 members.</p> <p><img src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_473nrD5vEv8/SM4_WJX-DpI/AAAAAAAAAxI/WKM4I0Fubv4/s400/temperance-movement.jpg" border="0" /></p> <p>In 1901, the Protestant Meeting House, Village Library, and Gilley's store and house had burnt down in Stony Creek.  Locals responded by creating a 20-page brochure, named "Stony Creek's Plea," to raise funds to rebuild the buildings.  Inside the brochure, numerous services were listed that the new buildings would hold.  Quarry workers, islanders, and natives all banded together to help rebuild these historic buildings.</p> <p> </p> <p>References:</p> <p>Deford, Deborah, ed. <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Flesh and Stone: Stony Creek and the Age of Granite</span>. Stony Creek, CT: Leete's Island Books, 2000.</p> <p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temperance_movement">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temperance_movement</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1054.html">http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1054.html</a></p> <p> </p> Rock Farms 25 2010-09-22T19:39:49Z 2010-09-22T19:39:49Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=340:rock-farms-25&catid=36:the-birth-of-an-industry&Itemid=57 201-16 Ortega,Alba <p>Reserved!</p> <p>Reserved!</p> Geology Terms 14 2010-09-22T01:48:25Z 2010-09-22T01:48:25Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=338:geology-terms-14&catid=35:in-the-beginning-&Itemid=57 <div style="color: #333333; font-family: Tahoma, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 76%; background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-color: #ffffff; line-height: 1.3em; margin: 8px;"> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><strong>Geology Terms</strong></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Transform Boundary</strong> - the location at which plates scrape past one another alone a strike-slip fault line</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span>* (ex: San Andreas fault of California: formed where the N.American and Pacific plates meet)</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Subduction Zone</strong>- the location at which lithospheric plates sink or are thrust into the Earth's interior</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Rift Zone</strong>- a zone of tension that acts to pull continental land masses or ocean basins apart</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*over time, rifts become deep valleys with elevations allowing sea water to enter; rifting can form new ocean basins;</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">it is unknown whether or not this pattern can create a large new ocean</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Quart</strong>z- one of the three minerals found in granite; made mostly of silicon and oxygen</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*medium to dark grey, translucent in color </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Potassium Feldspar</strong>- one of the three minerals found in granite; made mostly of potassium, silicon, aluminum, and oxygen</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*its reddish color comes mainly from traces of iron in its structure </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Plutons</strong>- masses of rock formed by magma that crystallizes underground</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*named for Pluto, the Greek god of the underworld </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Plate Tectonics</strong>- the theory that describes how lithospheric plates move</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*explains how lithospheric plates "bump" into one another eventually colliding which can produce high mountains</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: x-small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span>(ex: India is colliding with Asia, forcing the Himalayan mountain chain)</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Plagioclase Felspar</strong>- one of the three minerals found in granite; made mostly of sodium, calcium, silicon, aluminum, and oxygen</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Mineral</strong>- a naturally formed, non living solid that has a characteristic chemical composition and crystal structure</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*all minerals occur as crystals, but not all crystals occur as minerals (ex: rock candy is crystallized but not a mineral)</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Magma</strong>- molten rock</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: x-small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*</span><span style="font-size: x-small;">m</span><span style="font-size: x-small;">agma is usually less dense that its surroundings, and so it rises towards the Earth's surface, sometimes as quickly as 10ft per year </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Lithospheric Plate</strong> - plates of rock that form the outermost shell of the Earth; today six major and numerous plates form this shell</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*Stony Creek granite is part of the N.American plate; granite did not form in its present location but traveled from New England </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">on this drift </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Lava</strong>- magma that erupts on the Earth's surface; the vent from which the lava emerges is called a volcano</span><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Igneous Rock</strong>- rock formed by the cooling and solidification of magma or lava</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Granite</strong>- igneous rock that crystalizes underground and is composed of relatively large crystals of a specific suite of minerals</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Gondwanaland</strong>- composed of what we now know as Africa, South America, Australia, India, the southeastern United States, and parts of China and Europe, and names for a zone of specific rocks in India.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Gondwana</strong>- an enormous, ancient continental mass</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Crystal</strong>- a solid, bounded by flat (planar) faces, composed of a regular, highly ordered, three-dimensional arrangement of atoms</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*can be traced back to the Greek word </span><em><span style="font-size: x-small;">krystallos, </span></em><span style="font-size: x-small;">meaning "ice;"</span><em><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></em><span style="font-size: x-small;">internal order creates its symmetrical appearance</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Continental Drift</strong>- the movement of continents across the surface</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*constant slow motion for billions of years to date </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Collision Zone</strong>- the location at which one lithospheric plate collides with another</span></p> </div> <div style="color: #333333; font-family: Tahoma, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 76%; background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-color: #ffffff; line-height: 1.3em; margin: 8px;"> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><strong>Geology Terms</strong></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Transform Boundary</strong> - the location at which plates scrape past one another alone a strike-slip fault line</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span>* (ex: San Andreas fault of California: formed where the N.American and Pacific plates meet)</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Subduction Zone</strong>- the location at which lithospheric plates sink or are thrust into the Earth's interior</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Rift Zone</strong>- a zone of tension that acts to pull continental land masses or ocean basins apart</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*over time, rifts become deep valleys with elevations allowing sea water to enter; rifting can form new ocean basins;</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">it is unknown whether or not this pattern can create a large new ocean</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Quart</strong>z- one of the three minerals found in granite; made mostly of silicon and oxygen</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*medium to dark grey, translucent in color </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Potassium Feldspar</strong>- one of the three minerals found in granite; made mostly of potassium, silicon, aluminum, and oxygen</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*its reddish color comes mainly from traces of iron in its structure </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Plutons</strong>- masses of rock formed by magma that crystallizes underground</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*named for Pluto, the Greek god of the underworld </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Plate Tectonics</strong>- the theory that describes how lithospheric plates move</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*explains how lithospheric plates "bump" into one another eventually colliding which can produce high mountains</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: x-small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span>(ex: India is colliding with Asia, forcing the Himalayan mountain chain)</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Plagioclase Felspar</strong>- one of the three minerals found in granite; made mostly of sodium, calcium, silicon, aluminum, and oxygen</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Mineral</strong>- a naturally formed, non living solid that has a characteristic chemical composition and crystal structure</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*all minerals occur as crystals, but not all crystals occur as minerals (ex: rock candy is crystallized but not a mineral)</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Magma</strong>- molten rock</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: x-small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*</span><span style="font-size: x-small;">m</span><span style="font-size: x-small;">agma is usually less dense that its surroundings, and so it rises towards the Earth's surface, sometimes as quickly as 10ft per year </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Lithospheric Plate</strong> - plates of rock that form the outermost shell of the Earth; today six major and numerous plates form this shell</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*Stony Creek granite is part of the N.American plate; granite did not form in its present location but traveled from New England </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">on this drift </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Lava</strong>- magma that erupts on the Earth's surface; the vent from which the lava emerges is called a volcano</span><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Igneous Rock</strong>- rock formed by the cooling and solidification of magma or lava</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Granite</strong>- igneous rock that crystalizes underground and is composed of relatively large crystals of a specific suite of minerals</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Gondwanaland</strong>- composed of what we now know as Africa, South America, Australia, India, the southeastern United States, and parts of China and Europe, and names for a zone of specific rocks in India.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Gondwana</strong>- an enormous, ancient continental mass</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Crystal</strong>- a solid, bounded by flat (planar) faces, composed of a regular, highly ordered, three-dimensional arrangement of atoms</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*can be traced back to the Greek word </span><em><span style="font-size: x-small;">krystallos, </span></em><span style="font-size: x-small;">meaning "ice;"</span><em><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></em><span style="font-size: x-small;">internal order creates its symmetrical appearance</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Continental Drift</strong>- the movement of continents across the surface</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*constant slow motion for billions of years to date </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Collision Zone</strong>- the location at which one lithospheric plate collides with another</span></p> </div> Stanford White 2010-09-25T21:39:43Z 2010-09-25T21:39:43Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=352:stanford-white-201-06-pappasa&catid=41:built-to-last&Itemid=57 201-06-PappasA <p style="text-align: center;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: times new roman,times;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="color: #0000ff;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><span style="font-size: x-large;"><strong>Stanford White</strong></span></span></span><br /><br />Stanford Wh</span><span style="color: #000000;">ite was born November 9, 18<span style="color: #000000;">53; he was an American architect and a partner in the firm of McKim, Mead, and White in 1880.  This firm soon because the most famous in the country and was known for its Shingle-style country and seaside mansions.   As time progressed the firm led the trend to a Neoclassical architecture.  He was trained with Henry Richardson. White designed a series of houses for the wealthy, various public, religious, and institutional buildings. Whi<span style="color: #000000;">te created the </span></span></span></span></span><span style="font-family: times new roman,times;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: times new roman,times;">architecture for Madison Square Garden and the Washington Arch in New York.  He also designed jewelry</span></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: times new roman,times;">, interior, and furniture.  In 1906, White was murdered by the millionaire Harry Thaw ov</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: times new roman,times;">er his affair with Thaw's wife, Evelyn Nesbit. This lead<span style="color: #000000;"> to a trial which was known as the "Trial of the Century". <br /></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: times new roman,times;"><br /></span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: times new roman,times;"><br /><br /><img src="http://mylifeofcrime.files.wordpress.com/2007/05/stanford-white.jpg" border="0" alt="Stanford White" width="187" height="216" /><br /><br />Sources:<br /></span></span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: times new roman,times;">"Biography of Stanford White." <em>Essortment Articles: Free Online Articles on Health, Science, Education & More..</em> Web. 27 Sept. 2010. http://www.essortment.com/all/stanfordwhiteb_rbyy.htm .</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: center;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: times new roman,times;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="color: #0000ff;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><span style="font-size: x-large;"><strong>Stanford White</strong></span></span></span><br /><br />Stanford Wh</span><span style="color: #000000;">ite was born November 9, 18<span style="color: #000000;">53; he was an American architect and a partner in the firm of McKim, Mead, and White in 1880.  This firm soon because the most famous in the country and was known for its Shingle-style country and seaside mansions.   As time progressed the firm led the trend to a Neoclassical architecture.  He was trained with Henry Richardson. White designed a series of houses for the wealthy, various public, religious, and institutional buildings. Whi<span style="color: #000000;">te created the </span></span></span></span></span><span style="font-family: times new roman,times;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: times new roman,times;">architecture for Madison Square Garden and the Washington Arch in New York.  He also designed jewelry</span></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: times new roman,times;">, interior, and furniture.  In 1906, White was murdered by the millionaire Harry Thaw ov</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: times new roman,times;">er his affair with Thaw's wife, Evelyn Nesbit. This lead<span style="color: #000000;"> to a trial which was known as the "Trial of the Century". <br /></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: times new roman,times;"><br /></span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: times new roman,times;"><br /><br /><img src="http://mylifeofcrime.files.wordpress.com/2007/05/stanford-white.jpg" border="0" alt="Stanford White" width="187" height="216" /><br /><br />Sources:<br /></span></span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: times new roman,times;">"Biography of Stanford White." <em>Essortment Articles: Free Online Articles on Health, Science, Education & More..</em> Web. 27 Sept. 2010. http://www.essortment.com/all/stanfordwhiteb_rbyy.htm .</span></span></span></span></p>