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Stony Creek Granite Sites Foundations of America - QU 201 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=section&id=16&Itemid=68 Fri, 17 Nov 2017 17:31:28 +0000 Joomla! 1.5 - Open Source Content Management en-gb SONY Building Sold for $1.1 billion http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=754:sony-building-sold-for-11-billion&catid=58:commercial-structures&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=754:sony-building-sold-for-11-billion&catid=58:commercial-structures&Itemid=68 Olayan America and Chelsfield Group to buy 550 Madison Ave. for $1.4 billion to $1.5 billion

By JOSEPH DE AVILA April 25, 2016 8:45 p.m. ET A pair of international property investors said Monday that they had bought the Sony Building, the Midtown icon known for its distinctive notched Chippendale top. Olayan America, a subsidiary of Saudi investment conglomerate Olayan Group, along with Chelsfield Group, a London-based property-investment company, agreed to buy the 850,000-square-foot office building for $1.4 billion to $1.5 billion, a person familiar with the transaction said. Chelsfield Group will be a minority partner in the deal, this person said. The buyers purchased the Philip Johnson-designed tower, at 550 Madison Ave., from the Chetrit Group, a real-estate firm, which bought the Sony Building in 2013 for $1.1 billion. “We are delighted to partner once again with Olayan on a trophy property in a world-class city,” said Elliott Bernerd, founder and joint chairman of Chelsfield. ]]> stleone@shorelineinternet.com (Joseph De Avila) Commercial Structures Mon, 25 Apr 2016 13:45:00 +0000 Saint Mary's Church (New Haven, CT) http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=705:saint-marys-church-new-haven-ct&catid=57:institutions&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=705:saint-marys-church-new-haven-ct&catid=57:institutions&Itemid=68

In 1832 the Church of Christ formed by the Irish population of New Haven was founded as the first Catholic Church in New Haven, and the second in Connecticut.  In 1848 a fire destroyed Christ’s Church on York Street and Milford Turnpike Road in New Haven.  Father James McDermot was a priest of the Diocese of Boston and went to Connecticut and became the resident pastor of New Haven.  When father McDermot first moved to Connecticut he was assigned to ministry duty for New Haven, Bridgeport, Norwalk, Derby, Waterbury, Meriden, and Middletown (Western Connecticut.)  This church was built for the approximately 200 Catholic residents of New Haven.  When the church burned these people had nowhere to go, so, in 1948 Father Phillip O’ Reilly turned the Congregational Meeting House of New Haven into a catholic church dedicated to St. Mary.

Although most of the stone that Saint Mary’s church is made up of is trap rock from West Rock in New Haven, Stony Creek Granite was used for a number of small jobs around the church.  For example, the window jambs, doorjambs, sills, stings, belts, water tables, and quoins are all composed of Stony Creek Granite from the Granite Island Quarry. Stony Creek Granite is composed of potassium feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, quartz, and biotite.  Each of these materials contributes to the pink, white, brown, and black mosaic of color that is Stony Creek Granite.

St. Mary’s is one of many ecclesiastical buildings designed by architect James J. Murphy.  Murphy was an architect who dedicated most of his career in the 19th century to New England Roman Catholic churches.  Murphy, like many of the parishioners of St. Mary’s church, was an Irish American that emigrated from where he was born, in his case Tipperary, Ireland, to the United States.  Upon arriving in the states in 1852 Murphy got his first job at a firm owned by a fellow Irish architect, Patrick C. Keely.  Murphy later went on to marry Keely’s sister in-law and eventually he became a partner in the firm, and it was renamed “Keely & Murphy.”  Keely and Murphy’s firm only lasted from the mid 1800’s to 1875, and after the firm disbanded Murphy continued working at his own pace from his own practice.   In 1876 Murphy applied to the American Institute of Architects. Though Murphy had offices in Boston, Massachusetts, and Providence, Rhode Island, he designed buildings all over Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Maine.

In the 1880’s and 1890’s Murphy hired his nephew, Ambrose Murphy to shadow and apprentice him while he worked.  In 1900 Ambrose Murphy went on to partner with Frank Hindle forming their own firm Murphy and Hindle.  In 1907 Murphy and Hindle added a partner, Benjamin Wright, and the firm became known Murphy, Hindle, and Wright Architects. Murphy, Hindle & Wright Architects broke up 1917, due to the difficulties of maintaining a business in a war torn country, and the men each went their separate ways.  Many of Murphy, Hindle & Wright Architects buildings, like James Murphy’s Saint Mary’s Church in New Haven, were of the Gothic Architectural style.

St. Mary’s church was completed in 1874 and is considered gothic revival style architecture.  Over the years experimentation and experience have forced architects to vary the characteristics of Gothic architecture slightly.  Some may argue that Saint Mary’s is Romanesque, however it is in fact Gothic Revival.  Gothic architecture is similar to Romanesque architecture however, there are some definite variations.  Gothic architecture is characterized by pointed arches, flying buttresses, and ribbed vaulting.  The leafy capitals on the interior of the church also hint to its Gothic origin.  Gothic architecture deviates from Romanesque architecture mainly in its use o the concept of space.  Where Romanesque architecture embraces the heavy effect and delimited areas, Gothic architecture focuses on a more spacious effect of lightness and open space. Gothic architecture also is much more laminated than the dark Romanesque churches and for this reason has many more windows and much bigger windows, once again relating back to the concept of space.  Gothic churches were usually bigger and therefore were more prestigious.

The reason for building the new St. Mary’s church, in a prestigious neighborhood, was because the community’s Catholic population was increasing steadily and this allowed for the most social mobility.  Father O’Brien hired James J. Murphy with the understanding that St. Mary’s be the most beautiful large Gothic church in Connecticut.  It was for this reason that the parish purchased land between Hillhouse Avenue and Temple Street, the current location of St. Mary’s church.  Hillhouse Avenue was New Haven’s finest residential neighborhoods, and for this reason St. Mary’s represented the high hopes of New Haven’s struggling catholic families.

Since the majority of the parishioners at the Church of Saint Mary were mainly immigrants and struggling working class families, it was difficult to fund the building of the prestigious new church.  There was a debt of $150,000 that needed to be paid off, by the congregation, and for this reason, St Mary’s went more than a century without a steeple.  Regardless of the fact that it had a topless stone tower without a spire, it was a great example of the devotion of the Roman Catholics in the city.

Saint Mary’s church had seen many pastors and curates, but arguably one of the most influential of these was Father Michael J McGivney.  Father McGivney on October 2, 1882 organized the Knights of Columbus, the world largest Catholic fraternity, in the basement of Saint Mary’s Church.  McGivney’s intention for starting the Knights of Columbus was so that the widows and children of working men, and the society in general would have protection and help guiding their faith.  The Knights of Columbus was also established to give financial aid, mutual aid and assistance to its needy families.  The Knights of Columbus has grown from just a few members in the basement of the Church of Saint Mary, in New Haven to 1.8 million members in the United States, Canada, the Philippines, Mexico, Poland, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Panama, the Bahamas, the Virgin Islands, Cuba, Guatemala, and Guam.  McGivney’s impact on the world is also evident in the many portraits and statues made in his honor; there is currently a statue of McGivney with a Stony Creek Granite base in the Smithsonian.  Due to his numerous contributions to the Catholic world, and his starting of the Knights of Columbus, Father McGivney is currently being looked at by a postulator to potentially become beatified (blessed) or even possibly become a saint.  A postulator is a priest or church official who is responsible for preparing and presenting enough information for a plea for a deceased person to become beatified or canonized.   In 1982 Father McGivney’s grave was moved from Waterbury, CT to Saint Mary’s Church, and it is now a popular site for people, especially Knights of Columbus, to come and pray for his canonization.

In 1990, “The Father Michael J. McGivney Center for Cancer Care” at Saint Raphael’s hospital in New Haven opened as a tribute to McGivney’s tremendous impact on the New Haven area. The Knights of Columbus has over the years provided more than three million dollars to the hospital.  A statue of McGivney currently stands in front of the building as does a plaque that reads “The Father Michael J. McGivney Cancer Center-Hamden Campus is named in honor of the founder of the Knights of Columbus, whose commitment to charity and to caring for the needy is an enduring inspiration to the Hospital of St. Raphael.” 

St. Raphael’s was constructed in 1907, founded by the Sisters of Charity of Saint Elizabeth, a community of nuns who’s main focus is using charitable institutions to care for the poor and the sick, and also teaching the ways of the lord. Dr. William F. Verdi, along with other physicians, invited the sisters to come to New Haven to start a hospital.  It was the intention of the doctors that the hospital be a place where both medical professionals and patients could work and receive care regardless of race, creed, or color.   The hospital was meant to be a place that would extend charity to the poor, needy, and sick.  The hospital was named Saint Raphael’s because he is one of the more common archangels across many faiths.   Raphael in Hebrew means “God has healed,” and Raphael is the patron saint of healing and of the sick.

Saint Raphael’s has a very rich history.  Once the hospital was completed it began to progress, and has continued doing so yearly.  Just a few years after construction, the hospital opened a pharmacy, an ambulance service, and a nursing school. In the 1920’s Saint Raphael’s opened the Saint Rita’s wing (named for the patron saint of impossible causes and hopeless dreams.)  In the 1940’s Saint Raphael’s was a training site for World War II Cadet Nurse Corps.  Saint Raphael’s had another first in the 1950’s when it opened Southern New England’s first radiation therapy centers.  The firsts continued into the 1960’s when Saint Raphael’s became the first Catholic hospital in the United States to establish a department of pastoral care.  The pastoral department consists of chaplains that represent many faiths, and the purpose of the department is to educate and provide spiritual resources to the ill, and promote hope for healing.  In the 1980’s this hospital was the first in outpatient chemotherapy/transfusion unit in Connecticut. The hospital continues to be a top notch treatment facility open to all regardless of race, color, or creed.

Both Saint Mary’s Church and Saint Raphael’s hospital help promote unity and tolerance in New Haven.  Both facilities were built with the understanding that America was a place filled with many people from many different backgrounds, both cultural and socioeconomic, and both of these places understood that no one should be ostracized because of their background.

Saint Mary’s continues today to be a widely diverse congregation.  Many families of the immigrants that moved to New Haven years ago when Saint Mary’s was first built are still parishioners at Saint Mary’s because of its beautiful atmosphere and the sense of community it exudes.

For more information:

DeFord, Deborah. Flesh and Stone: Stony Creek and the Age of Granite. Stony Creek, CT: Stony Creek Granite Workers Celebration/Leete's Island, 2000. Print.














Institutions Tue, 08 Nov 2011 23:47:55 +0000
Waterbury Union Station http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=649:waterbury-union-station&catid=56:public-buildings&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=649:waterbury-union-station&catid=56:public-buildings&Itemid=68 Waterbury Station

West of downtown Waterbury at the intersection of Meadow and Grand street stands a tower, a landmark to New Englanders traveling on I-84 or looking to traverse on the New York, New Haven, and Hartford rail road. Covering 2.4 acres and standing at two-hundred and forty feet the aforementioned tower belonged to no other than Waterbury station.                                        


(Waterbury train station)

To delve into the history of Waterbury station one needs to start with the structure itself.  There are four sections to the building including two wings, the main block, and the clock tower.

All brick are laid on common bond on a Stony Creek granite foundation, at the roofline is a roll molding of terra cotta. The two wings have a tiled hip roof and stick out from the main block.  Both wings are narrower than other parts of the building and are similar to each other.  The main block is three two story round arched window openings, which were filled in near the top.  The main block is outlined in terra cotta with a vine design, bordered by pearl, egg and dart, and anthemion molding which are all architectural ornaments.  Spacing them are our round medallions of two rings of raised radial brick and a raised ring of fasces molding.  Atop is a course of terra cotta round-arched corbel table topped by egg-and-dart, a frieze with cherubs and projecting leaf molding. The level above has a series of small rectangular windows, three above each arch and one above each medallion. At the roofline is a cornice which is typically any horizontal decorative molding that crowns any building or furniture element similar to the one below but more complex, with carved modillions, a fluted frieze and wide carved cyma molding.  Also inside the building resides a printing press that was added to the northern part of the building for paper circulation.  The printing press is architecturally sympathetic and stays mostly out of the way, not disturbing the rest of the building.


The clock tower was not included in the original blueprints of waterbury station.  An executive for the railroad traveled to Italy and upon his return he insisted on a bell tower.  The tower is modeled after Torre Del Mangia in Sienna Italy.  Along with gargoyles the tower houses the largest clock in New England with sixteen feet in diameter and 5 feet tall roman numerals.  A bell was added in 1916.  Architectural historian Carroll Meeks in The Railroad Station: An Architectural History, states that the bell was chosen as a deliberate rebuke to architectural amateurs such as the rail executive.

The interior has made a couple changes over the years.  The main block and north wing have had a second story added in the seventies.  In the new offices on the second floor the original vaulted ceiling remains with large light colored tiles in herringbone pattern.  The windows contain the same lavish decorations as the exterior.  With two bands of terra cotta done with leaves and pearl molding.  The south wings interior which was originally a restaurant remained in use as a waiting room for passengers including brass ticket windows, a long mission style wooden bench, iron radiator grill, and marble baseboards and sills.

The history of the tower is nearly as rich as the structure itself.  Built in 1909 for $332,000 by Mckim, Mead, and White for the New York, New Haven, and Hartford Rail road.  In the early twentieth century Waterbury still growing worked with New Haven during the urban renewal project, to make room for the larger station.  Streets were adjusted and buildings demolished leaving the at that time new station and a small park.  The stations extravagant size and decor symbolized the city’s prosperity mostly through the brass industry and the importance of the railroad system to it.

         In the summer of 1909 the station welcomed passengers for the first time.  In its hight of activity the station served as many as sixty-six passenger trains a day during the peak of traffic.  A few years later the American Brass Company another large part what makes up Waterbury Connecticut, was constructed across the street from the station.  The American Brass Company includes a lot of the same architectural concepts that are included in Waterbury station.

The rail continued as an inner city service until the city declined the it in the late twentieth century.  In the seventies a newspaper that came to be known as The Republican American owned by William J. Pape occupied a portion of the station, designing it for its own uses.  At that time the south wing was designated for Metro North passengers.

Today the building’s interior is closed to travelers and its purpose is to house The Republican American. The clock tower still serves as one of Connecticut’s great landmarks and the platform outside the station continues to be a boarding spot for passengers daily.





Public Buildings Wed, 02 Nov 2011 02:23:53 +0000
Mother Goose http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=626:mother-goose&catid=59:sculpture&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=626:mother-goose&catid=59:sculpture&Itemid=68

Mother Goose located on 5th Avenue in Central Park is made out of Stony Creek and Deer Isle granites. It was sculptured by Fred George Richard Roth in 1938. It is a 60 inch granite sculpture. Tourists may locate Mother Goose’s sculpture by the stairway entrance of Rumsey Playfield. When a person hears of “Mother Goose” some may automatically think of the nursery rhymes she is associated with. Carved at the sides of the sculpture are other childhood characters such as, Humpty Dumpty, Old King Cole, Little Jack Horner, Mother Hubbard, Little Bo Beep, and Mary had a Little Lamb.

Frederick George Richard Roth born on April 28th, 1872 – dies May 21st, 1944 was an animalier and a well-known American sculptor from Brooklyn, New York. He studied in Europe as well as in the US. Roth also studied animals and their natural habitats; he was well known for portraying animals in his sculptures. He was a professional working sculptor by 1900, and in 1906 he was elected to the National Academy of Design, an “honorary association of American artists.” He was also the president of the National Sculpture Society in 1910, an organization to promote the American sculptors. Along with his success, he also won awards for his work in the Pan-American Exposition, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, and the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. He was the head of the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation; most of his sculptors are located in Central Park Zoo. Roth also sculpted the Rolling Donkey, Chum, Short Horn Bull Dancing Bear, Dancing Goat, Balto, Polar Bear, Sophie Irene Loeb, Kit Carson monument, Bronze Lion, and Horse Tamer, and many more; most of his sculptures were all animals. Of these, Mother Goose was the only sculpture that was made out of Stony Creek Granite. When the Zoo was redesigned, some of the larger sculptured animals were designated to other zoos.  Since some of Mother Goose’s nursery rhymes talked about animals, perhaps Roth thought that it would have been a good idea to place the Mother Goose sculpture around the Central Park Zoo.

Mother Goose is an imaginary figure of nursery rhymes and fairy tale literature. Nursery rhymes such as, “Baa Baa Black Sheet,” “Hickory Dickory Dock,” “Humpty Dumpty,” “Jack and Jill,” and etc. are all written by Mother Goose. Mother Goose rhymes are in the public domain, and often appear in children’s productions such as Barney & Friends, a hit TV show that aired in 1992 that set a huge impact to the children. The TV program conveyed learning throughout songs and dance with optimistic approaches; it also taught them nursery rhymes. In this episode she states that she’s “been around for many many years, for a very very very long time.” Mother Hubbard is said to be carved at the side of the Mother Goose sculpture. Around 1590, Edmund Spenser, an English poet, publish a satire titled, Mother Hubbard’s tale, which incorporated fairy stories of Madame d’Aulony, a French writer. There is no evidence, but there are “doubtful reports” by Eleanor Early, a Boston traveler and history writer, that Mother Goose was real and her name was either Elizabeth Foster Goose or Mary Goose; she was the wife of Isaac Goose. She had six children with him. When he passed away, she went out to live with her eldest daughter, who married a publisher named, Thomas Fleet. Early says that Goose would sing to her grandchildren and other children all day. From there, her son-in-law made the songs into nursery rhymes. There are other speculations like in The Real Personages of Mother Goose, Katherine Elwes Thomas believes that based on ancient legends, Mother Goose was wife of Robert II of France.

Stony Creek Granite is known to be used for architectural designs. They are used for “high end quality” projects. Exterior and interior designs, they are used in restaurants, hotels, casinos, and fountains; for all of the projects that stony creek granite is used for, they are known to give a “long lasting and beautiful shine.” (StonePly)











Sculpture Mon, 24 Oct 2011 08:01:14 +0000
Penns Grove High School Vietnam War Memorial http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=622:penns-grove-high-school-vietnam-war-memorial&catid=54:monuments-a-parks&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=622:penns-grove-high-school-vietnam-war-memorial&catid=54:monuments-a-parks&Itemid=68 Penns Grove High School Vietnam War Memorial 


‎"This rock is a seed, it’s the foundation, the foundation of America" (Leone, 2011). First extracted in 1858 by Benjamin Green, Stony Creek granite has become an important part of America. Seen in many famous architectural, municipal, and cultural pieces throughout the US, Stony Creek granite has proved to many designers and architectures why it is the best stone to work with. Known for its strength, unusual yet breath taking appearance, and reliability, the granite has been used in the base of the Statue of Liberty, the building of the Penn Station, and the library steps of Quinnipiac University.

  Upon its discovery by Green, the Stony Creek granite quarry was divided into three quarries as time passed. The Stony Creek Red Granite Company, Norcross Brothers and Guilford’s Beattie Quarry offered different types of the Stony Creek Granite. The Stony Creek Red Grantie Company’s quarry contained the granite of outstanding quality. This specific Granite can be seen in the post office area in Grand Central Station located in New York.

Although the Stony Creek Granite quarry was divided into three different companies, each company offered different thing. The Norcross Compan was known for being able to create large blocks of the crude stone. For the West Point Monument, Norcross had to blast a block 20 x 50 square feet long and weighed 75,000 pounds. A boat and then train transferred the block to West point.

Located in Salem County New Jersey, resides a small town Penns Grove. With a population of only 5,000 residents, Penns Grove is located near the Delaware River and the Carney Point Townships. Despite its small size, Penns Grove does have plenty of diversity. Consisting of 48.5% Caucasian, 39.7% black and .37$ Native American. Although Penn Grove’s diversity is an important factor, 29.1% of its population considered to be impoverished. The main schools in this town are Penns Grove Middle School and High school.

altIn 2010 Alumni of Penns Grove High School unveiled the Vietnam War Memorial on the High Schools grounds in honor of their fallen classmates. Sculpted entirely of Stony Creek granite, the one of a kind monument currently sits under the shade of a few trees on the lawn of the former High School. Standing at approximately 4 feet tall with a slanted top smooth top and rough unfinished bottom, the monument has the names of all of the soldier graduates of Penns Grove High School. Beneath their names read, “to honor their sacrifice in Vietnam."

  After being approved for allowing of the building of the monument in March 2009, Nick Santore, former principal and alumni of Penns Grove kicked the project in gear. Mike Devonshire, an architect and alumni of Penns Grove High School, derived 6 different possible schematics for the monument for Santore to choose from. “ ‘It was a concept that came out a couple years ago from a conversation I had with Mr. Santore,’ said Devonshire. ‘I did some sketches and he picked the one he liked and we went with it’. ” The design was to have the sculpted and shaped part of the rock emerging from crude rock on the bottom to represent the lives of the soldiers. “All these guys were cut off in mid-creation,” said Devonshire. Just like the monument, the soldiers lives were cut short; all between the ages of 18- 25 the young men risked their lives to save their country, but died in the line of fire. These men were supposed to go onto college, marry, start a family; however, that was all taken away from them when they decided to stand for their country’s rights.


Once the design had been chosen the project the next step was to raise the money to fund the project. First starting with only a $1,000 donation from one of the father’s of fallen soldiers, Santore began his hunt for donations to fund the Memorial. It could be seen that this project impacted many lives of people in the community; over 180 people donated to the cause because .  Both Santore and Devonshire shared a close connection to most of the men listed on the monument, thus causing them to feel more connected to not only the Memorial but also the entire process that led up to the final unveiling of the Vietnam War Memorial. “ ‘It’s a tribute to these guys,’ said Devonshire. ‘You have to think about all the stuff that we have been able to go through our entire lives, just think about it, because they never got to experience it.’ ” Other groups that participated in the raising of funds were Penns Grove Veterans of Foreign Wars and Penns Grove–Carneys Point Regional School District. Once all of the funds were raised, the sculpting of the design for the stone was place in full effect.

When discussing the selection of the stone to use for the Memorial, Devonshire said that without a doubt he knew that he wanted to use Stony Creek granite. The stones impressive beauty of its unoriginal mixture of colors and strength qualities captured the attention of the architect. “ ‘When it came time to choose a material, there was no guessing. I wanted granite from Stony Creek, it is an amazing, beautiful stone,’ ” (Devonshire, 2010).

  Stony Creek granite can be traced back to 600 million years old and can withstand temperatures up to 1300ºF or 704.4ºC. Formed from the cooling of magma under the Connecticut River years ago, the granite laid there for years solidifying. It wasn’t until the last ice age when the Connecticut River shifted that allowed for the revealing of the rose and white quartz and black granite to be revealed, thus deputing the Stony Creek granite.

  After the creation of the railroads, stony creek granite could be transported to different parts of the country thus increasing it trade profits. As the mining production of the quarry began, many immigrants were provided with jobs. A typical employee of the Stony Creek Quarry would be of either the Irish, Scottish, or Spanish descent. Back in the early 1900 it was not easy to quarry the precious granite, which is why the process required so many employees. Over 1,800 men would be employed for just one of the quarries. Before the help of machinery, one had to clean and remove any loose soil surrounding the crude rock and then drilled holes by hand into the rock. These holes were then filled with dynamite powder and blown apart into typically 20 ton sized block. Sometimes the explosion would result in the formation of smaller pieces of stones that were futile; however, employees tried to prevent this from happening as little as possible. One of the largest pieces of stony creek granite every formed stood at approximately 127 feet tall. Today hydraulic drills are used and the quality of the dynamites has greatly improved. Also the amount of stone that would have taken employees to cut in three years can be completed in less than a month due to today’s technology.


After a year and half of working on the Vietnam War Memorial, it was ready for its public debut on September 18. Students, members of the community, and families of the soldiers gathered together to pay tribute to the lives of the soldiers. Siblings, parents and other relatives to the soldiers spoke during the ceremony. Edward Wetzel, the younger brother to the late Charles Wetzel thanked everyone who worked to bring the memorial to life.  He stated, “I am impressed by the sensitivity implicit in the design of the memorial. The partly finished stone fittingly symbolizes the unfinished lives of these young men. They never had a chance to really experience the many joys and sorrows of a full life. They shall remain forever unfinished” (Wetzel, 2010).


Names of Soldiers from uppermost left corner to right 1) 2) Henry Robert Hocknell Jr. 3) Charles Wetzel  4)Tommy Rogers 5)Robert Allen Layton 6)Charles Wetzel 7) Tommy Rogers 8) Bobby Ferelli










Monuments & Parks Thu, 20 Oct 2011 22:41:39 +0000
Hudson River Bridge http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=620:hudson-river-bridge&catid=55:bridges&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=620:hudson-river-bridge&catid=55:bridges&Itemid=68 reserved for MJLuque

Bridges Tue, 18 Oct 2011 23:12:15 +0000
How to Upload Images for Articles http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=418:how-to-upload-images-for-articles&catid=73:master-list-of-sites&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=418:how-to-upload-images-for-articles&catid=73:master-list-of-sites&Itemid=68 How to Submit your Stony Creek articles for QU201. Login required.
You cannot copy and paste your article and pictures from MS Word directly into Foundations of America. It doesn't work that way. Read More instructions on how to upload images.

sleone@quinnipiac.edu (Prof. Leone) Master List of Sites Sat, 06 Nov 2010 14:34:48 +0000
The Arsenal (Central Park) http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=638:the-arsenal-central-park&catid=56:public-buildings&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=638:the-arsenal-central-park&catid=56:public-buildings&Itemid=68 Marijan Jurac

QU201-Prof. Leone


Stony Creek Granite is not only a stone rich in color and texture, but a time vessel rich in history.  The stone, about 600 million years old, brings us back to landmarks, each one with a specific story.  The landmarks all built strong and sturdy with a Stone that was built to last and stand out with its unique and unusual color.  Important landmarks and buildings were and still are built of Stony Creek Granite, weather it be a small portion or a whole monument or building, Stony Creek Granite has found its way into History and still lives on.

One of many important buildings located in New York City that are made with Stony Creek Granite is The Arsenal Building located on 64th St. and 5th Ave. in Central Park.  Currently the headquarters of New York City’s Department of Parks & Recreation and the Central Park Zoo, the building outdates Central Park by about ten years.  Designed by architect Martin E. Thompson, the building was given the look of a medieval fortress built.  Built in 1853 with stucco and crenulated cornice, the building stands out from other buildings in the park.  It greets its visitors with huge cast-iron gates.  Getting the name “The Arsenal”, the building was originally made to serve as a storage supply for ammunitions used by the New York State Militia.  However, the building was seized from the military by the State 3 years later.   Shortly thereafter The City bought The Arsenal for $275,000 and stripped the building of its ammunitions and military equipment.

After the building’s short military term, the only question left was, how would this building serve the city next?  Many New Yorkers questioned the building and often criticized its design. One of many critics was George Templeton Strong, a well known diarist, said in 1859, “I hope this eyesore would soon be destroyed by an accidental fire”.  Despite the critics The Arsenal building went on to serve New York City for decades to come playing several different roles.  The building served as a police precinct in 1857 weather bureau, makeshift zoo in 1871 and most importantly the first National Museum of natural history from 1869-1877.  Animals donated by P.T. Barnum, August Belmont and civil war general William Tecumseh Sherman were held in cages in the basement of the building that could be seen by the public.  The Animal display was also short lived due to a dangerous and unsanitary atmosphere.  In 1870 architect, Jacob Wrey Mold, who was the designer of creations around the park, remodeled the interior of the building.

During the period of 1914-1924 The Arsenal Building was reaching its breaking point as it began to deteriorate.  With missing bricks, broken windows, and too many structural defects The Arsenal was mocked by newspaper headlines as a “Neglected Landmark”.  The building’s last hopes were answered when the city decided to invest $75,000 in The Arsenal’s a restoration process.  Included in the restoration were a clock, extra storage space, and a conference room.  A secret passage and an underground spring were discovered during the reconstruction.  The secret passage way was said to be a secret exit for ammunition and arms if they were need in emergency.  Along with the reconstruction was the insertion of Stony Creek Granite, used for the entrance steps of the front entrance of the building.  Though the Granite was not polished but rough, it made a very appealing staircase to say the least.  While functionally providing traction for pedestrians, the entry steps were expected to be the most used and most worn part of the building.  Could Robert Moses have seen Stony Creek granite as more useful in strength than in appeal since he didn’t use the granite somewhere on the building where it could have been polished and flaunted its unique pink color?

During the last renovation in 1934 done by Robert Moses who was Born in New Haven, CT in 1888.  Robert Moses was the “master builder” during the mid 20th century. In many of his works he used Stony Creek Granite.  Did Robert Moses’s connection with Stony Creek Granite influence him to use it on the renovation of the Arsenal?  It must have, because he used Stony Creek Granite before 1934 in other magnificent works such as the Triborough Bridge, Queens Zoo, Astoria Park, Downing Stadium and many others.  After the reconstruction The Arsenal was the first Park Department Headquarters, which also served as the base for Robert Moses.  Moses became Commissioner of the Parks and Recreation offices held in the Arsenal.  The parks’ acreage tripled and the children’s parks increased by 658.  Today, the Arsenal building is still serving the city.  Although it is not holding ammunitions and arms, helping the city predict the weather, or exhibiting natural history.  The Arsenal is helping New York look forward to new reconstructions of NYC parks to better the community and city.  As the Arsenal still stands strong it can be written and savored in history that Stony Creek Granite contributes to that strength.


  • http://www.nycgovparks.org/sub_about/parks_history/history_arsenal_brochure/history_arsenal_brochure_pg2.html
  • http://www.centralparknyc.org/visit/things-to-see/south-end/arsenal.html
  • http://www.centralpark.com/guide/attractions/arsenal.html



Public Buildings Tue, 01 Nov 2011 18:47:58 +0000
Head House Philadelphia and Reading RR http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=632:head-house-philadelphia-and-reading-rr&catid=58:commercial-structures&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=632:head-house-philadelphia-and-reading-rr&catid=58:commercial-structures&Itemid=68           Original P&R Railroad Coal Locomotive


            The Reading Terminal is a complex of buildings in Philadelphia Pennsylvania in the Market East section of Center City. The complex consists of three different building: the head house, the train shed, and the Reading Terminal Market. The complex opened up in 1893 and was noted as the largest single span arched roof structure in the world during the late 19th Century. Today, the train shed remains the world’s oldest such structure and is a historic part of the Philadelphia area.

            The Philadelphia and Reading Railroad was built as a coal road, spanning from Pottsville, Pennsylvania to Philadelphia. By the 1890’s the company was able to extend its rail lines while acquiring control of other railroads in the area. In the year 1889 the Reading Railroad announced that it was going to construct a new train depot for the Philadelphia services on the corner of 12th and Market Streets. In the plans, the construction would include a train shed and an eight story head house. By this time it had more than 2,000 miles of rail line which terminated in Philadelphia, at four located passenger terminals.

Reading Terminal in Philadelphia

            The Reading Terminal consisted of two major buildings; the head house, which contained passenger facilities and offices, and a train shed, both of which were separated by a lobby. The eight story head house was designed by Francis H. Kimball in an Italianate style and was constructed by the Wilson Brothers & Company. The front of the head house, facing Market Street, was constructed using granite, brick, and terracotta finished with a copper cornice. The head house was built as a means to contain passenger waiting rooms, ticket office, baggage room, dining halls as well has being the corporate headquarters for the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company. The lobby was 50 feet in depth while extending the entire width of the main building. But the real engineering marvel of the entire project was the train shed with its three centered arch roof. In one single span it covered the whole width of the tracts which consisted of eight platforms and 13 tracks. The roof was made out of wrought iron and was required to be double rolled before installation. During this time period, the terminal was the widest single span train shed in the world. The Reading shed remains as the oldest long span roof structure in the world as well as the sole surviving single span arched train shed in the United States. 
       P&R Railroad Trainshed                                                                                               

  The train shed, which was located behind the head house, extended north to Arch Street. When the train shed was constructed, the track came into the shed 25 feet above the street level. Since the train shed wasn’t even with the street level, the ground floor was constructed into a market hall which housed two markets. “Descended from Philadelphia's original market, founded in 1693, their importance to the city was recognized, and the occupants of the old markets were transferred to the new market hall without interruption to business, even before construction of the headhouse.” To this day, the Reading Terminal Market remains Philadelphia's principal farmers' market.

            The Philadelphia and Reading Railroad was one of the first railroads that was built in the United States. Because fuel was transitioning from wood to fuel, the railroad was an instant success in the industry upon its 1893 completion. In the following years the company began to acquire most of the railroads in the Schuylkill Valley and Pennsylvania’s vast Coal Region. One of the biggest ventures that led to the railroads success was Port Richmond in Philadelphia. It was constructed as a port to load ships and barges with coal to sell as an exported commodity. This port was noted as the largest privately owned tidewater terminal in the world. Eventually, the P&R railroad created a company called the Philadelphia & Reading Coal & Iron Company to buy up coal mines in the Coal Region. Because of this expansion, the P&R railroad gained almost full control of the coal market from mining and was considered the largest company in the world in the early 1870’s. The company was seen as one of the first true conglomerates in the world through its successful plan to gain control of many rail lines in the Northeast. In 1879, the Reading acquired the North Pennsylvania Railroad which gave them the ability to prosper from the booming steel industry in the Lehigh Valley. It further expanded by gaining access to New York City from the newly controlled Delaware and Bound Brook Railroad as well as the construction of the Port Reading Railroad. This allowed for the direct delivery of coal to New York City by rail and barge instead of the former delivery which required long trips by ships from Port Richmond up to New York Harbor.                                              
          In 1890 the P&R railroad realized that revenues could increase by transforming the historical coal railroad into a trunk railroad, or a passenger railroad. It was able to gain control of the Lehigh Valley Railroad, Central Railroad of New Jersey, and the Boston and Maine Railroad. The railroad was close to becoming a true Trunk load rail line, but was unable to be certified because of the efforts of people who were against the competition that it would impose on the northeastern railroad business. From this point on, the Pennsylvania and Reading Railroad was relegated to a regional railroad for the rest of the company’s history.                                         

Editorial of P&R Railroad Terminal

           On November 23, 1971 the P&R railroad filed for bankruptcy due to the failure of regional rail lines which the company depended on since the coal business died off over the years. Upon the year 1976 the P&R railroad died off completely and many of the company’s assets were transferred to the federal financed Conrail while the commuter rail lines were acquired by SEPTA. The last train left the station in November of 1984 and a new station was soon constructed a block away which was called the new Market East Station. The old abandoned terminal building was supposed to be demolished or refurbished for additional use but a renewal effort in the downtown area stated that this building was located in the redevelopment area of the city. After multiple years of negotiation talks, the Reading Company agreed to allow the Redevelopment Authority of Philadelphia to acquire the historical terminal so it could be incorporated into the Pennsylvania Convention Center upon further reconstruction.










Commercial Structures Tue, 25 Oct 2011 20:22:55 +0000
Smithsonian http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=618:smithsonian&catid=57:institutions&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=618:smithsonian&catid=57:institutions&Itemid=68 Nicole Dover

Institutions Tue, 18 Oct 2011 22:51:33 +0000