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Stony Creek Granite Sites Foundations of America - QU 201 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php 2017-11-23T11:12:25Z Joomla! 1.5 - Open Source Content Management Saint Mary's Church (New Haven, CT) 2011-11-08T23:47:55Z 2011-11-08T23:47:55Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=705:saint-marys-church-new-haven-ct&catid=57:institutions&Itemid=68 <p style="text-align: center; " mce_style="text-align: center; "><img mce_src="http://www.kofc.org/un/images/St-Marys_175.jpg" src="http://www.kofc.org/un/images/St-Marys_175.jpg" width="175" height="253" style="style" mce_style="style" title="Saint Mary's Church (New Haven, CT)" /></p><p><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"></span><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"> </span>In 1832 the Church of Christ formed by the Irish population of New Haven was founded as the first Catholic Church in New Haven, and the second in Connecticut.  In 1848 a fire destroyed Christ’s Church on York Street and Milford Turnpike Road in New Haven.  Father James McDermot was a priest of the Diocese of Boston and went to Connecticut and became the resident pastor of New Haven.  When father McDermot first moved to Connecticut he was assigned to ministry duty for New Haven, Bridgeport, Norwalk, Derby, Waterbury, Meriden, and Middletown (Western Connecticut.)  This church was built for the approximately 200 Catholic residents of New Haven.  When the church burned these people had nowhere to go, so, in 1948 Father Phillip O’ Reilly turned the Congregational Meeting House of New Haven into a catholic church dedicated to St. Mary.</p><p><br /></p><p style="text-align: center; " mce_style="text-align: center; "><img mce_src="http://northfieldgranite.com/gfx/samples/granite/Stoney%20Creek.jpg" src="http://northfieldgranite.com/gfx/samples/granite/Stoney%20Creek.jpg" width="100" height="130" mce_style="float: left;" style="float: left;" title="Example of Stony Creek Granite" class="caption" /></p><p><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"> </span>Although most of the stone that Saint Mary’s church is made up of is trap rock from West Rock in New Haven, Stony Creek Granite was used for a number of small jobs around the church.  For example, the window jambs, doorjambs, sills, stings, belts, water tables, and quoins are all composed of Stony Creek Granite from the Granite Island Quarry. Stony Creek Granite is composed of potassium feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, quartz, and biotite.  Each of these materials contributes to the pink, white, brown, and black mosaic of color that is Stony Creek Granite.</p><p><br /></p><p><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"> </span>St. Mary’s is one of many ecclesiastical buildings designed by architect James J. Murphy.  Murphy was an architect who dedicated most of his career in the 19<span mce_name="sup" mce_style="vertical-align: super;" style="vertical-align: super;" class="Apple-style-span">th</span> century to New England Roman Catholic churches.  Murphy, like many of the parishioners of St. Mary’s church, was an Irish American that emigrated from where he was born, in his case Tipperary, Ireland, to the United States.  Upon arriving in the states in 1852 Murphy got his first job at a firm owned by a fellow Irish architect, Patrick C. Keely.  Murphy later went on to marry Keely’s sister in-law and eventually he became a partner in the firm, and it was renamed “Keely & Murphy.”  Keely and Murphy’s firm only lasted from the mid 1800’s to 1875, and after the firm disbanded Murphy continued working at his own pace from his own practice.   In 1876 Murphy applied to the American Institute of Architects. Though Murphy had offices in Boston, Massachusetts, and Providence, Rhode Island, he designed buildings all over Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Maine.</p><p><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"> </span>In the 1880’s and 1890’s Murphy hired his nephew, Ambrose Murphy to shadow and apprentice him while he worked.  In 1900 Ambrose Murphy went on to partner with Frank Hindle forming their own firm Murphy and Hindle.  In 1907 Murphy and Hindle added a partner, Benjamin Wright, and the firm became known Murphy, Hindle, and Wright Architects. Murphy, Hindle & Wright Architects broke up 1917, due to the difficulties of maintaining a business in a war torn country, and the men each went their separate ways.  Many of Murphy, Hindle & Wright Architects buildings, like James Murphy’s Saint Mary’s Church in New Haven, were of the Gothic Architectural style.</p><p style="text-align: center; " mce_style="text-align: center; "><img mce_src="http://www.pentaxforums.com/forums/members/woof-albums-single-january-picture16683.jpg" src="http://www.pentaxforums.com/forums/members/woof-albums-single-january-picture16683.jpg" width="166" height="250" title="Interior of Saint Mary's Church" class="caption" style="style" mce_style="style" /></p><p><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"> </span>St. Mary’s church was completed in 1874 and is considered gothic revival style architecture.  Over the years experimentation and experience have forced architects to vary the characteristics of Gothic architecture slightly.  Some may argue that Saint Mary’s is Romanesque, however it is in fact Gothic Revival.  Gothic architecture is similar to Romanesque architecture however, there are some definite variations.  Gothic architecture is characterized by pointed arches, flying buttresses, and ribbed vaulting.  The leafy capitals on the interior of the church also hint to its Gothic origin.  Gothic architecture deviates from Romanesque architecture mainly in its use o the concept of space.  Where Romanesque architecture embraces the heavy effect and delimited areas, Gothic architecture focuses on a more spacious effect of lightness and open space. Gothic architecture also is much more laminated than the dark Romanesque churches and for this reason has many more windows and much bigger windows, once again relating back to the concept of space.  Gothic churches were usually bigger and therefore were more prestigious.</p><p><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"> </span>The reason for building the new St. Mary’s church, in a prestigious neighborhood, was because the community’s Catholic population was increasing steadily and this allowed for the most social mobility.  Father O’Brien hired James J. Murphy with the understanding that St. Mary’s be the most beautiful large Gothic church in Connecticut.  It was for this reason that the parish purchased land between Hillhouse Avenue and Temple Street, the current location of St. Mary’s church.  Hillhouse Avenue was New Haven’s finest residential neighborhoods, and for this reason St. Mary’s represented the high hopes of New Haven’s struggling catholic families.</p><p style="text-align: center; " mce_style="text-align: center; "><img mce_src="http://www.stmarys-priory.com/hillhouse/images/oldstmary2.jpg" src="http://www.stmarys-priory.com/hillhouse/images/oldstmary2.jpg" width="210" height="264" title="Saint Mary's without a steeple" class="caption" style="style" mce_style="style" /></p><p><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"> </span>Since the majority of the parishioners at the Church of Saint Mary were mainly immigrants and struggling working class families, it was difficult to fund the building of the prestigious new church.  There was a debt of $150,000 that needed to be paid off, by the congregation, and for this reason, St Mary’s went more than a century without a steeple.  Regardless of the fact that it had a topless stone tower without a spire, it was a great example of the devotion of the Roman Catholics in the city.</p><p style="text-align: center; " mce_style="text-align: center; "><img mce_src="http://www.kofc.org/un/common/graphics/clipart/mcgivney/cappuccio600h.jpg" src="http://www.kofc.org/un/common/graphics/clipart/mcgivney/cappuccio600h.jpg" width="200" height="150" title="Father McGivney" class="caption" style="style" mce_style="style" /></p><p><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"></span><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"> </span>Saint Mary’s church had seen many pastors and curates, but arguably one of the most influential of these was Father Michael J McGivney.  Father McGivney on October 2, 1882 organized the Knights of Columbus, the world largest Catholic fraternity, in the basement of Saint Mary’s Church.  McGivney’s intention for starting the Knights of Columbus was so that the widows and children of working men, and the society in general would have protection and help guiding their faith.  The Knights of Columbus was also established to give financial aid, mutual aid and assistance to its needy families.  The Knights of Columbus has grown from just a few members in the basement of the Church of Saint Mary, in New Haven to 1.8 million members in the United States, Canada, the Philippines, Mexico, Poland, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Panama, the Bahamas, the Virgin Islands, Cuba, Guatemala, and Guam.  McGivney’s impact on the world is also evident in the many portraits and statues made in his honor; there is currently a statue of McGivney with a Stony Creek Granite base in the Smithsonian.  Due to his numerous contributions to the Catholic world, and his starting of the Knights of Columbus, Father McGivney is currently being looked at by a postulator to potentially become beatified (blessed) or even possibly become a saint.  A postulator is a priest or church official who is responsible for preparing and presenting enough information for a plea for a deceased person to become beatified or canonized.   In 1982 Father McGivney’s grave was moved from Waterbury, CT to Saint Mary’s Church, and it is now a popular site for people, especially Knights of Columbus, to come and pray for his canonization.</p><p style="text-align: center; " mce_style="text-align: center; "><img mce_src="http://www.fathermcgivney.org/mcg/shared/images/common/inf_tomb_picture1.jpg" src="http://www.fathermcgivney.org/mcg/shared/images/common/inf_tomb_picture1.jpg" width="200" height="135" title="Father McGivney's tomb" style="style" mce_style="style" /></p><p><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"> </span>In 1990, “The Father Michael J. McGivney Center for Cancer Care” at Saint Raphael’s hospital in New Haven opened as a tribute to McGivney’s tremendous impact on the New Haven area. The Knights of Columbus has over the years provided more than three million dollars to the hospital.  A statue of McGivney currently stands in front of the building as does a plaque that reads “<span mce_name="em" mce_style="font-style: italic;" style="font-style: italic;" class="Apple-style-span">The Father Michael J. McGivney Cancer Center-Hamden Campus is named in honor of the founder of the Knights of Columbus, whose commitment to charity and to caring for the needy is an enduring inspiration to the Hospital of St. Raphael.” </span></p><p style="text-align: center; " mce_style="text-align: center; "><img mce_src="http://www.srhs.org/images/hamden%20cancer%20-%20front%20(600%20x%20391).jpg" src="http://www.srhs.org/images/hamden%20cancer%20-%20front%20(600%20x%20391).jpg" width="250" height="163" title="Father Micheal J. McGivney Center for Cancer Care" class="caption" /></p><p><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="font-style: italic; white-space: pre; " mce_style="font-style: italic; white-space: pre; "></span><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"> </span>St. Raphael’s was constructed in 1907, founded by the Sisters of Charity of Saint Elizabeth, a community of nuns who’s main focus is using charitable institutions to care for the poor and the sick, and also teaching the ways of the lord. Dr. William F. Verdi, along with other physicians, invited the sisters to come to New Haven to start a hospital.  It was the intention of the doctors that the hospital be a place where both medical professionals and patients could work and receive care regardless of race, creed, or color.   The hospital was meant to be a place that would extend charity to the poor, needy, and sick.  The hospital was named Saint Raphael’s because he is one of the more common archangels across many faiths.   Raphael in Hebrew means “God has healed,” and Raphael is the patron saint of healing and of the sick.</p><p style="text-align: center; " mce_style="text-align: center; "><img mce_src="http://robergepainting.com/SaintRaphaelHospital.jpg" src="http://robergepainting.com/SaintRaphaelHospital.jpg" width="245" height="188" title="Saint Raphaels Hospital, New Haven, Conneticut" class="caption" style="style" mce_style="style" /></p><p><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"> </span>Saint Raphael’s has a very rich history.  Once the hospital was completed it began to progress, and has continued doing so yearly.  Just a few years after construction, the hospital opened a pharmacy, an ambulance service, and a nursing school.<strike style="style"> </strike>In the 1920’s Saint Raphael’s opened the Saint Rita’s wing (named for the patron saint of impossible causes and hopeless dreams.)  In the 1940’s Saint Raphael’s was a training site for World War II Cadet Nurse Corps.  Saint Raphael’s had another first in the 1950’s when it opened Southern New England’s first radiation therapy centers.  The firsts continued into the 1960’s when Saint Raphael’s became the first Catholic hospital in the United States to establish a department of pastoral care.  The pastoral department consists of chaplains that represent many faiths, and the purpose of the department is to educate and provide spiritual resources to the ill, and promote hope for healing.  In the 1980’s this hospital was the first in outpatient chemotherapy/transfusion unit in Connecticut. The hospital continues to be a top notch treatment facility open to all regardless of race, color, or creed.</p><p style="text-align: center; " mce_style="text-align: center; "><img mce_src="http://historicbuildingsct.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/st-marys-church.jpg" src="http://historicbuildingsct.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/st-marys-church.jpg" width="250" height="334" title="Saint Mary's Church (New Haven, CT)" style="style" /></p><p><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"> </span>Both Saint Mary’s Church and Saint Raphael’s hospital help promote unity and tolerance in New Haven.  Both facilities were built with the understanding that America was a place filled with many people from many different backgrounds, both cultural and socioeconomic, and both of these places understood that no one should be ostracized because of their background.</p><p><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"> </span>Saint Mary’s continues today to be a widely diverse congregation.  Many families of the immigrants that moved to New Haven years ago when Saint Mary’s was first built are still parishioners at Saint Mary’s because of its beautiful atmosphere and the sense of community it exudes.</p><p><br /></p><p><span mce_name="em" mce_style="font-style: italic;" style="font-style: italic;" class="Apple-style-span"><b>For more information:</b></span></p><p>DeFord, Deborah. <em>Flesh and Stone: Stony Creek and the Age of Granite</em>. Stony Creek, CT: Stony Creek Granite Workers Celebration/Leete's Island, 2000. Print.</p> <p><a href="http://historicbuildingsct.com/?tag=catholic&paged=3" mce_href="http://historicbuildingsct.com/?tag=catholic&paged=3">http://historicbuildingsct.com/?tag=catholic&paged=3</a></p> <p><a href="http://nhpt.org/index.php/site/district/hillhouse_avenue_historic_district/" mce_href="http://nhpt.org/index.php/site/district/hillhouse_avenue_historic_district/">http://nhpt.org/index.php/site/district/hillhouse_avenue_historic_district/</a></p> <p><a href="http://northfieldgranite.com/samples/ccs-granite3.shtml" mce_href="http://northfieldgranite.com/samples/ccs-granite3.shtml">http://northfieldgranite.com/samples/ccs-granite3.shtml</a></p> <p><a href="http://quarriesandbeyond.org/states/cn/cn-structures.html" mce_href="http://quarriesandbeyond.org/states/cn/cn-structures.html">http://quarriesandbeyond.org/states/cn/cn-structures.html</a></p> <p><a href="http://virtualglobetrotting.com/map/st-marys-church-new-haven/" mce_href="http://virtualglobetrotting.com/map/st-marys-church-new-haven/">http://virtualglobetrotting.com/map/st-marys-church-new-haven/</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.enotes.com/topic/James_Murphy_(architect)" mce_href="http://www.enotes.com/topic/James_Murphy_(architect)">http://www.enotes.com/topic/James_Murphy_(architect)</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/ent/A0858436.html" mce_href="http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/ent/A0858436.html">http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/ent/A0858436.html</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.rihs.org/mssinv/MSS1110.htm" mce_href="http://www.rihs.org/mssinv/MSS1110.htm">http://www.rihs.org/mssinv/MSS1110.htm</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.srhs.org/History" mce_href="http://www.srhs.org/History">http://www.srhs.org/History</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.stmarys-priory.com/aboutstm.htm" mce_href="http://www.stmarys-priory.com/aboutstm.htm">http://www.stmarys-priory.com/aboutstm.htm</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.fathermcgivney.org/mcg/en/influence/tomb/index.html" mce_href="http://www.fathermcgivney.org/mcg/en/influence/tomb/index.html">http://www.fathermcgivney.org/mcg/en/influence/tomb/index.html</a></p> <p><a href="http://collections.si.edu/search/results.jsp?q=record_ID:siris_ari_19946" mce_href="http://collections.si.edu/search/results.jsp?q=record_ID:siris_ari_19946">http://collections.si.edu/search/results.jsp?q=record_ID:siris_ari_19946</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.stmarys-priory.com/hillhouse/oldstmary.html" mce_href="http://www.stmarys-priory.com/hillhouse/oldstmary.html">http://www.stmarys-priory.com/hillhouse/oldstmary.html</a></p> <p style="text-align: center; " mce_style="text-align: center; "><img mce_src="http://www.kofc.org/un/images/St-Marys_175.jpg" src="http://www.kofc.org/un/images/St-Marys_175.jpg" width="175" height="253" style="style" mce_style="style" title="Saint Mary's Church (New Haven, CT)" /></p><p><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"></span><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"> </span>In 1832 the Church of Christ formed by the Irish population of New Haven was founded as the first Catholic Church in New Haven, and the second in Connecticut.  In 1848 a fire destroyed Christ’s Church on York Street and Milford Turnpike Road in New Haven.  Father James McDermot was a priest of the Diocese of Boston and went to Connecticut and became the resident pastor of New Haven.  When father McDermot first moved to Connecticut he was assigned to ministry duty for New Haven, Bridgeport, Norwalk, Derby, Waterbury, Meriden, and Middletown (Western Connecticut.)  This church was built for the approximately 200 Catholic residents of New Haven.  When the church burned these people had nowhere to go, so, in 1948 Father Phillip O’ Reilly turned the Congregational Meeting House of New Haven into a catholic church dedicated to St. Mary.</p><p><br /></p><p style="text-align: center; " mce_style="text-align: center; "><img mce_src="http://northfieldgranite.com/gfx/samples/granite/Stoney%20Creek.jpg" src="http://northfieldgranite.com/gfx/samples/granite/Stoney%20Creek.jpg" width="100" height="130" mce_style="float: left;" style="float: left;" title="Example of Stony Creek Granite" class="caption" /></p><p><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"> </span>Although most of the stone that Saint Mary’s church is made up of is trap rock from West Rock in New Haven, Stony Creek Granite was used for a number of small jobs around the church.  For example, the window jambs, doorjambs, sills, stings, belts, water tables, and quoins are all composed of Stony Creek Granite from the Granite Island Quarry. Stony Creek Granite is composed of potassium feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, quartz, and biotite.  Each of these materials contributes to the pink, white, brown, and black mosaic of color that is Stony Creek Granite.</p><p><br /></p><p><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"> </span>St. Mary’s is one of many ecclesiastical buildings designed by architect James J. Murphy.  Murphy was an architect who dedicated most of his career in the 19<span mce_name="sup" mce_style="vertical-align: super;" style="vertical-align: super;" class="Apple-style-span">th</span> century to New England Roman Catholic churches.  Murphy, like many of the parishioners of St. Mary’s church, was an Irish American that emigrated from where he was born, in his case Tipperary, Ireland, to the United States.  Upon arriving in the states in 1852 Murphy got his first job at a firm owned by a fellow Irish architect, Patrick C. Keely.  Murphy later went on to marry Keely’s sister in-law and eventually he became a partner in the firm, and it was renamed “Keely & Murphy.”  Keely and Murphy’s firm only lasted from the mid 1800’s to 1875, and after the firm disbanded Murphy continued working at his own pace from his own practice.   In 1876 Murphy applied to the American Institute of Architects. Though Murphy had offices in Boston, Massachusetts, and Providence, Rhode Island, he designed buildings all over Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Maine.</p><p><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"> </span>In the 1880’s and 1890’s Murphy hired his nephew, Ambrose Murphy to shadow and apprentice him while he worked.  In 1900 Ambrose Murphy went on to partner with Frank Hindle forming their own firm Murphy and Hindle.  In 1907 Murphy and Hindle added a partner, Benjamin Wright, and the firm became known Murphy, Hindle, and Wright Architects. Murphy, Hindle & Wright Architects broke up 1917, due to the difficulties of maintaining a business in a war torn country, and the men each went their separate ways.  Many of Murphy, Hindle & Wright Architects buildings, like James Murphy’s Saint Mary’s Church in New Haven, were of the Gothic Architectural style.</p><p style="text-align: center; " mce_style="text-align: center; "><img mce_src="http://www.pentaxforums.com/forums/members/woof-albums-single-january-picture16683.jpg" src="http://www.pentaxforums.com/forums/members/woof-albums-single-january-picture16683.jpg" width="166" height="250" title="Interior of Saint Mary's Church" class="caption" style="style" mce_style="style" /></p><p><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"> </span>St. Mary’s church was completed in 1874 and is considered gothic revival style architecture.  Over the years experimentation and experience have forced architects to vary the characteristics of Gothic architecture slightly.  Some may argue that Saint Mary’s is Romanesque, however it is in fact Gothic Revival.  Gothic architecture is similar to Romanesque architecture however, there are some definite variations.  Gothic architecture is characterized by pointed arches, flying buttresses, and ribbed vaulting.  The leafy capitals on the interior of the church also hint to its Gothic origin.  Gothic architecture deviates from Romanesque architecture mainly in its use o the concept of space.  Where Romanesque architecture embraces the heavy effect and delimited areas, Gothic architecture focuses on a more spacious effect of lightness and open space. Gothic architecture also is much more laminated than the dark Romanesque churches and for this reason has many more windows and much bigger windows, once again relating back to the concept of space.  Gothic churches were usually bigger and therefore were more prestigious.</p><p><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"> </span>The reason for building the new St. Mary’s church, in a prestigious neighborhood, was because the community’s Catholic population was increasing steadily and this allowed for the most social mobility.  Father O’Brien hired James J. Murphy with the understanding that St. Mary’s be the most beautiful large Gothic church in Connecticut.  It was for this reason that the parish purchased land between Hillhouse Avenue and Temple Street, the current location of St. Mary’s church.  Hillhouse Avenue was New Haven’s finest residential neighborhoods, and for this reason St. Mary’s represented the high hopes of New Haven’s struggling catholic families.</p><p style="text-align: center; " mce_style="text-align: center; "><img mce_src="http://www.stmarys-priory.com/hillhouse/images/oldstmary2.jpg" src="http://www.stmarys-priory.com/hillhouse/images/oldstmary2.jpg" width="210" height="264" title="Saint Mary's without a steeple" class="caption" style="style" mce_style="style" /></p><p><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"> </span>Since the majority of the parishioners at the Church of Saint Mary were mainly immigrants and struggling working class families, it was difficult to fund the building of the prestigious new church.  There was a debt of $150,000 that needed to be paid off, by the congregation, and for this reason, St Mary’s went more than a century without a steeple.  Regardless of the fact that it had a topless stone tower without a spire, it was a great example of the devotion of the Roman Catholics in the city.</p><p style="text-align: center; " mce_style="text-align: center; "><img mce_src="http://www.kofc.org/un/common/graphics/clipart/mcgivney/cappuccio600h.jpg" src="http://www.kofc.org/un/common/graphics/clipart/mcgivney/cappuccio600h.jpg" width="200" height="150" title="Father McGivney" class="caption" style="style" mce_style="style" /></p><p><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"></span><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"> </span>Saint Mary’s church had seen many pastors and curates, but arguably one of the most influential of these was Father Michael J McGivney.  Father McGivney on October 2, 1882 organized the Knights of Columbus, the world largest Catholic fraternity, in the basement of Saint Mary’s Church.  McGivney’s intention for starting the Knights of Columbus was so that the widows and children of working men, and the society in general would have protection and help guiding their faith.  The Knights of Columbus was also established to give financial aid, mutual aid and assistance to its needy families.  The Knights of Columbus has grown from just a few members in the basement of the Church of Saint Mary, in New Haven to 1.8 million members in the United States, Canada, the Philippines, Mexico, Poland, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Panama, the Bahamas, the Virgin Islands, Cuba, Guatemala, and Guam.  McGivney’s impact on the world is also evident in the many portraits and statues made in his honor; there is currently a statue of McGivney with a Stony Creek Granite base in the Smithsonian.  Due to his numerous contributions to the Catholic world, and his starting of the Knights of Columbus, Father McGivney is currently being looked at by a postulator to potentially become beatified (blessed) or even possibly become a saint.  A postulator is a priest or church official who is responsible for preparing and presenting enough information for a plea for a deceased person to become beatified or canonized.   In 1982 Father McGivney’s grave was moved from Waterbury, CT to Saint Mary’s Church, and it is now a popular site for people, especially Knights of Columbus, to come and pray for his canonization.</p><p style="text-align: center; " mce_style="text-align: center; "><img mce_src="http://www.fathermcgivney.org/mcg/shared/images/common/inf_tomb_picture1.jpg" src="http://www.fathermcgivney.org/mcg/shared/images/common/inf_tomb_picture1.jpg" width="200" height="135" title="Father McGivney's tomb" style="style" mce_style="style" /></p><p><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"> </span>In 1990, “The Father Michael J. McGivney Center for Cancer Care” at Saint Raphael’s hospital in New Haven opened as a tribute to McGivney’s tremendous impact on the New Haven area. The Knights of Columbus has over the years provided more than three million dollars to the hospital.  A statue of McGivney currently stands in front of the building as does a plaque that reads “<span mce_name="em" mce_style="font-style: italic;" style="font-style: italic;" class="Apple-style-span">The Father Michael J. McGivney Cancer Center-Hamden Campus is named in honor of the founder of the Knights of Columbus, whose commitment to charity and to caring for the needy is an enduring inspiration to the Hospital of St. Raphael.” </span></p><p style="text-align: center; " mce_style="text-align: center; "><img mce_src="http://www.srhs.org/images/hamden%20cancer%20-%20front%20(600%20x%20391).jpg" src="http://www.srhs.org/images/hamden%20cancer%20-%20front%20(600%20x%20391).jpg" width="250" height="163" title="Father Micheal J. McGivney Center for Cancer Care" class="caption" /></p><p><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="font-style: italic; white-space: pre; " mce_style="font-style: italic; white-space: pre; "></span><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"> </span>St. Raphael’s was constructed in 1907, founded by the Sisters of Charity of Saint Elizabeth, a community of nuns who’s main focus is using charitable institutions to care for the poor and the sick, and also teaching the ways of the lord. Dr. William F. Verdi, along with other physicians, invited the sisters to come to New Haven to start a hospital.  It was the intention of the doctors that the hospital be a place where both medical professionals and patients could work and receive care regardless of race, creed, or color.   The hospital was meant to be a place that would extend charity to the poor, needy, and sick.  The hospital was named Saint Raphael’s because he is one of the more common archangels across many faiths.   Raphael in Hebrew means “God has healed,” and Raphael is the patron saint of healing and of the sick.</p><p style="text-align: center; " mce_style="text-align: center; "><img mce_src="http://robergepainting.com/SaintRaphaelHospital.jpg" src="http://robergepainting.com/SaintRaphaelHospital.jpg" width="245" height="188" title="Saint Raphaels Hospital, New Haven, Conneticut" class="caption" style="style" mce_style="style" /></p><p><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"> </span>Saint Raphael’s has a very rich history.  Once the hospital was completed it began to progress, and has continued doing so yearly.  Just a few years after construction, the hospital opened a pharmacy, an ambulance service, and a nursing school.<strike style="style"> </strike>In the 1920’s Saint Raphael’s opened the Saint Rita’s wing (named for the patron saint of impossible causes and hopeless dreams.)  In the 1940’s Saint Raphael’s was a training site for World War II Cadet Nurse Corps.  Saint Raphael’s had another first in the 1950’s when it opened Southern New England’s first radiation therapy centers.  The firsts continued into the 1960’s when Saint Raphael’s became the first Catholic hospital in the United States to establish a department of pastoral care.  The pastoral department consists of chaplains that represent many faiths, and the purpose of the department is to educate and provide spiritual resources to the ill, and promote hope for healing.  In the 1980’s this hospital was the first in outpatient chemotherapy/transfusion unit in Connecticut. The hospital continues to be a top notch treatment facility open to all regardless of race, color, or creed.</p><p style="text-align: center; " mce_style="text-align: center; "><img mce_src="http://historicbuildingsct.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/st-marys-church.jpg" src="http://historicbuildingsct.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/st-marys-church.jpg" width="250" height="334" title="Saint Mary's Church (New Haven, CT)" style="style" /></p><p><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"> </span>Both Saint Mary’s Church and Saint Raphael’s hospital help promote unity and tolerance in New Haven.  Both facilities were built with the understanding that America was a place filled with many people from many different backgrounds, both cultural and socioeconomic, and both of these places understood that no one should be ostracized because of their background.</p><p><span class="Apple-tab-span" style="white-space:pre" mce_style="white-space:pre"> </span>Saint Mary’s continues today to be a widely diverse congregation.  Many families of the immigrants that moved to New Haven years ago when Saint Mary’s was first built are still parishioners at Saint Mary’s because of its beautiful atmosphere and the sense of community it exudes.</p><p><br /></p><p><span mce_name="em" mce_style="font-style: italic;" style="font-style: italic;" class="Apple-style-span"><b>For more information:</b></span></p><p>DeFord, Deborah. <em>Flesh and Stone: Stony Creek and the Age of Granite</em>. Stony Creek, CT: Stony Creek Granite Workers Celebration/Leete's Island, 2000. Print.</p> <p><a href="http://historicbuildingsct.com/?tag=catholic&paged=3" mce_href="http://historicbuildingsct.com/?tag=catholic&paged=3">http://historicbuildingsct.com/?tag=catholic&paged=3</a></p> <p><a href="http://nhpt.org/index.php/site/district/hillhouse_avenue_historic_district/" mce_href="http://nhpt.org/index.php/site/district/hillhouse_avenue_historic_district/">http://nhpt.org/index.php/site/district/hillhouse_avenue_historic_district/</a></p> <p><a href="http://northfieldgranite.com/samples/ccs-granite3.shtml" mce_href="http://northfieldgranite.com/samples/ccs-granite3.shtml">http://northfieldgranite.com/samples/ccs-granite3.shtml</a></p> <p><a href="http://quarriesandbeyond.org/states/cn/cn-structures.html" mce_href="http://quarriesandbeyond.org/states/cn/cn-structures.html">http://quarriesandbeyond.org/states/cn/cn-structures.html</a></p> <p><a href="http://virtualglobetrotting.com/map/st-marys-church-new-haven/" mce_href="http://virtualglobetrotting.com/map/st-marys-church-new-haven/">http://virtualglobetrotting.com/map/st-marys-church-new-haven/</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.enotes.com/topic/James_Murphy_(architect)" mce_href="http://www.enotes.com/topic/James_Murphy_(architect)">http://www.enotes.com/topic/James_Murphy_(architect)</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/ent/A0858436.html" mce_href="http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/ent/A0858436.html">http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/ent/A0858436.html</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.rihs.org/mssinv/MSS1110.htm" mce_href="http://www.rihs.org/mssinv/MSS1110.htm">http://www.rihs.org/mssinv/MSS1110.htm</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.srhs.org/History" mce_href="http://www.srhs.org/History">http://www.srhs.org/History</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.stmarys-priory.com/aboutstm.htm" mce_href="http://www.stmarys-priory.com/aboutstm.htm">http://www.stmarys-priory.com/aboutstm.htm</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.fathermcgivney.org/mcg/en/influence/tomb/index.html" mce_href="http://www.fathermcgivney.org/mcg/en/influence/tomb/index.html">http://www.fathermcgivney.org/mcg/en/influence/tomb/index.html</a></p> <p><a href="http://collections.si.edu/search/results.jsp?q=record_ID:siris_ari_19946" mce_href="http://collections.si.edu/search/results.jsp?q=record_ID:siris_ari_19946">http://collections.si.edu/search/results.jsp?q=record_ID:siris_ari_19946</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.stmarys-priory.com/hillhouse/oldstmary.html" mce_href="http://www.stmarys-priory.com/hillhouse/oldstmary.html">http://www.stmarys-priory.com/hillhouse/oldstmary.html</a></p> Smithsonian 2011-10-18T22:51:33Z 2011-10-18T22:51:33Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=618:smithsonian&catid=57:institutions&Itemid=68 <p>Nicole Dover</p> <p>Nicole Dover</p> Quinnipiac University 2010-11-03T22:52:53Z 2010-11-03T22:52:53Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=406:quinnipiac-university&catid=57:institutions&Itemid=68 <p><strong><img src="http://www.quinnipiac.edu/Images/Slideshows/Home/nationalReputation.jpg" border="0" alt="QU" width="510" height="270" style="float: left;" />Quinnipiac University</strong></p> <p>Quinnipiac University was founded in 1929 by Samuel W. Tator, a business professor, politician and the first president of the academy.  Samuel Tator’s wife, Irmagarde Tator, a Mount Holyoke College graduate, and Judge Philip Troup, a Yale College graduate and first bursar of the school, also had a major influence in the founding and fostering of this institution.</p> <p>In response to Northeastern University’s closure of its New Haven program, Quinnipiac, which was known as Connecticut College of Commerce at the time, was created in New Haven, Connecticut.  Upon opening the school in 1929, only 200 students were admitted and only associate degrees could be achieved.  Connecticut College of Commerce graduated its first class with only a scarce amount of eight students. </p> <p>In 1935, the institution changed its name to Junior College of Commerce.  Unfortunately, in 1943 the college was closed down, as almost the entire student body was drafted into World War II.  The college was re-opened in 1945 and its admissions quadrupled to around 800 students.  In 1951, Junior College of Commerce was renamed to Quinnipiac College, honoring the Quinnipiac Indians that once inhabited the Greater New Haven area.  That same year, Quinnipiac was changed to a four year college and began to offer bachelor’s degrees.  In 1951, Quinnipiac College expanded both physically and academically, relocating their campus to a larger location in New Haven and assuming administrative control of Larson College, a private women’s college in the area.<img src="http://www.centerbrook.com/media/projects/quinnipiac_university_master_plan/large/1.jpg" border="0" alt="Quinnipiac" width="371" height="278" style="float: right;" /></p> <p>In 1966, construction of Quinnipiac’s current campus, located in Hamden, Connecticut, began.   The campus is situated in the Mount Carmel area, at the foot of the Sleeping Giant Mountain located in Sleeping Giant State Park.  And within the next few years, Quinnipiac College began to offer master’s degrees in a variety of different   majors.</p> <p>Until the 1990s, Quinnipiac continued primarily as a commuter college, receiving only regional accreditation and having only a regionally known reputation.  However, that all changed in 1995 when Reverend Sun Yung Moon, a Korean religious cult leader, purchased the University of Bridgeport for $50 million.  The University of Bridgeport Law School moved to Quinnipiac becoming the Quinnipiac School of Law.  The American Bar Association accredited Quinnipiac College to award the Juris Doctor degree.   Also during the mid 1990s, the Quinnipiac School of Law Center was donated and the Ed McMahon Communication Center and Lender School of Business buildings were built, which are state of the art facilities that attracted not only an array of students from across the country, but also nationally renowned professors.</p> <p>In order to reflect and honor this relatively new expansion in academic excellence, the college officially changed its name to Quinnipiac University on July 1<sup>st</sup>, 2000 and received accreditation by the AACSB, Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business.</p> <p>Now, Quinnipiac University is recognized as a private, coeducational university with around 6,000 undergraduate and 2,000 graduate students.  It is consistently ranked among the best universities by U.S News & World Report.  Currently, Quinnipiac offers 52 undergraduate majors, 20 graduate programs and a JD program.  The university is most widely known for its esteemed programs in arts and sciences, business, communications, and health sciences.  Quinnipiac gains public media attention through its nationally noted Polling Institute.</p> <p><a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Centerbrook Architect and Planners</span></a>, located in Centerbrook, Connecticut, is responsible for the planning and design of the <a href="http://foundationsofamerica.com/plugins/editors/tinymce/jscripts/tiny_mce/plugins/paste/QUINNIPIAC%20UNIVERSITY.kmz"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Quinnipiac University</span></a> campus.  Centerbrook was started in 1975 as a community of architects working together to advance the construction and design of American places.  From its beginning, Centerbrook has not only worked to advance planning and architecture, but has strived to make innovative detail and memorable buildings in America.  Centerbrook houses its firm as well as its vital center of experimentation at its nineteenth-century historic compound of mill buildings located on the <a href="http://foundationsofamerica.com/plugins/editors/tinymce/jscripts/tiny_mce/plugins/paste/Centerbrook.kmz"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Falls River in Centerbrook, CT</span></a>.  It is at this location where the firm experiments with planning and design.  It hosts lectures and presentations on how to make its projects distinct and how to perfect the craft of building and green design.  Centerbrook has a large array of solar panels, whose grand opening, around 2007, was attended by Senator Joe Lieberman.</p> <p>Centerbrook has been the campus architect for Quinnipiac University for over thirty years, since 1978, when the firm designed a campus-wide <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/quinnipiac_university_master_plan"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">master plan</span></a>. Quinnipiac University had begun building the campus sixteen years earlier with minimal facilities, all of which had been built on a very limited budget.  The Quinnipiac campus was in dire need of improvement and enhancement.  Centerbrook's aim was to give the campus an appearance that could be easily comprehended, an image that would be memorable, and a sociability that would attract prospective students and commit those already enrolled.</p> <p>Centerbrook’s use of Stony Creek Granite was essential in achieving this desired look for the Quinnipiac University campus.  <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/about/charles_mueller"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Charles Mueller</span></a>, Principal of Architecture and Design at the Centerbrook firm, is very knowledgeable about the overall convenience of this stone.  Stony Creek Granite is not only distinct and attractive looking with its light rose, stone appearance, but it is also of high quality, easy to work with, inexpensive and very reliable.  On top of these qualities, the granite is also locally quarried at the <a href="http://www.stonycreekquarry.com/07default.shtml"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Stony Creek Quarry in Branford, CT</span></a>.  This eliminates the issue concerning material being shipped from across the country or overseas. </p> <p>Because of its advantageous features, Stony Creek Granite can be found all around the Quinnipiac University campus.  Not only can it be seen on the larger buildings such as the stairs of the Arnold Bernhard Library and within the archway of the Lender School of Business/Communications Center, but it can also be found, more recently, in the entranceway of the Carl Hansen Student Center, in the Residence Halls, on sitting walls and benches throughout the entirety of the campus and stone peers used strictly for embellishment.</p> <p>Darrell Petit, a sculptor who works directly with the stone at the Stony Creek Granite quarry in Branford, CT, was able to give more details about the actual quarry and <a href="http://www.stoneworld.com/Articles/Article_Rotation/BNP_GUID_9-5-2006_A_10000000000000692072"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">how the stone itself is quarried</span></a>.  The stone is dug, drilled and/or cut from the quarry straight out of the ground in huge slabs.  The slabs of Stony Creek are then sent to suppliers around the Northeast who cut the stone into its appropriate size in order to distribute to contractors and construction.  Centerbrook is a company of architects only.  The firm works with Quinnipiac University to design a master plan for the campus, created with the participation of the University community during a series of design workshops and presentations.  The architects then send the design decided upon to local construction companies who price or bid on construction of the design.  Quinnipiac as an institution decides which company to work with based on the price. </p> <p>Recently, Quinnipiac has worked with <a href="http://www.bantonconstruction.com/"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Banton Construction</span></a>, a local construction company based out of North Haven.  Banton Construction Company was founded in 1979 and since then has emerged as one of the leading contractors in the Connecticut market.  Specifically since 2009, Banton has been constructing the renovations and additions to the Dining Hall and Carl Hansen Student Center, both of which designs include Stony Creek Granite.  Overall, <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">FIP Construction</span></a>, another local construction company from Cheshire, CT, has been a large contributor to the construction and assembly of the campus.  FIP Construction was responsible for the production of buildings such as the <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/portfolio/portfolio.php?RF_ITEM%5b%5d=Entry$0@826;folder"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Ed McMahon Communications Center, Lender School of Business</span></a>, the Bobcat Den (formally known as the <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/portfolio/portfolio.php?RF_ITEM%5b%5d=Entry$0@823;folder"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Rathskeller Student Center</span></a>), <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/portfolio/portfolio.php?RF_ITEM%5b%5d=Entry$0@818;folder"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">The Arnold Bernhard Library</span></a>, <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/portfolio/portfolio.php?RF_ITEM%5b%5d=Entry$0@806;folder"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Gymnasium/Recreation Center</span></a>, <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/portfolio/portfolio.php?RF_ITEM%5b%5d=Entry$0@814;folder"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Echlin Health Sciences Building</span></a> and the <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/portfolio/portfolio.php?RF_ITEM%5b%5d=Entry$0@811;folder"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Residential Halls</span></a>.</p> <p>To date, Centerbrook has designed and built thirty projects at Quinnipiac University totaling over $100 million in construction cost and ranging in scope from new buildings to outdoor suntraps to renovations and additions of existing buildings, all within the guidelines of this simple plan and most consisting in some way of the remarkable Stony Creek Granite.  Specific renovations include their current addition and expansion to the Dining Hall and <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/quinnipiac_university_carl_hansen_student_center"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Student Center</span></a>, the creation of the <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/quinnipiac_university_td_banknorth_sports_center"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">TD Bank Sports Center</span></a>, as well as their remarkable <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/quinnipiac_university_arnold_bernhard_library"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">addition to the Arnold Bernhard Library</span></a>,  </p> <p>With its increasingly expanding student body, Quinnipiac felt necessary to increase the size of the Carl Hansen Student Center in order to efficiently provide the appropriate needs for all students.  The renovation of the student center includes the expansion of dining area and remodeling of the main classroom building, Tator Hall, as well as the multi-purpose Alumni Hall building.  Renovations are still in process and close to completion, although some problems were faced along the way.  When constructing the renovations to the Student Center, the Stony Creek Granite seemed different than Stony Creek Granite used in past projects.   The appearance was dissimilar and the texture was more rough than usual.  As it turns out, the stone installed under the windows around the student center the winter before last was not real Stony Creek Granite.  The contractor was given counterfeit stone quarried somewhere in Canada.  Over $100,000 worth of stone was rejected, which set the project back significantly.  Quinnipiac hopes to have a fully remodeled student center by the start of the school year in August, 2011. </p> <p><img src="http://www.topboxdesign.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/at-Quinnipiac-University-by-Centerbrook-Architects-and-Planners-in-Connecticut-United-States-588x392.jpg" border="0" alt="sports center" width="444" height="348" style="float: left;" />The TD Bank Sports Center, located on Quinnipiac University’s supplementary campus on York Hill, held its <a href="http://www.quinnipiacbobcats.com/ViewArticle.dbml?DB_OEM_ID=17500&ATCLID=1246387"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">grand opening</span></a> January 27, 2007.  Replacing Burt Kahn Court and the Northford Ice Pavilion, the Sport Center is one of only four arenas in the Northeast having a rare design that consists of twin arenas – a hockey rink on one side and a basketball court of the opposite.</p> <p>The project cost $52 million to build and is part of Quinnipiac’s most ambitious plan thus far with the aim at improving its drawing power for Division I student athletes and perhaps moving up into a larger league than the Northeast Conference.</p> <p>Inadequately built in 1969, the library on Quinnipiac’s campus was nowhere near sufficient enough for the growth and development expected from Quinnipiac University as a whole.  Centerbrook’s idea was to renovate the library into a place where knowledge could flourish, as well as create an atmosphere that fit the needs of Quinnipiac students and faculty.  The remodeling began in the early summer of 1996 and opened as the <a href="http://www.ctlibraryassociation.org/ctheritage/bernhard.html"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">brand new Arnold Bernhard Library</span></a> in August, 2000.  Quinnipiac’s library is named after Arnold Bernhard, the founder and former chief executive officer of Value Line, Inc., a New York corporation, founded in 1982.  The Company’s primary businesses are producing the world’s largerst investment advisory service through Value Line Publishing, Inc.  It is best known for publishing <em>The Value Line Investment Survey, </em>a weekly updated stock analysis newsletter. Bernhard’s son, A. Van H. Bernhard, made the library renovation project possible by donating $1 million for the library project and an additional $3 million for the University’s endowment in 1997.  This donation was the largest in the University’s history.  The signature clock tower was built during the renovation which is now the focal point of the University and changed the overall icon of the school.  Additionally, the signature Stony Creek Granite stepping proscenium was part of these renovations as well.<img src="http://collegesearch.collegeboard.com/premium/images/3111/3111-tour1.jpg" border="0" alt="library" width="390" height="290" style="float: right;" /></p> <p>In addition to the outstanding design of Quinnipiac’s campus, Centerbrook has also used Stony Creek Granite in places such as <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/yale_university_lewis_walpole_library"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Yale University’s Library</span></a> and their newly renovated <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/yale_university_cullmanheyman_tennis_center"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Tennis Center</span></a>.  Furthermore, Centerbrook contributed greatly to the campus at the University of Connecticut located in Storrs, CT, specifically including the <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/university_of_connecticut_school_of_business"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">School of Business</span></a>, which also makes use of Stony Creek Granite.  All of these building include stone quarried at the Stony Creek Quarry in Branford, CT.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p align="center">References</p> <p>"Arnold Bernhard Library." <em>Welcome to the Connecticut Library Association Homepage</em>. Web.</p> <p>21 Oct. 2010. .</p> <p> </p> <p><em>Careers At Banton Construction</em>. Web. 21 Oct. 2010. .</p> <p> </p> <p><em>Centerbrook Architects and Planners</em>. Web. 21 Oct. 2010. .</p> <p> </p> <p><em>FIP Construction Company</em>. 21 Oct. 2010. .</p> <p> </p> <p><em>Stony Creek Quarry Corporation</em>. Web. 21 Oct. 2010. .</p> <p> </p> <p>"TD Bank Sports Center Opens with Fanfare, Friends." <em>Quinnipiac University's Official Athletics </em></p> <p><em>Site - QuinnipiacBobcats.com</em>. Web. 21 Oct. 2010. <a href="http://www.quinnipiacbobcats.com/ViewArticle.dbml?DB_OEM_ID=17500&ATCLID=1246387">http://www.quinnipiacbobcats.com/ViewArticle.dbml?DB_OEM_ID=17500&ATCLID=1246387</a>.</p> <p><strong><img src="http://www.quinnipiac.edu/Images/Slideshows/Home/nationalReputation.jpg" border="0" alt="QU" width="510" height="270" style="float: left;" />Quinnipiac University</strong></p> <p>Quinnipiac University was founded in 1929 by Samuel W. Tator, a business professor, politician and the first president of the academy.  Samuel Tator’s wife, Irmagarde Tator, a Mount Holyoke College graduate, and Judge Philip Troup, a Yale College graduate and first bursar of the school, also had a major influence in the founding and fostering of this institution.</p> <p>In response to Northeastern University’s closure of its New Haven program, Quinnipiac, which was known as Connecticut College of Commerce at the time, was created in New Haven, Connecticut.  Upon opening the school in 1929, only 200 students were admitted and only associate degrees could be achieved.  Connecticut College of Commerce graduated its first class with only a scarce amount of eight students. </p> <p>In 1935, the institution changed its name to Junior College of Commerce.  Unfortunately, in 1943 the college was closed down, as almost the entire student body was drafted into World War II.  The college was re-opened in 1945 and its admissions quadrupled to around 800 students.  In 1951, Junior College of Commerce was renamed to Quinnipiac College, honoring the Quinnipiac Indians that once inhabited the Greater New Haven area.  That same year, Quinnipiac was changed to a four year college and began to offer bachelor’s degrees.  In 1951, Quinnipiac College expanded both physically and academically, relocating their campus to a larger location in New Haven and assuming administrative control of Larson College, a private women’s college in the area.<img src="http://www.centerbrook.com/media/projects/quinnipiac_university_master_plan/large/1.jpg" border="0" alt="Quinnipiac" width="371" height="278" style="float: right;" /></p> <p>In 1966, construction of Quinnipiac’s current campus, located in Hamden, Connecticut, began.   The campus is situated in the Mount Carmel area, at the foot of the Sleeping Giant Mountain located in Sleeping Giant State Park.  And within the next few years, Quinnipiac College began to offer master’s degrees in a variety of different   majors.</p> <p>Until the 1990s, Quinnipiac continued primarily as a commuter college, receiving only regional accreditation and having only a regionally known reputation.  However, that all changed in 1995 when Reverend Sun Yung Moon, a Korean religious cult leader, purchased the University of Bridgeport for $50 million.  The University of Bridgeport Law School moved to Quinnipiac becoming the Quinnipiac School of Law.  The American Bar Association accredited Quinnipiac College to award the Juris Doctor degree.   Also during the mid 1990s, the Quinnipiac School of Law Center was donated and the Ed McMahon Communication Center and Lender School of Business buildings were built, which are state of the art facilities that attracted not only an array of students from across the country, but also nationally renowned professors.</p> <p>In order to reflect and honor this relatively new expansion in academic excellence, the college officially changed its name to Quinnipiac University on July 1<sup>st</sup>, 2000 and received accreditation by the AACSB, Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business.</p> <p>Now, Quinnipiac University is recognized as a private, coeducational university with around 6,000 undergraduate and 2,000 graduate students.  It is consistently ranked among the best universities by U.S News & World Report.  Currently, Quinnipiac offers 52 undergraduate majors, 20 graduate programs and a JD program.  The university is most widely known for its esteemed programs in arts and sciences, business, communications, and health sciences.  Quinnipiac gains public media attention through its nationally noted Polling Institute.</p> <p><a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Centerbrook Architect and Planners</span></a>, located in Centerbrook, Connecticut, is responsible for the planning and design of the <a href="http://foundationsofamerica.com/plugins/editors/tinymce/jscripts/tiny_mce/plugins/paste/QUINNIPIAC%20UNIVERSITY.kmz"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Quinnipiac University</span></a> campus.  Centerbrook was started in 1975 as a community of architects working together to advance the construction and design of American places.  From its beginning, Centerbrook has not only worked to advance planning and architecture, but has strived to make innovative detail and memorable buildings in America.  Centerbrook houses its firm as well as its vital center of experimentation at its nineteenth-century historic compound of mill buildings located on the <a href="http://foundationsofamerica.com/plugins/editors/tinymce/jscripts/tiny_mce/plugins/paste/Centerbrook.kmz"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Falls River in Centerbrook, CT</span></a>.  It is at this location where the firm experiments with planning and design.  It hosts lectures and presentations on how to make its projects distinct and how to perfect the craft of building and green design.  Centerbrook has a large array of solar panels, whose grand opening, around 2007, was attended by Senator Joe Lieberman.</p> <p>Centerbrook has been the campus architect for Quinnipiac University for over thirty years, since 1978, when the firm designed a campus-wide <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/quinnipiac_university_master_plan"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">master plan</span></a>. Quinnipiac University had begun building the campus sixteen years earlier with minimal facilities, all of which had been built on a very limited budget.  The Quinnipiac campus was in dire need of improvement and enhancement.  Centerbrook's aim was to give the campus an appearance that could be easily comprehended, an image that would be memorable, and a sociability that would attract prospective students and commit those already enrolled.</p> <p>Centerbrook’s use of Stony Creek Granite was essential in achieving this desired look for the Quinnipiac University campus.  <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/about/charles_mueller"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Charles Mueller</span></a>, Principal of Architecture and Design at the Centerbrook firm, is very knowledgeable about the overall convenience of this stone.  Stony Creek Granite is not only distinct and attractive looking with its light rose, stone appearance, but it is also of high quality, easy to work with, inexpensive and very reliable.  On top of these qualities, the granite is also locally quarried at the <a href="http://www.stonycreekquarry.com/07default.shtml"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Stony Creek Quarry in Branford, CT</span></a>.  This eliminates the issue concerning material being shipped from across the country or overseas. </p> <p>Because of its advantageous features, Stony Creek Granite can be found all around the Quinnipiac University campus.  Not only can it be seen on the larger buildings such as the stairs of the Arnold Bernhard Library and within the archway of the Lender School of Business/Communications Center, but it can also be found, more recently, in the entranceway of the Carl Hansen Student Center, in the Residence Halls, on sitting walls and benches throughout the entirety of the campus and stone peers used strictly for embellishment.</p> <p>Darrell Petit, a sculptor who works directly with the stone at the Stony Creek Granite quarry in Branford, CT, was able to give more details about the actual quarry and <a href="http://www.stoneworld.com/Articles/Article_Rotation/BNP_GUID_9-5-2006_A_10000000000000692072"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">how the stone itself is quarried</span></a>.  The stone is dug, drilled and/or cut from the quarry straight out of the ground in huge slabs.  The slabs of Stony Creek are then sent to suppliers around the Northeast who cut the stone into its appropriate size in order to distribute to contractors and construction.  Centerbrook is a company of architects only.  The firm works with Quinnipiac University to design a master plan for the campus, created with the participation of the University community during a series of design workshops and presentations.  The architects then send the design decided upon to local construction companies who price or bid on construction of the design.  Quinnipiac as an institution decides which company to work with based on the price. </p> <p>Recently, Quinnipiac has worked with <a href="http://www.bantonconstruction.com/"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Banton Construction</span></a>, a local construction company based out of North Haven.  Banton Construction Company was founded in 1979 and since then has emerged as one of the leading contractors in the Connecticut market.  Specifically since 2009, Banton has been constructing the renovations and additions to the Dining Hall and Carl Hansen Student Center, both of which designs include Stony Creek Granite.  Overall, <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">FIP Construction</span></a>, another local construction company from Cheshire, CT, has been a large contributor to the construction and assembly of the campus.  FIP Construction was responsible for the production of buildings such as the <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/portfolio/portfolio.php?RF_ITEM%5b%5d=Entry$0@826;folder"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Ed McMahon Communications Center, Lender School of Business</span></a>, the Bobcat Den (formally known as the <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/portfolio/portfolio.php?RF_ITEM%5b%5d=Entry$0@823;folder"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Rathskeller Student Center</span></a>), <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/portfolio/portfolio.php?RF_ITEM%5b%5d=Entry$0@818;folder"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">The Arnold Bernhard Library</span></a>, <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/portfolio/portfolio.php?RF_ITEM%5b%5d=Entry$0@806;folder"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Gymnasium/Recreation Center</span></a>, <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/portfolio/portfolio.php?RF_ITEM%5b%5d=Entry$0@814;folder"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Echlin Health Sciences Building</span></a> and the <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/portfolio/portfolio.php?RF_ITEM%5b%5d=Entry$0@811;folder"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Residential Halls</span></a>.</p> <p>To date, Centerbrook has designed and built thirty projects at Quinnipiac University totaling over $100 million in construction cost and ranging in scope from new buildings to outdoor suntraps to renovations and additions of existing buildings, all within the guidelines of this simple plan and most consisting in some way of the remarkable Stony Creek Granite.  Specific renovations include their current addition and expansion to the Dining Hall and <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/quinnipiac_university_carl_hansen_student_center"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Student Center</span></a>, the creation of the <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/quinnipiac_university_td_banknorth_sports_center"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">TD Bank Sports Center</span></a>, as well as their remarkable <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/quinnipiac_university_arnold_bernhard_library"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">addition to the Arnold Bernhard Library</span></a>,  </p> <p>With its increasingly expanding student body, Quinnipiac felt necessary to increase the size of the Carl Hansen Student Center in order to efficiently provide the appropriate needs for all students.  The renovation of the student center includes the expansion of dining area and remodeling of the main classroom building, Tator Hall, as well as the multi-purpose Alumni Hall building.  Renovations are still in process and close to completion, although some problems were faced along the way.  When constructing the renovations to the Student Center, the Stony Creek Granite seemed different than Stony Creek Granite used in past projects.   The appearance was dissimilar and the texture was more rough than usual.  As it turns out, the stone installed under the windows around the student center the winter before last was not real Stony Creek Granite.  The contractor was given counterfeit stone quarried somewhere in Canada.  Over $100,000 worth of stone was rejected, which set the project back significantly.  Quinnipiac hopes to have a fully remodeled student center by the start of the school year in August, 2011. </p> <p><img src="http://www.topboxdesign.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/at-Quinnipiac-University-by-Centerbrook-Architects-and-Planners-in-Connecticut-United-States-588x392.jpg" border="0" alt="sports center" width="444" height="348" style="float: left;" />The TD Bank Sports Center, located on Quinnipiac University’s supplementary campus on York Hill, held its <a href="http://www.quinnipiacbobcats.com/ViewArticle.dbml?DB_OEM_ID=17500&ATCLID=1246387"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">grand opening</span></a> January 27, 2007.  Replacing Burt Kahn Court and the Northford Ice Pavilion, the Sport Center is one of only four arenas in the Northeast having a rare design that consists of twin arenas – a hockey rink on one side and a basketball court of the opposite.</p> <p>The project cost $52 million to build and is part of Quinnipiac’s most ambitious plan thus far with the aim at improving its drawing power for Division I student athletes and perhaps moving up into a larger league than the Northeast Conference.</p> <p>Inadequately built in 1969, the library on Quinnipiac’s campus was nowhere near sufficient enough for the growth and development expected from Quinnipiac University as a whole.  Centerbrook’s idea was to renovate the library into a place where knowledge could flourish, as well as create an atmosphere that fit the needs of Quinnipiac students and faculty.  The remodeling began in the early summer of 1996 and opened as the <a href="http://www.ctlibraryassociation.org/ctheritage/bernhard.html"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">brand new Arnold Bernhard Library</span></a> in August, 2000.  Quinnipiac’s library is named after Arnold Bernhard, the founder and former chief executive officer of Value Line, Inc., a New York corporation, founded in 1982.  The Company’s primary businesses are producing the world’s largerst investment advisory service through Value Line Publishing, Inc.  It is best known for publishing <em>The Value Line Investment Survey, </em>a weekly updated stock analysis newsletter. Bernhard’s son, A. Van H. Bernhard, made the library renovation project possible by donating $1 million for the library project and an additional $3 million for the University’s endowment in 1997.  This donation was the largest in the University’s history.  The signature clock tower was built during the renovation which is now the focal point of the University and changed the overall icon of the school.  Additionally, the signature Stony Creek Granite stepping proscenium was part of these renovations as well.<img src="http://collegesearch.collegeboard.com/premium/images/3111/3111-tour1.jpg" border="0" alt="library" width="390" height="290" style="float: right;" /></p> <p>In addition to the outstanding design of Quinnipiac’s campus, Centerbrook has also used Stony Creek Granite in places such as <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/yale_university_lewis_walpole_library"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Yale University’s Library</span></a> and their newly renovated <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/yale_university_cullmanheyman_tennis_center"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Tennis Center</span></a>.  Furthermore, Centerbrook contributed greatly to the campus at the University of Connecticut located in Storrs, CT, specifically including the <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/university_of_connecticut_school_of_business"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">School of Business</span></a>, which also makes use of Stony Creek Granite.  All of these building include stone quarried at the Stony Creek Quarry in Branford, CT.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p align="center">References</p> <p>"Arnold Bernhard Library." <em>Welcome to the Connecticut Library Association Homepage</em>. Web.</p> <p>21 Oct. 2010. .</p> <p> </p> <p><em>Careers At Banton Construction</em>. Web. 21 Oct. 2010. .</p> <p> </p> <p><em>Centerbrook Architects and Planners</em>. Web. 21 Oct. 2010. .</p> <p> </p> <p><em>FIP Construction Company</em>. 21 Oct. 2010. .</p> <p> </p> <p><em>Stony Creek Quarry Corporation</em>. Web. 21 Oct. 2010. .</p> <p> </p> <p>"TD Bank Sports Center Opens with Fanfare, Friends." <em>Quinnipiac University's Official Athletics </em></p> <p><em>Site - QuinnipiacBobcats.com</em>. Web. 21 Oct. 2010. <a href="http://www.quinnipiacbobcats.com/ViewArticle.dbml?DB_OEM_ID=17500&ATCLID=1246387">http://www.quinnipiacbobcats.com/ViewArticle.dbml?DB_OEM_ID=17500&ATCLID=1246387</a>.</p> Quinnipiac University 2010-11-03T22:51:16Z 2010-11-03T22:51:16Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=405:quinnipiac-university&catid=57:institutions&Itemid=68 <p><strong>Quinnipiac University</strong></p> <p>Quinnipiac University was founded in 1929 by Samuel W. Tator, a business professor, politician and the first president of the academy.  Samuel Tator’s wife, Irmagarde Tator, a Mount Holyoke College graduate, and Judge Philip Troup, a Yale College graduate and first bursar of the school, also had a major influence in the founding and fostering of this institution.</p> <p>In response to Northeastern University’s closure of its New Haven program, Quinnipiac, which was known as Connecticut College of Commerce at the time, was created in New Haven, Connecticut.  Upon opening the school in 1929, only 200 students were admitted and only associate degrees could be achieved.  Connecticut College of Commerce graduated its first class with only a scarce amount of eight students. </p> <p>In 1935, the institution changed its name to Junior College of Commerce.  Unfortunately, in 1943 the college was closed down, as almost the entire student body was drafted into World War II.  The college was re-opened in 1945 and its admissions quadrupled to around 800 students.  In 1951, Junior College of Commerce was renamed to Quinnipiac College, honoring the Quinnipiac Indians that once inhabited the Greater New Haven area.  That same year, Quinnipiac was changed to a four year college and began to offer bachelor’s degrees.  In 1951, Quinnipiac College expanded both physically and academically, relocating their campus to a larger location in New Haven and assuming administrative control of Larson College, a private women’s college in the area.</p> <p>In 1966, construction of Quinnipiac’s current campus, located in Hamden, Connecticut, began.   The campus is situated in the Mount Carmel area, at the foot of the Sleeping Giant Mountain located in Sleeping Giant State Park.  And within the next few years, Quinnipiac College began to offer master’s degrees in a variety of different   majors.</p> <p><img class="caption" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/QU-Hansen-Student-Center.jpg" border="0" alt="Quinnipiac University Carl Hansen Student Center" title="Carl Hansen Student Center - Stony Creek granite" style="margin: 2px 6px; float: right;" />Until the 1990s, Quinnipiac continued primarily as a commuter college, receiving only regional accreditation and having only a regionally known reputation.  However, that all changed in 1995 when Reverend Sun Yung Moon, a Korean religious cult leader, purchased the University of Bridgeport for $50 million.  The University of Bridgeport Law School moved to Quinnipiac becoming the Quinnipiac School of Law.  The American Bar Association accredited Quinnipiac College to award the Juris Doctor degree.   Also during the mid 1990s, the Quinnipiac School of Law Center was donated and the Ed McMahon Communication Center and Lender School of Business buildings were built, which are state of the art facilities that attracted not only an array of students from across the country, but also nationally renowned professors.</p> <p>In order to reflect and honor this relatively new expansion in academic excellence, the college officially changed its name to Quinnipiac University on July 1<sup>st</sup>, 2000 and received accreditation by the AACSB, Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business.</p> <p>Now, Quinnipiac University is recognized as a private, coeducational university with around 6,000 undergraduate and 2,000 graduate students.  It is consistently ranked among the best universities by U.S News &amp; World Report.  Currently, Quinnipiac offers 52 undergraduate majors, 20 graduate programs and a JD program.  The university is most widely known for its esteemed programs in arts and sciences, business, communications, and health sciences.  Quinnipiac gains public media attention through its nationally noted Polling Institute.</p> <p><a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Centerbrook Architect and Planners</span></a>, located in Centerbrook, Connecticut, is responsible for the planning and design of the <a href="http://foundationsofamerica.com/plugins/editors/tinymce/jscripts/tiny_mce/plugins/paste/QUINNIPIAC%20UNIVERSITY.kmz"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Quinnipiac University</span></a> campus.  Centerbrook was started in 1975 as a community of architects working together to advance the construction and design of American places.  From its beginning, Centerbrook has not only worked to advance planning and architecture, but has strived to make innovative detail and memorable buildings in America.  Centerbrook houses its firm as well as its vital center of experimentation at its nineteenth-century historic compound of mill buildings located on the <a href="http://foundationsofamerica.com/plugins/editors/tinymce/jscripts/tiny_mce/plugins/paste/Centerbrook.kmz"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Falls River in Centerbrook, CT</span></a>.  It is at this location where the firm experiments with planning and design.  It hosts lectures and presentations on how to make its projects distinct and how to perfect the craft of building and green design.  Centerbrook has a large array of solar panels, whose grand opening, around 2007, was attended by Senator Joe Lieberman.</p> <p><img class="caption" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/QU-Library-Steps.jpg" border="0" alt="QU Library Steps - Stony Creek granite" title="QU Library Steps - Stony Creek granite" width="250" style="margin: 2px 6px; float: left;" />Centerbrook has been the campus architect for Quinnipiac University for over thirty years, since 1978, when the firm designed a campus-wide <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/quinnipiac_university_master_plan"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">master plan</span></a>. Quinnipiac University had begun building the campus sixteen years earlier with minimal facilities, all of which had been built on a very limited budget.  The Quinnipiac campus was in dire need of improvement and enhancement.  Centerbrook's aim was to give the campus an appearance that could be easily comprehended, an image that would be memorable, and a sociability that would attract prospective students and commit those already enrolled.</p> <p>Centerbrook’s use of Stony Creek Granite was essential in achieving this desired look for the Quinnipiac University campus.  <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/about/charles_mueller"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Charles Mueller</span></a>, Principal of Architecture and Design at the Centerbrook firm, is very knowledgeable about the overall convenience of this stone.  Stony Creek Granite is not only distinct and attractive looking with its light rose, stone appearance, but it is also of high quality, easy to work with, inexpensive and very reliable.  On top of these qualities, the granite is also locally quarried at the <a href="http://www.stonycreekquarry.com/07default.shtml"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Stony Creek Quarry in Branford, CT</span></a>.  This eliminates the issue concerning material being shipped from across the country or overseas. </p> <p><img class="caption" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/QU-Lenders-Tablet.jpg" border="0" title="Lender School of Business - inlaid Stony Creek granite tablet beneath the dome" style="margin: 2px 6px; float: left;" />Because of its advantageous features, Stony Creek Granite can be found all around the Quinnipiac University campus.  Not only can it be seen on the larger buildings such as the stairs of the Arnold Bernhard Library and within the archway of the Lender School of Business/Communications Center, but it can also be found, more recently, in the entranceway of the Carl Hansen Student Center, in the Residence Halls, on sitting walls and benches throughout the entirety of the campus and stone piers used strictly for embellishment.</p> <p>Darrell Petit, a sculptor who works directly with the stone at the Stony Creek Granite quarry in Branford, CT, was able to give more details about the actual quarry and <a href="http://www.stoneworld.com/Articles/Article_Rotation/BNP_GUID_9-5-2006_A_10000000000000692072"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">how the stone itself is quarried</span></a>.  The stone is dug, drilled and/or cut from the quarry straight out of the ground in huge slabs.  The slabs of Stony Creek are then sent to suppliers around the Northeast who cut the stone into its appropriate size in order to distribute to contractors and construction.  Centerbrook is a company of architects only.  The firm works with Quinnipiac University to design a master plan for the campus, created with the participation of the University community during a series of design workshops and presentations.  The architects then send the design decided upon to local construction companies who price or bid on construction of the design.  Quinnipiac as an institution decides which company to work with based on the price. </p> <p>Recently, Quinnipiac has worked with <a href="http://www.bantonconstruction.com/"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Banton Construction</span></a>, a local construction company based out of North Haven.  Banton Construction Company was founded in 1979 and since then has emerged as one of the leading contractors in the Connecticut market.  Specifically since 2009, Banton has been constructing the renovations and additions to the Dining Hall and Carl Hansen Student Center, both of which designs include Stony Creek Granite.  Overall, <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">FIP Construction</span></a>, another local construction company from Cheshire, CT, has been a large contributor to the construction and assembly of the campus.  FIP Construction was responsible for the production of buildings such as the <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/portfolio/portfolio.php?RF_ITEM%5b%5d=Entry$0@826;folder"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Ed McMahon Communications Center, Lender School of Business</span></a>, the Bobcat Den (formally known as the <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/portfolio/portfolio.php?RF_ITEM%5b%5d=Entry$0@823;folder"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Rathskeller Student Center</span></a>), <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/portfolio/portfolio.php?RF_ITEM%5b%5d=Entry$0@818;folder"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">The Arnold Bernhard Library</span></a>, <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/portfolio/portfolio.php?RF_ITEM%5b%5d=Entry$0@806;folder"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Gymnasium/Recreation Center</span></a>, <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/portfolio/portfolio.php?RF_ITEM%5b%5d=Entry$0@814;folder"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Echlin Health Sciences Building</span></a> and the <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/portfolio/portfolio.php?RF_ITEM%5b%5d=Entry$0@811;folder"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Residential Halls</span></a>.</p> <p>To date, Centerbrook has designed and built thirty projects at Quinnipiac University totaling over $100 million in construction cost and ranging in scope from new buildings to outdoor suntraps to renovations and additions of existing buildings, all within the guidelines of this simple plan and most consisting in some way of the remarkable Stony Creek Granite.  Specific renovations include their current addition and expansion to the Dining Hall and <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/quinnipiac_university_carl_hansen_student_center"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Student Center</span></a>, the creation of the <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/quinnipiac_university_td_banknorth_sports_center"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">TD Bank Sports Center</span></a>, as well as their remarkable <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/quinnipiac_university_arnold_bernhard_library"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">addition to the Arnold Bernhard Library</span></a>,  </p> <p>With its increasingly expanding student body, Quinnipiac felt necessary to increase the size of the Carl Hansen Student Center in order to efficiently provide the appropriate needs for all students.  The renovation of the student center includes the expansion of dining area and remodeling of the main classroom building, Tator Hall, as well as the multi-purpose Alumni Hall building.  Renovations are still in process and close to completion, although some problems were faced along the way.  When constructing the renovations to the Student Center, the Stony Creek Granite seemed different than Stony Creek Granite used in past projects.   The appearance was dissimilar and the texture was more rough than usual.  As it turns out, the stone installed under the windows around the student center the winter before last was not real Stony Creek Granite.  The contractor was given counterfeit stone quarried somewhere in Canada.  Over $100,000 worth of stone was rejected, which set the project back significantly.  Quinnipiac hopes to have a fully remodeled student center by the start of the school year in August, 2011. </p> <p>The TD Bank Sports Center, located on Quinnipiac University’s supplementary campus on York Hill, held its <a href="http://www.quinnipiacbobcats.com/ViewArticle.dbml?DB_OEM_ID=17500&amp;ATCLID=1246387"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">grand opening</span></a> January 27, 2007.  Replacing Burt Kahn Court and the Northford Ice Pavilion, the Sport Center is one of only four arenas in the Northeast having a rare design that consists of twin arenas – a hockey rink on one side and a basketball court of the opposite.</p> <p>The project cost $52 million to build and is part of Quinnipiac’s most ambitious plan thus far with the aim at improving its drawing power for Division I student athletes and perhaps moving up into a larger league than the Northeast Conference.</p> <p>Inadequately built in 1969, the library on Quinnipiac’s campus was nowhere near sufficient enough for the growth and development expected from Quinnipiac University as a whole.  Centerbrook’s idea was to renovate the library into a place where knowledge could flourish, as well as create an atmosphere that fit the needs of Quinnipiac students and faculty.  The remodeling began in the early summer of 1996 and opened as the <a href="http://www.ctlibraryassociation.org/ctheritage/bernhard.html"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">brand new Arnold Bernhard Library</span></a> in August, 2000.  Quinnipiac’s library is named after Arnold Bernhard, the founder and former chief executive officer of Value Line, Inc., a New York corporation, founded in 1982.  The Company’s primary businesses are producing the world’s largerst investment advisory service through Value Line Publishing, Inc.  It is best known for publishing <em>The Value Line Investment Survey, </em>a weekly updated stock analysis newsletter. Bernhard’s son, A. Van H. Bernhard, made the library renovation project possible by donating $1 million for the library project and an additional $3 million for the University’s endowment in 1997.  This donation was the largest in the University’s history.  The signature clock tower was built during the renovation which is now the focal point of the University and changed the overall icon of the school.  Additionally, the signature Stony Creek Granite stepping proscenium was part of these renovations as well.</p> <p>In addition to the outstanding design of Quinnipiac’s campus, Centerbrook has also used Stony Creek Granite in places such as <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/yale_university_lewis_walpole_library"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Yale University’s Library</span></a> and their newly renovated <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/yale_university_cullmanheyman_tennis_center"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Tennis Center</span></a>.  Furthermore, Centerbrook contributed greatly to the campus at the University of Connecticut located in Storrs, CT, specifically including the <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/university_of_connecticut_school_of_business"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">School of Business</span></a>, which also makes use of Stony Creek Granite.  All of these building include stone quarried at the Stony Creek Quarry in Branford, CT.</p> <p><strong>Quinnipiac University</strong></p> <p>Quinnipiac University was founded in 1929 by Samuel W. Tator, a business professor, politician and the first president of the academy.  Samuel Tator’s wife, Irmagarde Tator, a Mount Holyoke College graduate, and Judge Philip Troup, a Yale College graduate and first bursar of the school, also had a major influence in the founding and fostering of this institution.</p> <p>In response to Northeastern University’s closure of its New Haven program, Quinnipiac, which was known as Connecticut College of Commerce at the time, was created in New Haven, Connecticut.  Upon opening the school in 1929, only 200 students were admitted and only associate degrees could be achieved.  Connecticut College of Commerce graduated its first class with only a scarce amount of eight students. </p> <p>In 1935, the institution changed its name to Junior College of Commerce.  Unfortunately, in 1943 the college was closed down, as almost the entire student body was drafted into World War II.  The college was re-opened in 1945 and its admissions quadrupled to around 800 students.  In 1951, Junior College of Commerce was renamed to Quinnipiac College, honoring the Quinnipiac Indians that once inhabited the Greater New Haven area.  That same year, Quinnipiac was changed to a four year college and began to offer bachelor’s degrees.  In 1951, Quinnipiac College expanded both physically and academically, relocating their campus to a larger location in New Haven and assuming administrative control of Larson College, a private women’s college in the area.</p> <p>In 1966, construction of Quinnipiac’s current campus, located in Hamden, Connecticut, began.   The campus is situated in the Mount Carmel area, at the foot of the Sleeping Giant Mountain located in Sleeping Giant State Park.  And within the next few years, Quinnipiac College began to offer master’s degrees in a variety of different   majors.</p> <p><img class="caption" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/QU-Hansen-Student-Center.jpg" border="0" alt="Quinnipiac University Carl Hansen Student Center" title="Carl Hansen Student Center - Stony Creek granite" style="margin: 2px 6px; float: right;" />Until the 1990s, Quinnipiac continued primarily as a commuter college, receiving only regional accreditation and having only a regionally known reputation.  However, that all changed in 1995 when Reverend Sun Yung Moon, a Korean religious cult leader, purchased the University of Bridgeport for $50 million.  The University of Bridgeport Law School moved to Quinnipiac becoming the Quinnipiac School of Law.  The American Bar Association accredited Quinnipiac College to award the Juris Doctor degree.   Also during the mid 1990s, the Quinnipiac School of Law Center was donated and the Ed McMahon Communication Center and Lender School of Business buildings were built, which are state of the art facilities that attracted not only an array of students from across the country, but also nationally renowned professors.</p> <p>In order to reflect and honor this relatively new expansion in academic excellence, the college officially changed its name to Quinnipiac University on July 1<sup>st</sup>, 2000 and received accreditation by the AACSB, Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business.</p> <p>Now, Quinnipiac University is recognized as a private, coeducational university with around 6,000 undergraduate and 2,000 graduate students.  It is consistently ranked among the best universities by U.S News &amp; World Report.  Currently, Quinnipiac offers 52 undergraduate majors, 20 graduate programs and a JD program.  The university is most widely known for its esteemed programs in arts and sciences, business, communications, and health sciences.  Quinnipiac gains public media attention through its nationally noted Polling Institute.</p> <p><a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Centerbrook Architect and Planners</span></a>, located in Centerbrook, Connecticut, is responsible for the planning and design of the <a href="http://foundationsofamerica.com/plugins/editors/tinymce/jscripts/tiny_mce/plugins/paste/QUINNIPIAC%20UNIVERSITY.kmz"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Quinnipiac University</span></a> campus.  Centerbrook was started in 1975 as a community of architects working together to advance the construction and design of American places.  From its beginning, Centerbrook has not only worked to advance planning and architecture, but has strived to make innovative detail and memorable buildings in America.  Centerbrook houses its firm as well as its vital center of experimentation at its nineteenth-century historic compound of mill buildings located on the <a href="http://foundationsofamerica.com/plugins/editors/tinymce/jscripts/tiny_mce/plugins/paste/Centerbrook.kmz"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Falls River in Centerbrook, CT</span></a>.  It is at this location where the firm experiments with planning and design.  It hosts lectures and presentations on how to make its projects distinct and how to perfect the craft of building and green design.  Centerbrook has a large array of solar panels, whose grand opening, around 2007, was attended by Senator Joe Lieberman.</p> <p><img class="caption" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/QU-Library-Steps.jpg" border="0" alt="QU Library Steps - Stony Creek granite" title="QU Library Steps - Stony Creek granite" width="250" style="margin: 2px 6px; float: left;" />Centerbrook has been the campus architect for Quinnipiac University for over thirty years, since 1978, when the firm designed a campus-wide <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/quinnipiac_university_master_plan"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">master plan</span></a>. Quinnipiac University had begun building the campus sixteen years earlier with minimal facilities, all of which had been built on a very limited budget.  The Quinnipiac campus was in dire need of improvement and enhancement.  Centerbrook's aim was to give the campus an appearance that could be easily comprehended, an image that would be memorable, and a sociability that would attract prospective students and commit those already enrolled.</p> <p>Centerbrook’s use of Stony Creek Granite was essential in achieving this desired look for the Quinnipiac University campus.  <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/about/charles_mueller"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Charles Mueller</span></a>, Principal of Architecture and Design at the Centerbrook firm, is very knowledgeable about the overall convenience of this stone.  Stony Creek Granite is not only distinct and attractive looking with its light rose, stone appearance, but it is also of high quality, easy to work with, inexpensive and very reliable.  On top of these qualities, the granite is also locally quarried at the <a href="http://www.stonycreekquarry.com/07default.shtml"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Stony Creek Quarry in Branford, CT</span></a>.  This eliminates the issue concerning material being shipped from across the country or overseas. </p> <p><img class="caption" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/QU-Lenders-Tablet.jpg" border="0" title="Lender School of Business - inlaid Stony Creek granite tablet beneath the dome" style="margin: 2px 6px; float: left;" />Because of its advantageous features, Stony Creek Granite can be found all around the Quinnipiac University campus.  Not only can it be seen on the larger buildings such as the stairs of the Arnold Bernhard Library and within the archway of the Lender School of Business/Communications Center, but it can also be found, more recently, in the entranceway of the Carl Hansen Student Center, in the Residence Halls, on sitting walls and benches throughout the entirety of the campus and stone piers used strictly for embellishment.</p> <p>Darrell Petit, a sculptor who works directly with the stone at the Stony Creek Granite quarry in Branford, CT, was able to give more details about the actual quarry and <a href="http://www.stoneworld.com/Articles/Article_Rotation/BNP_GUID_9-5-2006_A_10000000000000692072"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">how the stone itself is quarried</span></a>.  The stone is dug, drilled and/or cut from the quarry straight out of the ground in huge slabs.  The slabs of Stony Creek are then sent to suppliers around the Northeast who cut the stone into its appropriate size in order to distribute to contractors and construction.  Centerbrook is a company of architects only.  The firm works with Quinnipiac University to design a master plan for the campus, created with the participation of the University community during a series of design workshops and presentations.  The architects then send the design decided upon to local construction companies who price or bid on construction of the design.  Quinnipiac as an institution decides which company to work with based on the price. </p> <p>Recently, Quinnipiac has worked with <a href="http://www.bantonconstruction.com/"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Banton Construction</span></a>, a local construction company based out of North Haven.  Banton Construction Company was founded in 1979 and since then has emerged as one of the leading contractors in the Connecticut market.  Specifically since 2009, Banton has been constructing the renovations and additions to the Dining Hall and Carl Hansen Student Center, both of which designs include Stony Creek Granite.  Overall, <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">FIP Construction</span></a>, another local construction company from Cheshire, CT, has been a large contributor to the construction and assembly of the campus.  FIP Construction was responsible for the production of buildings such as the <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/portfolio/portfolio.php?RF_ITEM%5b%5d=Entry$0@826;folder"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Ed McMahon Communications Center, Lender School of Business</span></a>, the Bobcat Den (formally known as the <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/portfolio/portfolio.php?RF_ITEM%5b%5d=Entry$0@823;folder"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Rathskeller Student Center</span></a>), <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/portfolio/portfolio.php?RF_ITEM%5b%5d=Entry$0@818;folder"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">The Arnold Bernhard Library</span></a>, <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/portfolio/portfolio.php?RF_ITEM%5b%5d=Entry$0@806;folder"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Gymnasium/Recreation Center</span></a>, <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/portfolio/portfolio.php?RF_ITEM%5b%5d=Entry$0@814;folder"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Echlin Health Sciences Building</span></a> and the <a href="http://www.fipconstruction.com/portfolio/portfolio.php?RF_ITEM%5b%5d=Entry$0@811;folder"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Residential Halls</span></a>.</p> <p>To date, Centerbrook has designed and built thirty projects at Quinnipiac University totaling over $100 million in construction cost and ranging in scope from new buildings to outdoor suntraps to renovations and additions of existing buildings, all within the guidelines of this simple plan and most consisting in some way of the remarkable Stony Creek Granite.  Specific renovations include their current addition and expansion to the Dining Hall and <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/quinnipiac_university_carl_hansen_student_center"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Student Center</span></a>, the creation of the <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/quinnipiac_university_td_banknorth_sports_center"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">TD Bank Sports Center</span></a>, as well as their remarkable <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/quinnipiac_university_arnold_bernhard_library"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">addition to the Arnold Bernhard Library</span></a>,  </p> <p>With its increasingly expanding student body, Quinnipiac felt necessary to increase the size of the Carl Hansen Student Center in order to efficiently provide the appropriate needs for all students.  The renovation of the student center includes the expansion of dining area and remodeling of the main classroom building, Tator Hall, as well as the multi-purpose Alumni Hall building.  Renovations are still in process and close to completion, although some problems were faced along the way.  When constructing the renovations to the Student Center, the Stony Creek Granite seemed different than Stony Creek Granite used in past projects.   The appearance was dissimilar and the texture was more rough than usual.  As it turns out, the stone installed under the windows around the student center the winter before last was not real Stony Creek Granite.  The contractor was given counterfeit stone quarried somewhere in Canada.  Over $100,000 worth of stone was rejected, which set the project back significantly.  Quinnipiac hopes to have a fully remodeled student center by the start of the school year in August, 2011. </p> <p>The TD Bank Sports Center, located on Quinnipiac University’s supplementary campus on York Hill, held its <a href="http://www.quinnipiacbobcats.com/ViewArticle.dbml?DB_OEM_ID=17500&amp;ATCLID=1246387"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">grand opening</span></a> January 27, 2007.  Replacing Burt Kahn Court and the Northford Ice Pavilion, the Sport Center is one of only four arenas in the Northeast having a rare design that consists of twin arenas – a hockey rink on one side and a basketball court of the opposite.</p> <p>The project cost $52 million to build and is part of Quinnipiac’s most ambitious plan thus far with the aim at improving its drawing power for Division I student athletes and perhaps moving up into a larger league than the Northeast Conference.</p> <p>Inadequately built in 1969, the library on Quinnipiac’s campus was nowhere near sufficient enough for the growth and development expected from Quinnipiac University as a whole.  Centerbrook’s idea was to renovate the library into a place where knowledge could flourish, as well as create an atmosphere that fit the needs of Quinnipiac students and faculty.  The remodeling began in the early summer of 1996 and opened as the <a href="http://www.ctlibraryassociation.org/ctheritage/bernhard.html"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">brand new Arnold Bernhard Library</span></a> in August, 2000.  Quinnipiac’s library is named after Arnold Bernhard, the founder and former chief executive officer of Value Line, Inc., a New York corporation, founded in 1982.  The Company’s primary businesses are producing the world’s largerst investment advisory service through Value Line Publishing, Inc.  It is best known for publishing <em>The Value Line Investment Survey, </em>a weekly updated stock analysis newsletter. Bernhard’s son, A. Van H. Bernhard, made the library renovation project possible by donating $1 million for the library project and an additional $3 million for the University’s endowment in 1997.  This donation was the largest in the University’s history.  The signature clock tower was built during the renovation which is now the focal point of the University and changed the overall icon of the school.  Additionally, the signature Stony Creek Granite stepping proscenium was part of these renovations as well.</p> <p>In addition to the outstanding design of Quinnipiac’s campus, Centerbrook has also used Stony Creek Granite in places such as <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/yale_university_lewis_walpole_library"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Yale University’s Library</span></a> and their newly renovated <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/yale_university_cullmanheyman_tennis_center"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Tennis Center</span></a>.  Furthermore, Centerbrook contributed greatly to the campus at the University of Connecticut located in Storrs, CT, specifically including the <a href="http://www.centerbrook.com/project/university_of_connecticut_school_of_business"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">School of Business</span></a>, which also makes use of Stony Creek Granite.  All of these building include stone quarried at the Stony Creek Quarry in Branford, CT.</p> St. Johns Seminary 2010-10-22T15:13:28Z 2010-10-22T15:13:28Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=399:st-johns-seminary&catid=57:institutions&Itemid=68 Dan Abreu <p align="center"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">St. John’s Seminary</span></p> <p>            A brief history and background of the St. John’s seminary includes the founding of the seminary by Archbishop Williams. “The seminary was founded to train priests for the Archdiocese of Boston and other dioceses of New England. Prior to this, Boston and the newly founded dioceses of Burlington, Portland, and Springfield sent their seminarians to study for priestly formation in Baltimore, Quebec City, and Europe. These trips were long, exhausting and isolating for these future priests, who sometimes spent years away from their families, friends, and dioceses. As the Church in New England continued to grow, it became feasible for the creation of a major seminary in the archdiocese of Boston. In March of 1880, Archbishop Williams acquired the 50 acre Stanwood estate, near the present day Lake Street in Brighton, for around 18,500 dollars. Williams, looking back on his own formation with fondness, invited the Sulpician Fathers to staff the Seminary. Work began on the Theology House (St. John's Hall) in April of 1881 and continued for three years. Originally designed to hold 200 students, the plans were simplified, due to construction costs. Saint John's seminary opened its doors in May 1884, with room for 100 seminarians and was staffed by Sulpicians from Paris and Baltimore. The Sulpicians brought a number of books and pieces of art, mostly notably they brought the statue of the Madonna and Child, a replica of a famous piece from the church of Saint Sulpice in Paris. This statue stands in the courtyard to this day.”</p> <p>            In 1919, Boston was plagued by the Spanish Influenza outbreak which killed an average of 150 people per day. To help the people of Boston cope with the outbreak, Cardinal O’Connell offered St. John’s as a hospital with twenty seminarians assisting the doctors and nurses. Shortly after the Spanish Influenza outbreak, St. John’s Seminary was under renovations once again. The renovations consisted of expanding St. John’s hall to add more rooms for the students. Along with the room expansion, the seminary added a convent for sisters, and new heating boilers. The seminary went under great expansion in the 20<sup>th</sup> century, including the construction of facilities which housed several archdiocesan offices. The construction of these offices consequently made the seminary the heart of the Archdiocese of Boston for the 20<sup>th</sup> century.</p> <p>            Due to the large increase in enrollment at the seminary, the outdated St. John’s hall, once again, had to undergo renovations. Under the direction of Cardinal Law, millions of dollars were invested in the renovations of St. John’s. Modern bathrooms were installed and improvements to the classrooms and common rooms were also made during this time. Due to the sex scandal that hit the Roman Catholic faith in 2001, the St. John’s seminary closed down in 2002. Much of the land was sold off to Boston College.</p> <p>            St. John’s Seminary is located on <a href="http://foundationsofamerica.com/file:///C:/Users/djabreu/Desktop/St.%20John's%20Seminary.kmz">127 Lake Street, Brighton, MA.</a></p> <p>.</p> <p> <img src="http://web.me.com/jmazzone/Site/Seminaries_files/StJohnsSeminary1-filtered.jpg" border="0" width="467" height="350" /></p> <p>Est. 1884</p> <p>            According to the master list of sites on foundationsofamerica.com, the architect of the seminary was, Joseph Gregory McGann. When the very first construction began in 1899, the architectural firm of Magennis and Walsh designed St. John’s hall using the French provincial style of the theology house. The interior design of the chapel was the main focus of the seminary when Magennis and Walsh designed it. “Saint John's Seminary Chapel served as the crowning piece of Archbishop John Williams' efforts to provide Boston with a setting where Roman Catholic priests would discover the mystery of their unique calling. In a word, the Chapel was constructed around the Eucharist. Today, the visitor will note that the Chapel houses only one altar. There are no side altars, such as one is accustomed to see in many parish and cathedral churches. In principle, Romanesque churches accommodated only one altar in the rounded apse which is characteristic of this ancient style. But what is more important, the Chapel was designed to remind the seminarian from his first day in residence that his future life as a priest would center on the Eucharist. Originally, the main altar was located in the center of the Chapel's apse. On it stood the tabernacle. Where now the visitor is impressed by the sculpted crucifix, there hung a large gilded tabernacle lamp. All in all, the Chapel provides a setting for the sacraments that recalls the Passion and Death of the Lord. Until the 1990s, the seminarians were asked to kneel on the bare wooden floor of the Chapel. Devotion to the Eucharist as well as humility are required of the man who alone provides others with Christ's Body and Blood. Instruction about humility was impressed on the seminarians by the purposeful omission of padded kneelers in the original construction. Today's seminarians develop these same virtues of reverence for God and his sacraments.”</p> <p>            One of the main architectural features inside the chapel is the organ. Hook and Hastings were the premiere organ builders of the late 19<sup>th</sup> century. The Hook and Hastings organ was installed shortly after the completion of the chapel. “An older but suitable one-manual pipe organ accompanies liturgical ceremonies while the seminary awaits adequate donations to restore the original Hook and Hasting. Christmas concerts continue to delight visitors to Saint John's Seminary as well as other solemn liturgies that occur throughout the Church's year. The Chapel regularly welcomes worshipers for Sunday and other special liturgies, especially during Holy Week.”</p> <p> </p> <p> <img src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_-t37QJkgP08/Si5rd0FD86I/AAAAAAAAAHg/cwVszyUbESQ/s400/285px-St-johns-seminary-chapel.jpg" border="0" width="285" height="380" /></p> <p>     The one-hundredth anniversary of the chapel brought renovations to the chapel. The images of the doctors located in the apse were restored. “They had been removed in the early decades of the twentieth century - so there was no living memory of them, only photographs. Saints Ambrose, Augustine, Gregory the Great watch down from the left, and Saints Thomas Aquinas, Athanasius, and Basil the Great do so from the right. The Doctors of the Church appear frequently in churches built in the late-nineteenth and early twentieth century. The message their images communicated is clear. Authentic instruction about the Christian faith comes from those who are recognized by the Church for sound doctrine. In seminaries, these holy men (and today holy women, including St. Thérèse of Lisieux) serve a special purpose. They remind seminarians that the priest brings a message that is not his own. Rather the priest is charged to announce the Word of God in conformity with the truth of Catholic and divine faith.”</p> <p> The exterior of the building is made out of Stony Creek granite. As you can see in the picture above (St. Jonn’s Seminary in Boston, MA), the multi-colored stone on the exterior of the seminary is the Stony Creek granite. There was no Stony Creek granite incorporated on the inside of the building. The granite was used as main base of the outside of the building. The Stony Creek granite came from the number one supplier of Stony Creek granite, in Milford, Connecticut. The granite was transported to Boston by ship. It was easily accessible because the seminary is located near the Boston Harbor.</p> <p style="text-align: center;">Works Cited</p> <p style="text-align: left;"><a href="http://www.sjs.edu/">http://www.sjs.edu/</a></p> <p align="center"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">St. John’s Seminary</span></p> <p>            A brief history and background of the St. John’s seminary includes the founding of the seminary by Archbishop Williams. “The seminary was founded to train priests for the Archdiocese of Boston and other dioceses of New England. Prior to this, Boston and the newly founded dioceses of Burlington, Portland, and Springfield sent their seminarians to study for priestly formation in Baltimore, Quebec City, and Europe. These trips were long, exhausting and isolating for these future priests, who sometimes spent years away from their families, friends, and dioceses. As the Church in New England continued to grow, it became feasible for the creation of a major seminary in the archdiocese of Boston. In March of 1880, Archbishop Williams acquired the 50 acre Stanwood estate, near the present day Lake Street in Brighton, for around 18,500 dollars. Williams, looking back on his own formation with fondness, invited the Sulpician Fathers to staff the Seminary. Work began on the Theology House (St. John's Hall) in April of 1881 and continued for three years. Originally designed to hold 200 students, the plans were simplified, due to construction costs. Saint John's seminary opened its doors in May 1884, with room for 100 seminarians and was staffed by Sulpicians from Paris and Baltimore. The Sulpicians brought a number of books and pieces of art, mostly notably they brought the statue of the Madonna and Child, a replica of a famous piece from the church of Saint Sulpice in Paris. This statue stands in the courtyard to this day.”</p> <p>            In 1919, Boston was plagued by the Spanish Influenza outbreak which killed an average of 150 people per day. To help the people of Boston cope with the outbreak, Cardinal O’Connell offered St. John’s as a hospital with twenty seminarians assisting the doctors and nurses. Shortly after the Spanish Influenza outbreak, St. John’s Seminary was under renovations once again. The renovations consisted of expanding St. John’s hall to add more rooms for the students. Along with the room expansion, the seminary added a convent for sisters, and new heating boilers. The seminary went under great expansion in the 20<sup>th</sup> century, including the construction of facilities which housed several archdiocesan offices. The construction of these offices consequently made the seminary the heart of the Archdiocese of Boston for the 20<sup>th</sup> century.</p> <p>            Due to the large increase in enrollment at the seminary, the outdated St. John’s hall, once again, had to undergo renovations. Under the direction of Cardinal Law, millions of dollars were invested in the renovations of St. John’s. Modern bathrooms were installed and improvements to the classrooms and common rooms were also made during this time. Due to the sex scandal that hit the Roman Catholic faith in 2001, the St. John’s seminary closed down in 2002. Much of the land was sold off to Boston College.</p> <p>            St. John’s Seminary is located on <a href="http://foundationsofamerica.com/file:///C:/Users/djabreu/Desktop/St.%20John's%20Seminary.kmz">127 Lake Street, Brighton, MA.</a></p> <p>.</p> <p> <img src="http://web.me.com/jmazzone/Site/Seminaries_files/StJohnsSeminary1-filtered.jpg" border="0" width="467" height="350" /></p> <p>Est. 1884</p> <p>            According to the master list of sites on foundationsofamerica.com, the architect of the seminary was, Joseph Gregory McGann. When the very first construction began in 1899, the architectural firm of Magennis and Walsh designed St. John’s hall using the French provincial style of the theology house. The interior design of the chapel was the main focus of the seminary when Magennis and Walsh designed it. “Saint John's Seminary Chapel served as the crowning piece of Archbishop John Williams' efforts to provide Boston with a setting where Roman Catholic priests would discover the mystery of their unique calling. In a word, the Chapel was constructed around the Eucharist. Today, the visitor will note that the Chapel houses only one altar. There are no side altars, such as one is accustomed to see in many parish and cathedral churches. In principle, Romanesque churches accommodated only one altar in the rounded apse which is characteristic of this ancient style. But what is more important, the Chapel was designed to remind the seminarian from his first day in residence that his future life as a priest would center on the Eucharist. Originally, the main altar was located in the center of the Chapel's apse. On it stood the tabernacle. Where now the visitor is impressed by the sculpted crucifix, there hung a large gilded tabernacle lamp. All in all, the Chapel provides a setting for the sacraments that recalls the Passion and Death of the Lord. Until the 1990s, the seminarians were asked to kneel on the bare wooden floor of the Chapel. Devotion to the Eucharist as well as humility are required of the man who alone provides others with Christ's Body and Blood. Instruction about humility was impressed on the seminarians by the purposeful omission of padded kneelers in the original construction. Today's seminarians develop these same virtues of reverence for God and his sacraments.”</p> <p>            One of the main architectural features inside the chapel is the organ. Hook and Hastings were the premiere organ builders of the late 19<sup>th</sup> century. The Hook and Hastings organ was installed shortly after the completion of the chapel. “An older but suitable one-manual pipe organ accompanies liturgical ceremonies while the seminary awaits adequate donations to restore the original Hook and Hasting. Christmas concerts continue to delight visitors to Saint John's Seminary as well as other solemn liturgies that occur throughout the Church's year. The Chapel regularly welcomes worshipers for Sunday and other special liturgies, especially during Holy Week.”</p> <p> </p> <p> <img src="http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_-t37QJkgP08/Si5rd0FD86I/AAAAAAAAAHg/cwVszyUbESQ/s400/285px-St-johns-seminary-chapel.jpg" border="0" width="285" height="380" /></p> <p>     The one-hundredth anniversary of the chapel brought renovations to the chapel. The images of the doctors located in the apse were restored. “They had been removed in the early decades of the twentieth century - so there was no living memory of them, only photographs. Saints Ambrose, Augustine, Gregory the Great watch down from the left, and Saints Thomas Aquinas, Athanasius, and Basil the Great do so from the right. The Doctors of the Church appear frequently in churches built in the late-nineteenth and early twentieth century. The message their images communicated is clear. Authentic instruction about the Christian faith comes from those who are recognized by the Church for sound doctrine. In seminaries, these holy men (and today holy women, including St. Thérèse of Lisieux) serve a special purpose. They remind seminarians that the priest brings a message that is not his own. Rather the priest is charged to announce the Word of God in conformity with the truth of Catholic and divine faith.”</p> <p> The exterior of the building is made out of Stony Creek granite. As you can see in the picture above (St. Jonn’s Seminary in Boston, MA), the multi-colored stone on the exterior of the seminary is the Stony Creek granite. There was no Stony Creek granite incorporated on the inside of the building. The granite was used as main base of the outside of the building. The Stony Creek granite came from the number one supplier of Stony Creek granite, in Milford, Connecticut. The granite was transported to Boston by ship. It was easily accessible because the seminary is located near the Boston Harbor.</p> <p style="text-align: center;">Works Cited</p> <p style="text-align: left;"><a href="http://www.sjs.edu/">http://www.sjs.edu/</a></p> Yale University - Osborn, Memorial Hall 2010-10-18T14:52:08Z 2010-10-18T14:52:08Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=387:yale-university-osborn-memorial-hall&catid=57:institutions&Itemid=68 <p style="TEXT-ALIGN: center"><span style="font-size: xx-large;"><span style="font-family: times new roman,times;"><strong><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><img src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/osborn hall2.jpg" border="0" alt="Osborn Hall" title="Osborn Hall" width="556" height="417" align="left" /><br /></span></strong></span></span></p> <p align="center"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: times new roman,times;"><strong><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><br /></span></strong></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: times new roman,times;"> </span></span></p> <p style="text-align: left;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> </span> </p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </p> <p style="text-align: left;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">Yale’s Osborn Hall was a Lecture Hall built in 1888 on the Old Yale Campus.  Designed by New York architect B ruce Price and built in 1888, Osborne Hall resided on the corner of Chapel and College in New Haven Connecticut. It is one of the latest examples Gothic style Victorian buildings due to the growing aversion to dark architecture by the 1920s.</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: left;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">It was built as a result of Miriam Osborn’s generous donation of $150,000 in 1887.  She made a contribution to Yale’s President Timothy Dwight designated for the construction of a new lecture hall in honor of her recently deceased husband, Yale Alumni, Charles Osborn.  The building was so magnificent that it became a sight to be seen.   Students faculty and tourists would gather outside to see the glorious architecture.</span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"><img src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/osborn%20hall%203.jpg" border="0" title="Osborn Hall" width="506" height="402" align="right" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: left;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> Osborn Hall was a place of much controversy in the late 1800’s.  The design was extravagant and went beyond the previous structures in the area.  It was built to imitate a caste with bold color, lavish materials (Stony Creek Granite), and elaborate ornamentation. The building was noticed by everyone.   The new lecture hall also occupied the most “conspicuous corner” on the Yale campus.  This corner was occupied by the famous hangout spot – The Yale Fence, where students, faculty and alumni went to “be seen” and smoke cigars.  Despite many protests Osborn Hall was still built on the site and left room for a new hangout spot along the perimeters of the building; keeping the famed fence intact.  Despite the halls incredible architectural design and esteem, Osborn Hall had many tribulations that eventually forced Yale University officials to knock the building down.  The building was said to be the “noisiest lecture hall ever created.”  It location on the corner of College Square left the classrooms with the constant echo and vibrations from the outside city sounds of the busy New Haven street corner.  Trolleys, street vendors and students were constantly bustling outside, leaving the lecture hall loud and in conducive to any type of learning environment.</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 210px;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"><img src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/map oh.jpg" border="0" title="Map" width="313" height="211" style="VERTICAL-ALIGN: middle" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 90px;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> For many students, in the years that Osborne Hall was standing, it was the spot where many famous lectures in law and history took place, where they would socialize and the final destination of their graduation march.  By 1920, the Yale President had made arrangements to change the space into a dormitory and change the architecture of the building to one that was more unified with the rest of the campus.  Osborn Hall was torn down in 1926 and replaced by Bingham Hall which occupies the corner today.</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: center; padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"><img class="caption" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/osbornhallinside.jpg" border="0" title="Osborn Hall Inside" /><br /></span></span></span></p> <blockquote> <p style="padding-left: 60px;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">In a report from the Yale University President Timothy Dwight he writes, “The plans for the new Recitation-room Building were completed, and the contracts made, early in July 1888.  In consequence of certain difficulties and delays in procuring the desired materials for the work the ground was not broken until August, and the building itself was not begun until September.  The work was been moving forward steadily since the opening of the present Academic year, and is now hoped that the building may be ready for occupancy at, or soon after, the beginning of the next autumn term.  The material used in the construction of this building is the Red-path granite from the Stony Creek quarries, in combination with the Kibble red sandstone from the quarries at Longmeadow.  The building is designed by Bruce Price of New York.  The architecture is in the character of the transition from Byzantine to Romanesque.  When completed, the building will have two stories, with a basement and commodious attic, and will have about twenty-two rooms accommodating from twenty-five to three hundred students.  The location being at the southeastern angle of the College square, the main entrance—a semi-circular podium, upon which is to stand a five-arch portico — will be at the corner of the two streets, and the building will extend 155 feet on College street and 102 feet on Chapel street.  The expense of this building has proved to be greater than was at first contemplated.  It will probably amount to $160,000.  But the same generosity which prompted the original gift has provided for additional outlay, so that the University receives in this case, as in the case of the Library Building, a large and most valuable donation beyond what was so kindly offered at the outset.”</span></span></span></p> </blockquote> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"><img class="system-pagebreak" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/example%20of%20b%20price%20work.jpg" border="0" alt="Chateau Frontenac- Bruce Price" title="Chateau Frontenac- Bruce Price" style="float: left;" /></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">Bruce Price was an architect who liked to go above and beyond the expectations.  He began his career with his designs of 40 dynamic Shingle-style houses in Tuxedo Park, Rockland County, NY.  He was famous for his massive and beautiful castle- like structures that stood out in any location.  His designs were opulent and copious with delicate and beautiful ornamentation and materials.  He was an American architect born in 1845, he is well remembered for his designs of Canadian Pacific Railway's Château-type stations and hotels.  An example of his elaborate work similar to Osborne Hall was the Château Frontenac in Quebec.  Price also invented, and patented the parlor bay-window cars for the Pennsylvania Railroad and for the Boston and Albany.  Bruce Price chose to use Stony Creek Granite for many of his projects because of its dynamic color and opulence.</span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: times new roman,times;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">Miriam Osborn was a New York socialite and wealthy housewife in the late 1800's.  However she unlike many of her counterparts was extremely demour and generous.  She had dreams and aspirations that outreached many other women of the time. Osborn Hall was not Miriam Osborn's only project.  She also made sure she left her own legacy behind. After her husband died she became aware of many widows, more destitute then herself, searching for someone to care for them in their old age.  When Mirian died in 1892 her will stated that $300,000 be given to create the Osborn Memorial Home in Rye, New York.  This wish was executed by John Sterling who made sure the same attention to detail was given to this project as had been on Osborn Memorial Hall.  He hired the same new york architect Bruce Price who used the same lavish materials he had used on the Osborn Memorial Hall, including Stony Creek Granite.  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">The Stony Creek Granite used for Yale’s Osborne Hall was quarried from the Norcross Brothers/Dodds/ Castellucci Quarry.  The Norcross Quarry was started in 1877 and was primarily used for large scale buildings and projects including: public buildings, educational structures, private residences, business blocks, churches and railroad stations.  Osborn Hall was one of the first buildings to use the granite from this quarry.</span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">The Norcross brothers were James Atkinson Norcross (1831-1903) and Orlando Whitney Norcross (1839-1920).  Orlando Norcross was born in Clinton, Maine and grew up in Salem MA; he was discharged from the Union in 1864 and joined his brother at the Worcester building company in 1868.  The Brothers bought property in Stony Creek in 1887 and became the leading quarry in the area and the only one to operate ever since. Norcross Bros. built what is now Quarry Road which was led from the quarry to the railroad track so that stone could be shipped by rail as well as by boat.</span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">The “Quarrymen’s Union” was chartered in 1891 and contracts were signed by hundreds of Stony Creek workers. The wages in one contract ranged from 21 cents to 35 cents an hour. The men went on strike March 1, 1900 when the company wouldn’t agree to a pay increase.  The strike changed the granite industry for the worse.  Granite was far too expensive to use as a construction material. The Dodd Granite Co. bought Norcross quarry in 1923 and its last big job was for the Department of Commerce Building in Washington D.C. in 1928.</span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">Exhibit Idea:</span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">Make an area with pictures of the Osborn Hall, Interior and exterior, the citation from Yale President Timothy Dwight as well as a map of New Haven with the location pinpointed.  Include a story line of Miriam Osborn and a copy of her will.<br /></span></span></span></p> <p align="center"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span></span><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span></span></p> <hr /> <p align="center"> </p> <p align="center"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">Works Cited</span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">1920s, By The. "Yale Bulletin and Calendar." Yale University. 06 Oct. 2000. Web. 18 Oct. 2010. </span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">"Bruce Price." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 18 Oct. 2010. </span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">DeFord, Deborah. Flesh and Stone: Stony Creek and the Age of Granite. Stony Creek, CT: Stony Creek Granite Workers Celebration/Leete's Island, 2000. 29. Print.</span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">Digital image. Yale Library. Yale, 06 Oct. 2000. Web. 18 Oct. 2010. </span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">"The History of Branfords Stony Creek Quarries." Welcome to the Town of Branford! Web. 18 Oct. 2010. </span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: times new roman,times;"> <div style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">"MRS. OSBORN'S WILL." <em>The New York Times - Breaking News, World News &amp; Multimedia</em>. Web. 07 Nov. 2010. .</span></span></div> </span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">"The Osborn." <em>Google Books</em>. Web. 07 Nov. 2010. .</span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">"University of California Press on Behalf of the Society of Architectural Historians." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 32.2 (1973): 104-13. Print.</span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">Yale University. Report of the President of Yale University: for the Year Ending July 1st 1887. (New Haven): (Tuttle, Morehouse &amp; Taylor), 1889. Print.</span></span></span></p> <p style="TEXT-ALIGN: center"><span style="font-size: xx-large;"><span style="font-family: times new roman,times;"><strong><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><img src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/osborn hall2.jpg" border="0" alt="Osborn Hall" title="Osborn Hall" width="556" height="417" align="left" /><br /></span></strong></span></span></p> <p align="center"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: times new roman,times;"><strong><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><br /></span></strong></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: times new roman,times;"> </span></span></p> <p style="text-align: left;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> </span> </p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </p> <p style="text-align: left;"> </p> <p style="text-align: left;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">Yale’s Osborn Hall was a Lecture Hall built in 1888 on the Old Yale Campus.  Designed by New York architect B ruce Price and built in 1888, Osborne Hall resided on the corner of Chapel and College in New Haven Connecticut. It is one of the latest examples Gothic style Victorian buildings due to the growing aversion to dark architecture by the 1920s.</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: left;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">It was built as a result of Miriam Osborn’s generous donation of $150,000 in 1887.  She made a contribution to Yale’s President Timothy Dwight designated for the construction of a new lecture hall in honor of her recently deceased husband, Yale Alumni, Charles Osborn.  The building was so magnificent that it became a sight to be seen.   Students faculty and tourists would gather outside to see the glorious architecture.</span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"><img src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/osborn%20hall%203.jpg" border="0" title="Osborn Hall" width="506" height="402" align="right" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: left;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> Osborn Hall was a place of much controversy in the late 1800’s.  The design was extravagant and went beyond the previous structures in the area.  It was built to imitate a caste with bold color, lavish materials (Stony Creek Granite), and elaborate ornamentation. The building was noticed by everyone.   The new lecture hall also occupied the most “conspicuous corner” on the Yale campus.  This corner was occupied by the famous hangout spot – The Yale Fence, where students, faculty and alumni went to “be seen” and smoke cigars.  Despite many protests Osborn Hall was still built on the site and left room for a new hangout spot along the perimeters of the building; keeping the famed fence intact.  Despite the halls incredible architectural design and esteem, Osborn Hall had many tribulations that eventually forced Yale University officials to knock the building down.  The building was said to be the “noisiest lecture hall ever created.”  It location on the corner of College Square left the classrooms with the constant echo and vibrations from the outside city sounds of the busy New Haven street corner.  Trolleys, street vendors and students were constantly bustling outside, leaving the lecture hall loud and in conducive to any type of learning environment.</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 210px;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"><img src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/map oh.jpg" border="0" title="Map" width="313" height="211" style="VERTICAL-ALIGN: middle" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 90px;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> For many students, in the years that Osborne Hall was standing, it was the spot where many famous lectures in law and history took place, where they would socialize and the final destination of their graduation march.  By 1920, the Yale President had made arrangements to change the space into a dormitory and change the architecture of the building to one that was more unified with the rest of the campus.  Osborn Hall was torn down in 1926 and replaced by Bingham Hall which occupies the corner today.</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: center; padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"><img class="caption" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/osbornhallinside.jpg" border="0" title="Osborn Hall Inside" /><br /></span></span></span></p> <blockquote> <p style="padding-left: 60px;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">In a report from the Yale University President Timothy Dwight he writes, “The plans for the new Recitation-room Building were completed, and the contracts made, early in July 1888.  In consequence of certain difficulties and delays in procuring the desired materials for the work the ground was not broken until August, and the building itself was not begun until September.  The work was been moving forward steadily since the opening of the present Academic year, and is now hoped that the building may be ready for occupancy at, or soon after, the beginning of the next autumn term.  The material used in the construction of this building is the Red-path granite from the Stony Creek quarries, in combination with the Kibble red sandstone from the quarries at Longmeadow.  The building is designed by Bruce Price of New York.  The architecture is in the character of the transition from Byzantine to Romanesque.  When completed, the building will have two stories, with a basement and commodious attic, and will have about twenty-two rooms accommodating from twenty-five to three hundred students.  The location being at the southeastern angle of the College square, the main entrance—a semi-circular podium, upon which is to stand a five-arch portico — will be at the corner of the two streets, and the building will extend 155 feet on College street and 102 feet on Chapel street.  The expense of this building has proved to be greater than was at first contemplated.  It will probably amount to $160,000.  But the same generosity which prompted the original gift has provided for additional outlay, so that the University receives in this case, as in the case of the Library Building, a large and most valuable donation beyond what was so kindly offered at the outset.”</span></span></span></p> </blockquote> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"><img class="system-pagebreak" src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/images/stories/example%20of%20b%20price%20work.jpg" border="0" alt="Chateau Frontenac- Bruce Price" title="Chateau Frontenac- Bruce Price" style="float: left;" /></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">Bruce Price was an architect who liked to go above and beyond the expectations.  He began his career with his designs of 40 dynamic Shingle-style houses in Tuxedo Park, Rockland County, NY.  He was famous for his massive and beautiful castle- like structures that stood out in any location.  His designs were opulent and copious with delicate and beautiful ornamentation and materials.  He was an American architect born in 1845, he is well remembered for his designs of Canadian Pacific Railway's Château-type stations and hotels.  An example of his elaborate work similar to Osborne Hall was the Château Frontenac in Quebec.  Price also invented, and patented the parlor bay-window cars for the Pennsylvania Railroad and for the Boston and Albany.  Bruce Price chose to use Stony Creek Granite for many of his projects because of its dynamic color and opulence.</span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: times new roman,times;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">Miriam Osborn was a New York socialite and wealthy housewife in the late 1800's.  However she unlike many of her counterparts was extremely demour and generous.  She had dreams and aspirations that outreached many other women of the time. Osborn Hall was not Miriam Osborn's only project.  She also made sure she left her own legacy behind. After her husband died she became aware of many widows, more destitute then herself, searching for someone to care for them in their old age.  When Mirian died in 1892 her will stated that $300,000 be given to create the Osborn Memorial Home in Rye, New York.  This wish was executed by John Sterling who made sure the same attention to detail was given to this project as had been on Osborn Memorial Hall.  He hired the same new york architect Bruce Price who used the same lavish materials he had used on the Osborn Memorial Hall, including Stony Creek Granite.  </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">The Stony Creek Granite used for Yale’s Osborne Hall was quarried from the Norcross Brothers/Dodds/ Castellucci Quarry.  The Norcross Quarry was started in 1877 and was primarily used for large scale buildings and projects including: public buildings, educational structures, private residences, business blocks, churches and railroad stations.  Osborn Hall was one of the first buildings to use the granite from this quarry.</span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">The Norcross brothers were James Atkinson Norcross (1831-1903) and Orlando Whitney Norcross (1839-1920).  Orlando Norcross was born in Clinton, Maine and grew up in Salem MA; he was discharged from the Union in 1864 and joined his brother at the Worcester building company in 1868.  The Brothers bought property in Stony Creek in 1887 and became the leading quarry in the area and the only one to operate ever since. Norcross Bros. built what is now Quarry Road which was led from the quarry to the railroad track so that stone could be shipped by rail as well as by boat.</span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">The “Quarrymen’s Union” was chartered in 1891 and contracts were signed by hundreds of Stony Creek workers. The wages in one contract ranged from 21 cents to 35 cents an hour. The men went on strike March 1, 1900 when the company wouldn’t agree to a pay increase.  The strike changed the granite industry for the worse.  Granite was far too expensive to use as a construction material. The Dodd Granite Co. bought Norcross quarry in 1923 and its last big job was for the Department of Commerce Building in Washington D.C. in 1928.</span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">Exhibit Idea:</span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">Make an area with pictures of the Osborn Hall, Interior and exterior, the citation from Yale President Timothy Dwight as well as a map of New Haven with the location pinpointed.  Include a story line of Miriam Osborn and a copy of her will.<br /></span></span></span></p> <p align="center"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span></span><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span></span></p> <hr /> <p align="center"> </p> <p align="center"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">Works Cited</span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">1920s, By The. "Yale Bulletin and Calendar." Yale University. 06 Oct. 2000. Web. 18 Oct. 2010. </span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">"Bruce Price." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 18 Oct. 2010. </span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">DeFord, Deborah. Flesh and Stone: Stony Creek and the Age of Granite. Stony Creek, CT: Stony Creek Granite Workers Celebration/Leete's Island, 2000. 29. Print.</span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">Digital image. Yale Library. Yale, 06 Oct. 2000. Web. 18 Oct. 2010. </span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">"The History of Branfords Stony Creek Quarries." Welcome to the Town of Branford! Web. 18 Oct. 2010. </span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: times new roman,times;"> <div style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">"MRS. OSBORN'S WILL." <em>The New York Times - Breaking News, World News &amp; Multimedia</em>. Web. 07 Nov. 2010. .</span></span></div> </span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">"The Osborn." <em>Google Books</em>. Web. 07 Nov. 2010. .</span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">"University of California Press on Behalf of the Society of Architectural Historians." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 32.2 (1973): 104-13. Print.</span></span></span></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: x-small;">Yale University. Report of the President of Yale University: for the Year Ending July 1st 1887. (New Haven): (Tuttle, Morehouse &amp; Taylor), 1889. Print.</span></span></span></p> New England Conservatory of Music 2010-10-13T22:13:08Z 2010-10-13T22:13:08Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=379:radio-city-music-hall&catid=57:institutions&Itemid=68 <p><span style="color: #000080;"><span style="color: #333333;"><img src="http://www.nedgallagher.com/journal/images/jordanhall.jpg" border="0" alt="Jordan Hall" width="450" height="360" /><br /></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p>The New England Conservatory of Music is the oldest independent conservatory in the United States.  The conservatory was founded by Eben Tourjee in 1867, who modeled it after European conservatories of the time.  The New England Conservatory of Music was first located in the Boston Music Hall off Tremont Street in downtown Boston.  The school moved in 1871 to the former St. James Hotel in Franklin Square.  Following these moves, it moved once again to the Symphony and Prudential Neighborhood on Huntington Avenue where it has been located since 1903.</p> <p>The New England Conservatory of Music consists of four buildings that have been renovated in recent years, including Jordan Hall, and buildings on 295 Huntington Avenue, 241 St. Botolph Street and 33 Gainsborough Street.  Except for Jordan Hall, the Renaissance Revival style conservatory was completed by 1902 (Jordan Hall finished a year later).  The conservatory was built with the intent to make it appear like an Italian renaissance palace.</p> <p><img src="http://chronicle.com/img/photos/biz/jordanvertical401x604.jpg" border="0" width="401" height="604" /></p> <p>Architects for the building, including the concert hall, were Edmund Wheelwright and Parkman B. Haven with Wheelwright as the principal architect.  Wheelwright was given enormous freedom in design, despite never constructing a concert hall before.  Wheelwright did build the Horticultural Hall (completed in 1901), which showed that he was up to the task to complete this plan.  Wheelwright worked for the architectural firm of McKim, Mead, and White, the architects were responsible for the recently completed Symphony Hall.  The close locations between Symphony Hall and the new conservatory made it easy for Wheelwright to make comparative studies.  Wheelwright ended up constructing a hall that has been regarded as one of the best acoustically sounding concert halls ever built.</p> <p>Edmund Wheelwright is considered one of New England’s most important architects in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.  He was born in Roxbury, MA on September 14, 1854, and passed away on August 15, 1924.  Wheelwright served as city architect for Boston from 1891 – 1895.  In addition to the conservatory, Wheelwright designed the Boston Public Library in Boston, MA, Longfellow Bridge from Boston to Cambridge, MA, Anderson Memorial Bridge from Cambridge to Boston, MA and Oak Square School in Brighton, MA.</p> <p><img src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b4/1871_NewEnglandConservatory_WinterTerm_BostonMusicHall.png" border="0" width="400" height="338" /></p> <p> </p> <p>With assistance from Stony Creek granite, materials have been successfully quarried in Branford and Guilford since the late 1850s. The granite owes part of its success due to building trends, changing styles, economics, and immigration patterns. Its unique qualities have prompted its use in several world renowned architectural designs.  Specifically, at the tail end of the 19<sup>th</sup> century and early 20<sup>th</sup> century in respect to the New England Conservatory of Music.</p> <p>The original portion of the New England Conservatory was rectangular in plan and ascends three stories from a high granite basement to a flat roof.  The building was constructed with brick and included limestone trim.  It also consisted of modillion cornice, wide frieze and molded architrave.  The first story separates from the other two by a limestone stringcourse.</p> <p>The Gainsborough Street portion has a seven bay center section.  Three entries are flanked by globe lights.  All openings are arched and contain limestone keystones.  The upper two floors are divided into a three bay central section with flanking two bay sections by vertical strips of rustication.  Windows at the second story have limestone architraves and heavy entablatures, which are the upper sections of a classical building, resting on the columns.  The third story consists of limestone architraves.  Raised limestone panels separate the windows of the two stories.</p> <p><img src="http://www.stateuniversity.com/assets/logo/image/9335/large/The_New_England_Conservatory_of_Music_main_building.jpg" border="0" width="450" height="338" /></p> <p>The original Huntington Avenue portion facing South has a three bay center section with three bay pavilions at each end.  A center entry is flanked by two small windows, which make up the central ground floor of the central section.  This is framed by limestone architrave, and headed by an entablature whose cornice is supported by ancones, which are a pair of projections on either side of a block of stone or other material, used for lifting it.  Upper floors are divided by marbleized concrete ionic pilasters.  Windows on the second floor are round arched and decorated with keystones and balustrades, while those on the third floor have architraves topped by anthemion and scroll motif.  The end pavilions have arched windows with limestone keystones at the first story, rectangular windows with limestone architraves and triangular pediments at the second story, and small squared limestone architraves at the third story.</p> <p> </p> <p><img src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/b/bb/Huntington_Ave_Boston.jpg" border="0" alt="Huntington Ave." width="444" height="439" /></p> <p>(Above: Exterior, Huntington Ave.)</p> <p>The St. Botolph Street portion has three bays, which are treated exactly as the end pavilions.  The remainder of the original section is brick with fenestration (the design and openings of the window) and a service entry.  A 1928 addition is faced with yellow tinted cast concrete restored by Tishman construction.</p> <p><img src="http://chronicle.com/img/photos/biz/stbotolph.jpg" border="0" alt="St. Botolph" width="450" height="338" /></p> <p>(Above: St. Botolph Street)</p> <p> </p> <p>Interior spaces of the building are oriented around Jordan Hall, a large semi-circular concert hall.  On the first floor, a corridor follows the contours of the hall with offices and public spaces.  Another interior corridor encircles the hall’s stage area.  In the actual concert hall, there is an elaborate proscenium arch, which is gilt finished and decorated with classical bay leaf garlands, wreaths and masks, as well as simple emblems.  Two figures hold a lyre in the large emblem, which crowns the proscenium. The organ casework, which is also gilt finished, has a paneled base with four Corinthian pilasters rising from it.  This decides the organ casework into three portions.  Each section is terminated by an arch and subdivided by cornices and pilasters.  The verticality of the hall creates openness in the building.  It also emphasizes the wood paneling of the walls and the fluted Corinthian columns and pilasters on the balcony level.  The hall’s coffered ceiling has gilt mouldings and a semi-opaque skylight.</p> <p>The firm of L. Richard &amp; Co. did the interior decorating of the New England Conservatory of Music.    The dull, soft Roman gold lines and clear colorings of the wall together with the soft brown and tan shades gave an effect entirely different from any other building in the New England area.  This design aesthetic was met with great approval and appreciation from architects and artists who have visited the building.  The company had sufficient experience in their work painting, decorating, and hard-wood finishing.</p> <p>Jordan Hall officially opened in 1903 and is the principal performance space of the New England Conservatory.  It is also the only conservatory in the United States that is designated as a National Historical Landmark.  Despite its unusual floor plan, the hall contains excellent acoustics and seats on the main floor and horseshoe-shaped balcony.  All of those seats have unobstructed views of the stage.</p> <p> </p> <p><img src="http://www.bostoncecilia.org/images/jordan_hall_floor.gif" border="0" width="450" height="350" /></p> <p> </p> <p>Several famous musicians have taken the stage at Jordan Hall, including performers Pablo Casals and James Galway; pianists Angela Hewitt, Radu Lupu, Rudolf Serkin; vocalists Dawn Upshaw, Ben Heppner; conductors Arthur Fiedler, Kurt Masur; guitarists Christopher Parkening, Julian Bream; composer Aaron Copland; famed jazz musicians Stan Getz and Benny Goodman.  Jordan Hall is also home to “From the Top,” a National Public Radio classical show hosted by New England of Conservatory alumn Chistopher O’Riley.  The first ever concert in Jordan Hall featured the Boston Symphony Orchestra on October 20, 1903.  The dedication concert won favorable reviews since it revealed the illustrious grandeur of design and architecture of the building.</p> <p><img src="http://edgarbarroso.net/wp-content/uploads/2008/11/jordan__3.jpg" border="0" alt="Jordan Hall" width="400" height="304" /> <img src="http://w2.campusexplorer.com/media/376x262/media-3EFC81DB.jpg" border="0" alt="Jordan Hall" width="250" height="174" /></p> <p>(Above: Jordan Hall)</p> <p>The Tishman Construction of New England began an extensive exterior renovation of the buildings in 2009.  Tishman is known for managing historical renovations as well as innovative approaches to building.  For Jordan Hall, Tishman needed to have the plans reviewed by the Massachusetts Historic Commission to be sure they were in compliance with the National Historic Landmarks program.  For the section on 295 Huntington Avenue, Tishman removed and replaced the slate roof, added snow rails and removed deteriorated wooden windows and replaced those with new energy-efficient, insulated aluminum windows with historic character.  The portion of the conservatory located on 241 St. Botolph Street included restoration to the original masonry.  Next, Tishman repaired the original brick and stucco façade at the portion located on 33 Gainsborough Street.</p> <p>One of the biggest challenges in renovating the conservatory included finding marble columns and rosette medallions on Jordan Hall’s façade, which began to crumble after 100 years.  The original marble had been imported from Africa, but similar marble was no longer located in those quarries.  After some research, Tishman found a similar color and grain in Italy.  The marble was specially fabricated and installed once making its way to the United States.  Also, the top three feet of terra cotta trim with cornices were removed and replaced with terra cotta manufactured in California.  Tishman also repaired damaged limestone, and the entire façade was cleaned to remove 100 years of filth.  Cleaning is important to remove damaging pollutants such as sulfur and nitrogen oxides.  These pollutants accelerate façade deterioration.  This cleaning can be done with clean water from a municipal supply.  All the masonry joints on the façade were either cut or given new sealants.  Replacing the wooden windows was a challenge.  Windows located on the public facades facing Huntington Avenue and Gainsborough Street were restored in accordance with the U.S. Secretary of the Interior / National Parks standard, which required them to be removed, restored and reinstalled – not replaced with new windows.  Tishman also needed to replace the roof with an energy-efficient white roofing system through lighting materials used.</p> <p>Prior to this renovation, another major renovation project was completed in 1995.  Since then, Jordan Hall has won several awards, including the 1996 Massachusetts Historical Commission Preservation Award, the Victorian Society in America's Preservation Commendation, the 1996 Boston Preservation Alliance Award, the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America Award of Merit, and the Illuminating Engineering Society 1996 Lumen Award, which deals with lighting manufacturing and caters to lighting professionals.</p> <p><img src="http://www.encore-coda.com/2008Pics/2008Newsletter/YPO.JPG" border="0" /></p> <p>The New England Conservatory of Music regularly features world renowned artists, talented faculty and students, along with a world class music program that is difficult to find elsewhere in the United States.</p> <p> </p> <p> <hr /> </p> <p align="center">Works Cited</p> <p><em>American Architect and Building News.</em> Vol. LXXXI. Boston: Houghton, Osgood &amp;, 1879. Print.</p> <p>Flesh and Stone. Stony Creek and the Age of Granite. Deborah Deford. Stony Creek, CT 2000</p> <p>Tishman Construction. <em>Tishman Construction Successfully Restores Four of the New England Conservatory’s Historic Landmark Buildings</em>. <em>Tishman Construction</em>. Adam Bates, Apr. 2010. Web. 1 Oct. 2010. .</p> <p>United States. National Park Service. Department of the Interior. <em>National Historic Landmark Nomination</em>. Print.</p> <p><span style="color: #000080;"><span style="color: #333333;"><img src="http://www.nedgallagher.com/journal/images/jordanhall.jpg" border="0" alt="Jordan Hall" width="450" height="360" /><br /></span></span></p> <p> </p> <p>The New England Conservatory of Music is the oldest independent conservatory in the United States.  The conservatory was founded by Eben Tourjee in 1867, who modeled it after European conservatories of the time.  The New England Conservatory of Music was first located in the Boston Music Hall off Tremont Street in downtown Boston.  The school moved in 1871 to the former St. James Hotel in Franklin Square.  Following these moves, it moved once again to the Symphony and Prudential Neighborhood on Huntington Avenue where it has been located since 1903.</p> <p>The New England Conservatory of Music consists of four buildings that have been renovated in recent years, including Jordan Hall, and buildings on 295 Huntington Avenue, 241 St. Botolph Street and 33 Gainsborough Street.  Except for Jordan Hall, the Renaissance Revival style conservatory was completed by 1902 (Jordan Hall finished a year later).  The conservatory was built with the intent to make it appear like an Italian renaissance palace.</p> <p><img src="http://chronicle.com/img/photos/biz/jordanvertical401x604.jpg" border="0" width="401" height="604" /></p> <p>Architects for the building, including the concert hall, were Edmund Wheelwright and Parkman B. Haven with Wheelwright as the principal architect.  Wheelwright was given enormous freedom in design, despite never constructing a concert hall before.  Wheelwright did build the Horticultural Hall (completed in 1901), which showed that he was up to the task to complete this plan.  Wheelwright worked for the architectural firm of McKim, Mead, and White, the architects were responsible for the recently completed Symphony Hall.  The close locations between Symphony Hall and the new conservatory made it easy for Wheelwright to make comparative studies.  Wheelwright ended up constructing a hall that has been regarded as one of the best acoustically sounding concert halls ever built.</p> <p>Edmund Wheelwright is considered one of New England’s most important architects in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.  He was born in Roxbury, MA on September 14, 1854, and passed away on August 15, 1924.  Wheelwright served as city architect for Boston from 1891 – 1895.  In addition to the conservatory, Wheelwright designed the Boston Public Library in Boston, MA, Longfellow Bridge from Boston to Cambridge, MA, Anderson Memorial Bridge from Cambridge to Boston, MA and Oak Square School in Brighton, MA.</p> <p><img src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b4/1871_NewEnglandConservatory_WinterTerm_BostonMusicHall.png" border="0" width="400" height="338" /></p> <p> </p> <p>With assistance from Stony Creek granite, materials have been successfully quarried in Branford and Guilford since the late 1850s. The granite owes part of its success due to building trends, changing styles, economics, and immigration patterns. Its unique qualities have prompted its use in several world renowned architectural designs.  Specifically, at the tail end of the 19<sup>th</sup> century and early 20<sup>th</sup> century in respect to the New England Conservatory of Music.</p> <p>The original portion of the New England Conservatory was rectangular in plan and ascends three stories from a high granite basement to a flat roof.  The building was constructed with brick and included limestone trim.  It also consisted of modillion cornice, wide frieze and molded architrave.  The first story separates from the other two by a limestone stringcourse.</p> <p>The Gainsborough Street portion has a seven bay center section.  Three entries are flanked by globe lights.  All openings are arched and contain limestone keystones.  The upper two floors are divided into a three bay central section with flanking two bay sections by vertical strips of rustication.  Windows at the second story have limestone architraves and heavy entablatures, which are the upper sections of a classical building, resting on the columns.  The third story consists of limestone architraves.  Raised limestone panels separate the windows of the two stories.</p> <p><img src="http://www.stateuniversity.com/assets/logo/image/9335/large/The_New_England_Conservatory_of_Music_main_building.jpg" border="0" width="450" height="338" /></p> <p>The original Huntington Avenue portion facing South has a three bay center section with three bay pavilions at each end.  A center entry is flanked by two small windows, which make up the central ground floor of the central section.  This is framed by limestone architrave, and headed by an entablature whose cornice is supported by ancones, which are a pair of projections on either side of a block of stone or other material, used for lifting it.  Upper floors are divided by marbleized concrete ionic pilasters.  Windows on the second floor are round arched and decorated with keystones and balustrades, while those on the third floor have architraves topped by anthemion and scroll motif.  The end pavilions have arched windows with limestone keystones at the first story, rectangular windows with limestone architraves and triangular pediments at the second story, and small squared limestone architraves at the third story.</p> <p> </p> <p><img src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/b/bb/Huntington_Ave_Boston.jpg" border="0" alt="Huntington Ave." width="444" height="439" /></p> <p>(Above: Exterior, Huntington Ave.)</p> <p>The St. Botolph Street portion has three bays, which are treated exactly as the end pavilions.  The remainder of the original section is brick with fenestration (the design and openings of the window) and a service entry.  A 1928 addition is faced with yellow tinted cast concrete restored by Tishman construction.</p> <p><img src="http://chronicle.com/img/photos/biz/stbotolph.jpg" border="0" alt="St. Botolph" width="450" height="338" /></p> <p>(Above: St. Botolph Street)</p> <p> </p> <p>Interior spaces of the building are oriented around Jordan Hall, a large semi-circular concert hall.  On the first floor, a corridor follows the contours of the hall with offices and public spaces.  Another interior corridor encircles the hall’s stage area.  In the actual concert hall, there is an elaborate proscenium arch, which is gilt finished and decorated with classical bay leaf garlands, wreaths and masks, as well as simple emblems.  Two figures hold a lyre in the large emblem, which crowns the proscenium. The organ casework, which is also gilt finished, has a paneled base with four Corinthian pilasters rising from it.  This decides the organ casework into three portions.  Each section is terminated by an arch and subdivided by cornices and pilasters.  The verticality of the hall creates openness in the building.  It also emphasizes the wood paneling of the walls and the fluted Corinthian columns and pilasters on the balcony level.  The hall’s coffered ceiling has gilt mouldings and a semi-opaque skylight.</p> <p>The firm of L. Richard &amp; Co. did the interior decorating of the New England Conservatory of Music.    The dull, soft Roman gold lines and clear colorings of the wall together with the soft brown and tan shades gave an effect entirely different from any other building in the New England area.  This design aesthetic was met with great approval and appreciation from architects and artists who have visited the building.  The company had sufficient experience in their work painting, decorating, and hard-wood finishing.</p> <p>Jordan Hall officially opened in 1903 and is the principal performance space of the New England Conservatory.  It is also the only conservatory in the United States that is designated as a National Historical Landmark.  Despite its unusual floor plan, the hall contains excellent acoustics and seats on the main floor and horseshoe-shaped balcony.  All of those seats have unobstructed views of the stage.</p> <p> </p> <p><img src="http://www.bostoncecilia.org/images/jordan_hall_floor.gif" border="0" width="450" height="350" /></p> <p> </p> <p>Several famous musicians have taken the stage at Jordan Hall, including performers Pablo Casals and James Galway; pianists Angela Hewitt, Radu Lupu, Rudolf Serkin; vocalists Dawn Upshaw, Ben Heppner; conductors Arthur Fiedler, Kurt Masur; guitarists Christopher Parkening, Julian Bream; composer Aaron Copland; famed jazz musicians Stan Getz and Benny Goodman.  Jordan Hall is also home to “From the Top,” a National Public Radio classical show hosted by New England of Conservatory alumn Chistopher O’Riley.  The first ever concert in Jordan Hall featured the Boston Symphony Orchestra on October 20, 1903.  The dedication concert won favorable reviews since it revealed the illustrious grandeur of design and architecture of the building.</p> <p><img src="http://edgarbarroso.net/wp-content/uploads/2008/11/jordan__3.jpg" border="0" alt="Jordan Hall" width="400" height="304" /> <img src="http://w2.campusexplorer.com/media/376x262/media-3EFC81DB.jpg" border="0" alt="Jordan Hall" width="250" height="174" /></p> <p>(Above: Jordan Hall)</p> <p>The Tishman Construction of New England began an extensive exterior renovation of the buildings in 2009.  Tishman is known for managing historical renovations as well as innovative approaches to building.  For Jordan Hall, Tishman needed to have the plans reviewed by the Massachusetts Historic Commission to be sure they were in compliance with the National Historic Landmarks program.  For the section on 295 Huntington Avenue, Tishman removed and replaced the slate roof, added snow rails and removed deteriorated wooden windows and replaced those with new energy-efficient, insulated aluminum windows with historic character.  The portion of the conservatory located on 241 St. Botolph Street included restoration to the original masonry.  Next, Tishman repaired the original brick and stucco façade at the portion located on 33 Gainsborough Street.</p> <p>One of the biggest challenges in renovating the conservatory included finding marble columns and rosette medallions on Jordan Hall’s façade, which began to crumble after 100 years.  The original marble had been imported from Africa, but similar marble was no longer located in those quarries.  After some research, Tishman found a similar color and grain in Italy.  The marble was specially fabricated and installed once making its way to the United States.  Also, the top three feet of terra cotta trim with cornices were removed and replaced with terra cotta manufactured in California.  Tishman also repaired damaged limestone, and the entire façade was cleaned to remove 100 years of filth.  Cleaning is important to remove damaging pollutants such as sulfur and nitrogen oxides.  These pollutants accelerate façade deterioration.  This cleaning can be done with clean water from a municipal supply.  All the masonry joints on the façade were either cut or given new sealants.  Replacing the wooden windows was a challenge.  Windows located on the public facades facing Huntington Avenue and Gainsborough Street were restored in accordance with the U.S. Secretary of the Interior / National Parks standard, which required them to be removed, restored and reinstalled – not replaced with new windows.  Tishman also needed to replace the roof with an energy-efficient white roofing system through lighting materials used.</p> <p>Prior to this renovation, another major renovation project was completed in 1995.  Since then, Jordan Hall has won several awards, including the 1996 Massachusetts Historical Commission Preservation Award, the Victorian Society in America's Preservation Commendation, the 1996 Boston Preservation Alliance Award, the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America Award of Merit, and the Illuminating Engineering Society 1996 Lumen Award, which deals with lighting manufacturing and caters to lighting professionals.</p> <p><img src="http://www.encore-coda.com/2008Pics/2008Newsletter/YPO.JPG" border="0" /></p> <p>The New England Conservatory of Music regularly features world renowned artists, talented faculty and students, along with a world class music program that is difficult to find elsewhere in the United States.</p> <p> </p> <p> <hr /> </p> <p align="center">Works Cited</p> <p><em>American Architect and Building News.</em> Vol. LXXXI. Boston: Houghton, Osgood &amp;, 1879. Print.</p> <p>Flesh and Stone. Stony Creek and the Age of Granite. Deborah Deford. Stony Creek, CT 2000</p> <p>Tishman Construction. <em>Tishman Construction Successfully Restores Four of the New England Conservatory’s Historic Landmark Buildings</em>. <em>Tishman Construction</em>. Adam Bates, Apr. 2010. Web. 1 Oct. 2010. .</p> <p>United States. National Park Service. Department of the Interior. <em>National Historic Landmark Nomination</em>. Print.</p> Quinnipiac University 2010-10-08T14:28:38Z 2010-10-08T14:28:38Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=371:quinnipiac-university&catid=57:institutions&Itemid=68 <p>Michelle - please edit this article for Quinnipiac University, which you have reserved.</p> <p>Michelle - please edit this article for Quinnipiac University, which you have reserved.</p> Columbia University 2010-10-07T00:52:28Z 2010-10-07T00:52:28Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=369:columbia-universitybarnard-college&catid=57:institutions&Itemid=68 <p>Jordan Fontana</p> <p>Foundations of America</p> <p><a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/tendril/3965724281/"></a><strong>Columbia University of the City of New York</strong></p> <p><strong><img src="http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2537/3965724281_f3f7839588_z.jpg?zz=1" border="0" alt="quarry " title="Stony Creek Quarry " width="100" height="67" style="float: left;" /></strong></p> <p><a href="http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.cap.bnl.gov/nufact03/campus_lo2-020924c.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.cap.bnl.gov/nufact03/&usg=__NIyt9c0O5rtvXH0oJz2XQVPWhCI=&h=289&w=428&sz=30&hl=en&start=148&zoom=1&tbnid=KeDBsp8okg7kdM:&tbnh=132&tbnw=173&prev=/"></a><a href="http://www.stonycreekquarry.com/">Stony Creek granite</a> is a beautiful pink stone found in quarries in Branford, CT. Today the fifty acres is owned and protected by the town. The community is currently working together to build a museum in an old church in Branford. The idea of the museum is to inform people of the natural beauty of the Stony Creek quarries and Thimble Island and its history. The museum will demonstrate an understanding of the people who found and owned the Thimble Islands from the beginning, along with the impact of railroads and trade that allowed to granite to be exported all over the country. The intention of this museum is to show visitors how this beautiful natural resource, coming from the town of Branford has taken a national toll on many famous and distinguishing architects. Stony Creek granite has been used in the construction and architect of many construction projects including Grand Central Station, the Statue of Liberty, South Terminal Station and the Sony building. The small town of Branford and its beautiful natural resource has impacted the architectural beauty of places all over the world. Because of Stony Creek granites evident beauty and strength it is no surprise that it was imported for architectural use in the buildings at Columbia University of the City of New York.</p> <p><img src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/data:image/jpg;base64,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" border="0" alt="university campus" title="Columbia University" width="127" height="86" style="float: left;" /><a href="http://www.columbia.edu/about_columbia/history.html">Columbia University</a> was founded in 1754. It was previously known as King’s College, after King George II of England. Columbia is the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York, and is the fifth oldest college in the United States.  In 1890 Barnard College for Women became associated with Columbia College. In 1896 Columbia College became Columbia University, and today the private institution is named Columbia University of the City of New York. Columbia University is a well known, established, and beautifully architected Ivy League school. <img src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_mlPoGU4VqSk/SqpmZ5EyZwI/AAAAAAAAGVs/JThvzAdUCLY/s400/1882.jpg" border="0" title="Kings College " width="100 " height="77" style="float: right;" />After moving from 49<sup>th</sup> St. and Madison Avenue in 1897, the campus is currently located in Morningside Heights, New York along with a second campus in Washington Heights, New York sprawling over thirty acres of the city, along with two other campuses and observations outside of Manhattan and a recently bought campus in Manhattanville in 2007. Although the price was not disclosed, Henry Kravis pledged $100 million dollars in order to build the new business school which began planning in 2009. Currently the undergrad population is just under 6,000 students, however only 10% of students who apply are admitted to the university, demonstrating Columbia’s academic excellence and competitiveness (Princeton Review 2009).  Besides its academics and urban atmosphere, Stony Creek granitite is used in numerous buildings and landscape to distribute the beauty of this pink stone throughout the community. From its first academic building to its most recent built, Stony Creek granite has clearly remained within the original and current architectural beauty of the campus.</p> <p><a href="http://theweblicist.com/wordpress/category/landmarks-buildings-statues-and-monuments/low-memorial-library/"></a><img src="http://beatl.barnard.columbia.edu/cuhistory/images/mmw.jpg" border="0" alt="Original drawing of Morningside Campus" title="McKim Mead and White " width="100" height="49" style="float: left;" />Before construction began, the university chose <a href="http://beatl.barnard.columbia.edu/cuhistory/archives/bergdoll.htm">McKim, Mead and White</a> architectural firm which was cemented by the partners Charles Follen McKim, William Rutheford Mead, and Stanford White, and was a wise choice due to their reputation of prominent designs. The architects were hired by Colombia University to design a campus that would appeal to students with an urban atmosphere. The partners along with their associates’ buildings are known to combine the neoclassical era, Rome and Greek styles. McKim, Mead and White designed and planned the entire Morningside Campus; including the Low Memorial Library, Philosophy Hall, John Jay Hall, Avery Hall, and Hamilton Hall. All which were built from1893-1900. However some construction projects, including the Stony Creek fountains in front of the Low Memorial Library, fell short of complete design, but were mostly added later when money was more readily available. Figure 3 shows the original drawing done by McKim, of the McKim, Mead and White firm in 1903 of the Morningside campus at Columbia University, including the use of Stony Creek granite. The most recent buildings<span style="text-decoration: line-through;">built</span> are an addition to the original plans designed in the late 19<sup>th</sup> century. The architect company is famous for also designing Bellevue Hospital Center in New York City, Harvard Business School and The Boston Public Library in Boston, MA. In later years the prominent firm was bought by the firm Steinman, Cain and White in 1961 and ten years later it has now became known as the Walker O. Cain and Associates.</p> <p>When the school moved from Forty-Ninth Street and Madison Ave to its current Morningside campus, the goal was to build an academic friendly campus with room for expansion. McKim, Mead and White architectural company’s most profound project to date is still the Morningside Campus of Columbia University. The original centerpiece of the campus is the Low Memorial Library located at West 116<sup>th</sup> Street and Broadway. <img src="http://cdn.wn.com/pd/68/b4/41388e44a03f238f2bd828c4bfde_grande.jpg" border="0" alt="Low Memorial Library" title="Columbia University" width="150" height="113" style="float: right;" /></p> <p>The library includes twenty-six granite stairs, and also the largest granite dome built to date. The first drawing included two fountains to be built at the stairs of the library, without the funds the fountains were built later. The two <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=UTMoAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA401&lpg=PA401&dq=stony+creek+granite+fountains+columbia+university&source=bl&ots=mYOpKCdYay&sig=MObIjagNqhuqFqh02emDnyaW5cY&hl=en&ei=NgPBTInEFNPrlQe-mqjZDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCMQ6">fountains</a> were made of Stony Creek granite and the funds were donated by anonymous alumni. The fountains were designed after St. Peter’s of Rome and placed on each side of the library steps.</p> <table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" align="left"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="1"> <p> </p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Many parts of Columbia University contain Stony Creek granite including much of the landscaping and curbing around each building and its use in many halls. However, within recent years a <a href="http://facilities.columbia.edu/node/1328/1331">construction project</a> has caught attention for its use of the granite. In the spring of 2007 construction began for an additional academic building on the Morningside campus, located on Broadway and West 120<sup>th</sup> Street. The project was named the Northwest Corner building. Its goal was to provide the students and faculty with a 14 story building which will include more faculty offices, classrooms, research facilities and labs in chemistry, biology, physics, and engineering.  The building would allow bridges for this building to connect and intertwine the other academic buildings originally planned by McKim, Mead and White but unsuccessfully finished. Plans of a building were shown to the university including one by James Stirling, but none were taken into consideration until recent years with the continuation of expanding the university’s academics and researching needs. The new building was the major step the university needed to link labs and intellects within the school’s campus. The Northwest Corner Building would allow for the additional space Columbia University needed to support its growing research facilities.</p> <p>Before construction began, Columbia University hired two prominent architects<a href="http://www.archpaper.com/e-board_rev.asp?News_ID=3545"> Rafeal Moneo and David Brody Bond Aeedas</a> to design the fourteen story building. By choosing these well-known and outstanding architects, Columbia University was hoping to achieve a permanent impact of intricate design. With the help of a significant anonymous donor and the Sherman Fairchild and Booth Ferris Foundations, the 15,000 square foot project building of the Northwest Corner Building began building that spring of 2007.</p> <p><img src="http://www.archpaper.com/uploads/COLUMBIA-NW_GCM.jpg" border="0" alt="Structural design for Northwest Corner building " title="Columbia University" width="150" height="180" /></p> <p><a href="http://www.archpaper.com/e-board_rev.asp?News_ID=3545"></a>By 2007, the construction began under <a href="http://www.turnerconstruction.com/newyork/content.asp?d=6005">Turner Construction Company</a> also known for building Madison Square Garden and the Lincoln Center in New York City.  The Northwest Corner building would be built over Columbia’s Levin Gymnasium.  Since the new building was over the gym, its construction would allow for a Northwest Courtyard. The completion of the courtyard was the long time goal of McKim, Mead and White <span style="text-decoration: line-through;">firm</span>. This was the last building original planned for the Morningside Campus with the architectural firm that designed its completion from the beginning. The only problem the construction team faced was building above the already in place gym. Originally the gym was built to support the building since it was designed to include the Northwest Corner building. However, due to construction restrictions, the design needed to include a sustainable system, making it into a floating building. Therefore the gym would not be holding up the construction project, and would not interfere with the use of the gym during the three years of construction.</p> <p>Part of the design that Columbia University wanted to achieve was the use of Stony Creek granite, in order for the new building to compliment and follow the theme of the existing buildings on campus. The construction company requested 5,000 cubic feet of stone in order to maintain a granite platform for the Northwest Corner Building. The high quality stone was extracted the granite quarry on Bear Island of the Thimble Islands. The construction was completed for the fall of 2010 at the beginning of the academic year.</p> <p><a href="http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.stoneworld.com/SW/Home/Images/1109SW_reemerging016.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.stoneworld.com/Articles/Feature_Article/BNP_GUID_9-5-2006_A_10000000000000692072&usg=__IVBhc9A-XvhDVVRAiDZHOZHfThA=&h=300&w=299&sz=16"></a><em>Flesh and Stone </em>describes Bear Island as Goat Island Quarry is a private quarry. This island was bought by Thomas Pearson in 1870, and is also known for distributing granite to bridges across the Connecticut River. The nickname Goat Island came from the original Swedish descendants that kept their goats on the island use of milk.</p> <p>Stony Creek granite’s use in major and many academic and residential halls has allowed  prosper students, alumni, visitors, and current students to see the beauty that comes from quarries in a small town, Branford CT. Overall the main focus researching Columbia University allows people to understand that from the very first center piece at the Morningside campus, to the most recent built the university still incorporates the natural beauty of Stony Creek granite.</p> <p><img src="http://archleague.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/Columbia002.gif" border="0" alt="Completed Northwest Corner building" title="Columbia University" width="150" height="127" style="float: left;" /></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p>References</p> <ol> <li>Deford, Deborah. <em>Flesh and Stone: Stony Creek and the Age of Granite</em>.</li> <li>Columbia University <a href="http://www.columbia.edu/">www.columbia.edu</a> </li> <li>Seward, Aaron<em>. In Detail: Columbia U.’s Northwest Corner Building.</em> The Architect’s Newspaper. 6/03/09. </li> <li>Turner Construction Company website. <a href="http://www.turnerconstruction.com/newyork/content.asp?d=6005">http://www.turnerconstruction.com/newyork/content.asp?d=6005</a></li> <li>University Seminar on the History of Columbia University <a href="http://beatl.barnard.columbia.edu/cuhistory/archives/bergdoll.htm">http://beatl.barnard.columbia.edu/cuhistory/archives/bergdoll.htm</a></li> <li>Columbia University Quarterly. Published by Columbia University Press, Volume XI Number 1. December 1906. <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=UTMoAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA401&lpg=PA401&dq=stony+creek+granite+columbia+university&source=bl&ots=mYOpGHcX4x&sig=nz4XVirLOxd_3r-BcBlbdc5YN4Q&hl=en&ei=fae7TLjnLYee8waTnqDPCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CBcQ6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&q=stony%20creek%20granite%20columbia%20university&f=false">http://books.google.com/books?id=UTMoAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA401&lpg=PA401&dq=stony+creek+granite+columbia+university&source=bl&ots=mYOpGHcX4x&sig=nz4XVirLOxd_3r-BcBlbdc5YN4Q&hl=en&ei=fae7TLjnLYee8waTnqDPCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CBcQ6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&q=stony%20creek%20granite%20columbia%20university&f=false</a> </li> <li>Linn, Charles. <em>Nondestructive Testing Probes Dome’s Safety</em>. Architect Record. <a href="http://archrecord.construction.com/features/archives/0303feature-1.asp">http://archrecord.construction.com/features/archives/0303feature-1.asp</a></li> <li>The Princeton Review. 2010. www.princetonreview.com/columbia</li> </ol> <p>Jordan Fontana</p> <p>Foundations of America</p> <p><a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/tendril/3965724281/"></a><strong>Columbia University of the City of New York</strong></p> <p><strong><img src="http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2537/3965724281_f3f7839588_z.jpg?zz=1" border="0" alt="quarry " title="Stony Creek Quarry " width="100" height="67" style="float: left;" /></strong></p> <p><a href="http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.cap.bnl.gov/nufact03/campus_lo2-020924c.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.cap.bnl.gov/nufact03/&usg=__NIyt9c0O5rtvXH0oJz2XQVPWhCI=&h=289&w=428&sz=30&hl=en&start=148&zoom=1&tbnid=KeDBsp8okg7kdM:&tbnh=132&tbnw=173&prev=/"></a><a href="http://www.stonycreekquarry.com/">Stony Creek granite</a> is a beautiful pink stone found in quarries in Branford, CT. Today the fifty acres is owned and protected by the town. The community is currently working together to build a museum in an old church in Branford. The idea of the museum is to inform people of the natural beauty of the Stony Creek quarries and Thimble Island and its history. The museum will demonstrate an understanding of the people who found and owned the Thimble Islands from the beginning, along with the impact of railroads and trade that allowed to granite to be exported all over the country. The intention of this museum is to show visitors how this beautiful natural resource, coming from the town of Branford has taken a national toll on many famous and distinguishing architects. Stony Creek granite has been used in the construction and architect of many construction projects including Grand Central Station, the Statue of Liberty, South Terminal Station and the Sony building. The small town of Branford and its beautiful natural resource has impacted the architectural beauty of places all over the world. Because of Stony Creek granites evident beauty and strength it is no surprise that it was imported for architectural use in the buildings at Columbia University of the City of New York.</p> <p><img src="http://foundationsofamerica.com/data:image/jpg;base64,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" border="0" alt="university campus" title="Columbia University" width="127" height="86" style="float: left;" /><a href="http://www.columbia.edu/about_columbia/history.html">Columbia University</a> was founded in 1754. It was previously known as King’s College, after King George II of England. Columbia is the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York, and is the fifth oldest college in the United States.  In 1890 Barnard College for Women became associated with Columbia College. In 1896 Columbia College became Columbia University, and today the private institution is named Columbia University of the City of New York. Columbia University is a well known, established, and beautifully architected Ivy League school. <img src="http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_mlPoGU4VqSk/SqpmZ5EyZwI/AAAAAAAAGVs/JThvzAdUCLY/s400/1882.jpg" border="0" title="Kings College " width="100 " height="77" style="float: right;" />After moving from 49<sup>th</sup> St. and Madison Avenue in 1897, the campus is currently located in Morningside Heights, New York along with a second campus in Washington Heights, New York sprawling over thirty acres of the city, along with two other campuses and observations outside of Manhattan and a recently bought campus in Manhattanville in 2007. Although the price was not disclosed, Henry Kravis pledged $100 million dollars in order to build the new business school which began planning in 2009. Currently the undergrad population is just under 6,000 students, however only 10% of students who apply are admitted to the university, demonstrating Columbia’s academic excellence and competitiveness (Princeton Review 2009).  Besides its academics and urban atmosphere, Stony Creek granitite is used in numerous buildings and landscape to distribute the beauty of this pink stone throughout the community. From its first academic building to its most recent built, Stony Creek granite has clearly remained within the original and current architectural beauty of the campus.</p> <p><a href="http://theweblicist.com/wordpress/category/landmarks-buildings-statues-and-monuments/low-memorial-library/"></a><img src="http://beatl.barnard.columbia.edu/cuhistory/images/mmw.jpg" border="0" alt="Original drawing of Morningside Campus" title="McKim Mead and White " width="100" height="49" style="float: left;" />Before construction began, the university chose <a href="http://beatl.barnard.columbia.edu/cuhistory/archives/bergdoll.htm">McKim, Mead and White</a> architectural firm which was cemented by the partners Charles Follen McKim, William Rutheford Mead, and Stanford White, and was a wise choice due to their reputation of prominent designs. The architects were hired by Colombia University to design a campus that would appeal to students with an urban atmosphere. The partners along with their associates’ buildings are known to combine the neoclassical era, Rome and Greek styles. McKim, Mead and White designed and planned the entire Morningside Campus; including the Low Memorial Library, Philosophy Hall, John Jay Hall, Avery Hall, and Hamilton Hall. All which were built from1893-1900. However some construction projects, including the Stony Creek fountains in front of the Low Memorial Library, fell short of complete design, but were mostly added later when money was more readily available. Figure 3 shows the original drawing done by McKim, of the McKim, Mead and White firm in 1903 of the Morningside campus at Columbia University, including the use of Stony Creek granite. The most recent buildings<span style="text-decoration: line-through;">built</span> are an addition to the original plans designed in the late 19<sup>th</sup> century. The architect company is famous for also designing Bellevue Hospital Center in New York City, Harvard Business School and The Boston Public Library in Boston, MA. In later years the prominent firm was bought by the firm Steinman, Cain and White in 1961 and ten years later it has now became known as the Walker O. Cain and Associates.</p> <p>When the school moved from Forty-Ninth Street and Madison Ave to its current Morningside campus, the goal was to build an academic friendly campus with room for expansion. McKim, Mead and White architectural company’s most profound project to date is still the Morningside Campus of Columbia University. The original centerpiece of the campus is the Low Memorial Library located at West 116<sup>th</sup> Street and Broadway. <img src="http://cdn.wn.com/pd/68/b4/41388e44a03f238f2bd828c4bfde_grande.jpg" border="0" alt="Low Memorial Library" title="Columbia University" width="150" height="113" style="float: right;" /></p> <p>The library includes twenty-six granite stairs, and also the largest granite dome built to date. The first drawing included two fountains to be built at the stairs of the library, without the funds the fountains were built later. The two <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=UTMoAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA401&lpg=PA401&dq=stony+creek+granite+fountains+columbia+university&source=bl&ots=mYOpKCdYay&sig=MObIjagNqhuqFqh02emDnyaW5cY&hl=en&ei=NgPBTInEFNPrlQe-mqjZDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCMQ6">fountains</a> were made of Stony Creek granite and the funds were donated by anonymous alumni. The fountains were designed after St. Peter’s of Rome and placed on each side of the library steps.</p> <table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" align="left"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="1"> <p> </p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Many parts of Columbia University contain Stony Creek granite including much of the landscaping and curbing around each building and its use in many halls. However, within recent years a <a href="http://facilities.columbia.edu/node/1328/1331">construction project</a> has caught attention for its use of the granite. In the spring of 2007 construction began for an additional academic building on the Morningside campus, located on Broadway and West 120<sup>th</sup> Street. The project was named the Northwest Corner building. Its goal was to provide the students and faculty with a 14 story building which will include more faculty offices, classrooms, research facilities and labs in chemistry, biology, physics, and engineering.  The building would allow bridges for this building to connect and intertwine the other academic buildings originally planned by McKim, Mead and White but unsuccessfully finished. Plans of a building were shown to the university including one by James Stirling, but none were taken into consideration until recent years with the continuation of expanding the university’s academics and researching needs. The new building was the major step the university needed to link labs and intellects within the school’s campus. The Northwest Corner Building would allow for the additional space Columbia University needed to support its growing research facilities.</p> <p>Before construction began, Columbia University hired two prominent architects<a href="http://www.archpaper.com/e-board_rev.asp?News_ID=3545"> Rafeal Moneo and David Brody Bond Aeedas</a> to design the fourteen story building. By choosing these well-known and outstanding architects, Columbia University was hoping to achieve a permanent impact of intricate design. With the help of a significant anonymous donor and the Sherman Fairchild and Booth Ferris Foundations, the 15,000 square foot project building of the Northwest Corner Building began building that spring of 2007.</p> <p><img src="http://www.archpaper.com/uploads/COLUMBIA-NW_GCM.jpg" border="0" alt="Structural design for Northwest Corner building " title="Columbia University" width="150" height="180" /></p> <p><a href="http://www.archpaper.com/e-board_rev.asp?News_ID=3545"></a>By 2007, the construction began under <a href="http://www.turnerconstruction.com/newyork/content.asp?d=6005">Turner Construction Company</a> also known for building Madison Square Garden and the Lincoln Center in New York City.  The Northwest Corner building would be built over Columbia’s Levin Gymnasium.  Since the new building was over the gym, its construction would allow for a Northwest Courtyard. The completion of the courtyard was the long time goal of McKim, Mead and White <span style="text-decoration: line-through;">firm</span>. This was the last building original planned for the Morningside Campus with the architectural firm that designed its completion from the beginning. The only problem the construction team faced was building above the already in place gym. Originally the gym was built to support the building since it was designed to include the Northwest Corner building. However, due to construction restrictions, the design needed to include a sustainable system, making it into a floating building. Therefore the gym would not be holding up the construction project, and would not interfere with the use of the gym during the three years of construction.</p> <p>Part of the design that Columbia University wanted to achieve was the use of Stony Creek granite, in order for the new building to compliment and follow the theme of the existing buildings on campus. The construction company requested 5,000 cubic feet of stone in order to maintain a granite platform for the Northwest Corner Building. The high quality stone was extracted the granite quarry on Bear Island of the Thimble Islands. The construction was completed for the fall of 2010 at the beginning of the academic year.</p> <p><a href="http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.stoneworld.com/SW/Home/Images/1109SW_reemerging016.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.stoneworld.com/Articles/Feature_Article/BNP_GUID_9-5-2006_A_10000000000000692072&usg=__IVBhc9A-XvhDVVRAiDZHOZHfThA=&h=300&w=299&sz=16"></a><em>Flesh and Stone </em>describes Bear Island as Goat Island Quarry is a private quarry. This island was bought by Thomas Pearson in 1870, and is also known for distributing granite to bridges across the Connecticut River. The nickname Goat Island came from the original Swedish descendants that kept their goats on the island use of milk.</p> <p>Stony Creek granite’s use in major and many academic and residential halls has allowed  prosper students, alumni, visitors, and current students to see the beauty that comes from quarries in a small town, Branford CT. Overall the main focus researching Columbia University allows people to understand that from the very first center piece at the Morningside campus, to the most recent built the university still incorporates the natural beauty of Stony Creek granite.</p> <p><img src="http://archleague.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/Columbia002.gif" border="0" alt="Completed Northwest Corner building" title="Columbia University" width="150" height="127" style="float: left;" /></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p>References</p> <ol> <li>Deford, Deborah. <em>Flesh and Stone: Stony Creek and the Age of Granite</em>.</li> <li>Columbia University <a href="http://www.columbia.edu/">www.columbia.edu</a> </li> <li>Seward, Aaron<em>. In Detail: Columbia U.’s Northwest Corner Building.</em> The Architect’s Newspaper. 6/03/09. </li> <li>Turner Construction Company website. <a href="http://www.turnerconstruction.com/newyork/content.asp?d=6005">http://www.turnerconstruction.com/newyork/content.asp?d=6005</a></li> <li>University Seminar on the History of Columbia University <a href="http://beatl.barnard.columbia.edu/cuhistory/archives/bergdoll.htm">http://beatl.barnard.columbia.edu/cuhistory/archives/bergdoll.htm</a></li> <li>Columbia University Quarterly. Published by Columbia University Press, Volume XI Number 1. December 1906. <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=UTMoAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA401&lpg=PA401&dq=stony+creek+granite+columbia+university&source=bl&ots=mYOpGHcX4x&sig=nz4XVirLOxd_3r-BcBlbdc5YN4Q&hl=en&ei=fae7TLjnLYee8waTnqDPCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CBcQ6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&q=stony%20creek%20granite%20columbia%20university&f=false">http://books.google.com/books?id=UTMoAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA401&lpg=PA401&dq=stony+creek+granite+columbia+university&source=bl&ots=mYOpGHcX4x&sig=nz4XVirLOxd_3r-BcBlbdc5YN4Q&hl=en&ei=fae7TLjnLYee8waTnqDPCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CBcQ6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&q=stony%20creek%20granite%20columbia%20university&f=false</a> </li> <li>Linn, Charles. <em>Nondestructive Testing Probes Dome’s Safety</em>. Architect Record. <a href="http://archrecord.construction.com/features/archives/0303feature-1.asp">http://archrecord.construction.com/features/archives/0303feature-1.asp</a></li> <li>The Princeton Review. 2010. www.princetonreview.com/columbia</li> </ol> Church of Christ (Stony Creek) 2010-09-28T02:17:07Z 2010-09-28T02:17:07Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=358:church-of-christ-stony-creek&catid=57:institutions&Itemid=68 <p style="text-align: left;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> <br />   The Church of Christ in Branford, Connecticut was built in 1901. The church was built from Stony Creek pink granite blocks by the hands of volunteer quarry workers (Deford 147). The quarry workers had used hand tools to cut apart blocks of granite. The church contains a 40-foot bell tower that is in shape of a castle. The lower walls and central bay are made of granite while the remaining walls are now shingled. They used to be stucco which means exterior walls are plastered (Deford 148). This church not only has a history behind it but a beauty as well.</span></p> <p style="text-align: center;"><strong><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Church of Christ</span></strong></p> <p style="text-align: center;"><img src="http://www.stonycreekquarry.com/images/StonyCreekChurch-200.jpg" border="0" title="Church of Christ" width="284" height="188" /></p> <p style="text-align: left;"><br />    The shape of the church is cross-shapped (cruciform). “Inside the cruiciform structure, the ash finish and spruce beams are accented with woodwork in a quatrefoil motif that is echoed outside (page 147).” On the right is an example of a cruciform. According to dictionary.com, a cruciform is a four-sided shape resembling a cross and is the basic design for Christian churches. Three sides of the building are covered with stained-glass windows. There are a total of ten windows, some of which were mounted after 1901. The original Sunday school room from 1901 contains nine of the ten stained-glassed windows accompanied by a fireplace (which is made of Stony Creek granite). The fireplace was needed in the classroom because the gas heater was not invented until 1940.</p> <p style="text-align: center;"> <p style="text-align: left;"><br /> Google Earth showed clear and precise images of Church of Christ. Here are a couple images along with the placemark:</p> </p> <p><br />The placemark is set at; 192 Thimble Island Rd. in Branford, CT.</p> <p>  This image represents where Church of Christ is. Google Earth is an amazing product that gives us accurate directions and illustrations to a certain location.</p> <p><img src="http://pics2.city-data.com/city/maps5/frt7834.png" border="0" width="422" height="359" /></p> <p><br />  There happen to be countless Church of Christ’ in different parts of America. Due to the fact the one in Branford was built in 1901, there are few pictures of the church being built. However, it still stands today in Branford and is available for pictures. Also, the immigrants and quarry workers who built it were behind in architecture compared to the rest of the world because they were limited to money and economics. The picture shown below is a layout of a Church of Christ in Virginia. It has the same ground rules as the Stony Creek church, just a different layout.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p>  <img src="http://new.trbc.org/media/img/flatpages/visitors/Map-floor2.png" border="0" width="770" height="652" /></p> <p> </p> <p>    It consists of doors, pews, rooms and walls (which every church includes). The only difference is that this church in Virginia has only had a roof renovation; whereas, Branford’s Church of Christ has had several renovations. Reverend Jacobson of the Church of Christ was interviewed at 10:30 am on October 20, 2010. He stated that a “wall in the church went up in the late 60’s, the roof has needed to be re-done (that is a given to wear and tear), the lighting has been repaired along with other indoor adjustments, a memorial was built and the towers were fixed.”</p> <p><br />    Reverend Jacobson is on his 33 year at the church, he started in 1977. Reverend Jacobson spoke highly about the granite, stating, “We receive many comments of our granite. People find it quite interesting; it was all cut on site when quarries were on strike…cornerstone has time capsule and there are roman coins and all sorts of coins in it.” He mentioned that mass is on Sundays at 10 am and would enjoy it if newcomers came. Lastly, Reverend said there are not “formal tours but tours in conjunction with house tours.” Therefore, if a tour interests you, you may want to call ahead (203-488-7827) and talk to Reverend Jacobson. Feel free to post pictures on here due to the fact transportation is an issue for me. Reverend Jacobson is an extremely nice guy who glorifies his church.</p> <p>     The Stony Creek Quarry Corporation helped provide the stone to build this church (Stony Creek Architecture). “Since 1850, architects, designers and builders have sought Stony Creek Granite for its strength, workability and distinctive appearance. The old-world reliability and craftsmanship is preserved today, bringing the same timeless energy and permanence to contemporary applications,” a quote from Stony Creek Quarry website (listed in Works Cited). Beyond the village of Stony Creek, the stone has expanded national fame. There are stairs, panels, pavers, quarry-cut blocks and veneer that the quarry workers helped build. Veneers are part of home foundations; such as, chimneys, walls, or exterior stairs that lead up to a front door. All of which are in the Church of Christ. Like stated in our textbook on page 147, Norcross Brothers donated the granite used for the Church of Christ during 1901-1903. According to Wikipedi.com the Norcross Brothers were “prominent nineteenth-century American construction workers who were especially noted for their work mostly in stone.” Below to the left is an image from Google that is a rubble chinking detail created by the Norcross Brothers in the foundation “The Castle” which is a school in Massachusetts. Part of the rubble chinking technique was done to the granite on the sides of Church of Christ.</p> <p><br />     In a historical news article online, published on January 8th, 1989, it is said that the New Yorkers like to vacation in the seaside villages of Stony Creek and the Thimble Islands (which has been true since the 1850’s). Stony Creek, on the Long Island sound, remains hot property to this day (Libov). The citizens of Stony Creek are driven to protect their lands. Anthony DaRos, president of the Stony Creek Association and a marine contractor, had stated in the article that a dump/sewer system was supposed to be put in Stony Creek. After battles with the sewer company and the villagers, it was finally decided that the dump would not be placed there. The villagers consist of quarry workers, old-timers, and the New Yorkers. They are fragile when it comes to their land because they know how special it is.</p> <p><br />     The construction of the Church of Christ came from the quarry workers who ended up settling in the town. Their families live in their place there to this day. The ownership of the Church of Christ lies with the Pastor and those who have expertise with the church. If you are interested in listening to a sermon from the Pastor, please go to this website: <a href="http://church-of-christ.org/sermons/Silbano.htm">http://church-of-christ.org/sermons/Silbano.htm</a>. It is extremely beneficial and motivating. <br /> Here are some YouTube video’s that contain amazing views of the quarries. This will give an idea of how beautiful the neighborhood is where the Church of Christ stands. The first video about a ten minute walk through the Quarry Trails (<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7DP8DpChpm0">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7DP8DpChpm0</a>). As well as this video on the Thimble Islands: <a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=40Nv9DSFqZM&feature=related">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=40Nv9DSFqZM&feature=related</a>. <br /> <br />  <br /> </p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align: center;"><img src="http://www.cjpf.org/clemency/images/peacedove.gif" border="0" width="224" height="133" /></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align: center;"><span style="font-size: large;">Works Cited</span></p> <p>Deford, Deborah. Flesh and Stone: Stony Creek and the Age of Granite. Stony Creek: Stony Creek Granite Quarry Workers    Celebration, 2000. Print. <br />Libov, Charlotte. "The View From: Stony Creek." The New York Times. NYTimes, 2010. Web. 14 Oct. 2010. <<a href="http://www.nytimes.com/1989/01/08/nyregion/view-stony-creek-enlisting-list-keep-community-s-charm-unusullied.html?pagewanted=all">http://www.nytimes.com/1989/01/08/nyregion/view-stony-creek-enlisting-list-keep-community-s-charm-unusullied.html?pagewanted=all</a>>. <br />"Salvation." Church of Christ. Branford Organization, 2010. Web. 13 Oct. 2010. <br />     <<a href="http://www.church-of-christ.ord">http://www.church-of-christ.ord</a>>. <br />"Stony Creek Architecture." Stony Creek Quarry Corporation. Quarry, 2010. Web. 18 Oct. 2010. <br />     <<a href="http://www.stonycreekquarry.com/default.shtml">http://www.stonycreekquarry.com/default.shtml</a>>. <br />"WikiAnswers." Answers.com. Answers Corp., 2010. Web. 12 Oct. 2010. <<a href="http://wiki.answers.com/Q/When_Was_The_gas_heater_invented">http://wiki.answers.com/Q/When_Was_The_gas_heater_invented</a>>.</p> <p> </p> <p><br /> </p> <p style="text-align: left;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> <br />   The Church of Christ in Branford, Connecticut was built in 1901. The church was built from Stony Creek pink granite blocks by the hands of volunteer quarry workers (Deford 147). The quarry workers had used hand tools to cut apart blocks of granite. The church contains a 40-foot bell tower that is in shape of a castle. The lower walls and central bay are made of granite while the remaining walls are now shingled. They used to be stucco which means exterior walls are plastered (Deford 148). This church not only has a history behind it but a beauty as well.</span></p> <p style="text-align: center;"><strong><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Church of Christ</span></strong></p> <p style="text-align: center;"><img src="http://www.stonycreekquarry.com/images/StonyCreekChurch-200.jpg" border="0" title="Church of Christ" width="284" height="188" /></p> <p style="text-align: left;"><br />    The shape of the church is cross-shapped (cruciform). “Inside the cruiciform structure, the ash finish and spruce beams are accented with woodwork in a quatrefoil motif that is echoed outside (page 147).” On the right is an example of a cruciform. According to dictionary.com, a cruciform is a four-sided shape resembling a cross and is the basic design for Christian churches. Three sides of the building are covered with stained-glass windows. There are a total of ten windows, some of which were mounted after 1901. The original Sunday school room from 1901 contains nine of the ten stained-glassed windows accompanied by a fireplace (which is made of Stony Creek granite). The fireplace was needed in the classroom because the gas heater was not invented until 1940.</p> <p style="text-align: center;"> <p style="text-align: left;"><br /> Google Earth showed clear and precise images of Church of Christ. Here are a couple images along with the placemark:</p> </p> <p><br />The placemark is set at; 192 Thimble Island Rd. in Branford, CT.</p> <p>  This image represents where Church of Christ is. Google Earth is an amazing product that gives us accurate directions and illustrations to a certain location.</p> <p><img src="http://pics2.city-data.com/city/maps5/frt7834.png" border="0" width="422" height="359" /></p> <p><br />  There happen to be countless Church of Christ’ in different parts of America. Due to the fact the one in Branford was built in 1901, there are few pictures of the church being built. However, it still stands today in Branford and is available for pictures. Also, the immigrants and quarry workers who built it were behind in architecture compared to the rest of the world because they were limited to money and economics. The picture shown below is a layout of a Church of Christ in Virginia. It has the same ground rules as the Stony Creek church, just a different layout.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p>  <img src="http://new.trbc.org/media/img/flatpages/visitors/Map-floor2.png" border="0" width="770" height="652" /></p> <p> </p> <p>    It consists of doors, pews, rooms and walls (which every church includes). The only difference is that this church in Virginia has only had a roof renovation; whereas, Branford’s Church of Christ has had several renovations. Reverend Jacobson of the Church of Christ was interviewed at 10:30 am on October 20, 2010. He stated that a “wall in the church went up in the late 60’s, the roof has needed to be re-done (that is a given to wear and tear), the lighting has been repaired along with other indoor adjustments, a memorial was built and the towers were fixed.”</p> <p><br />    Reverend Jacobson is on his 33 year at the church, he started in 1977. Reverend Jacobson spoke highly about the granite, stating, “We receive many comments of our granite. People find it quite interesting; it was all cut on site when quarries were on strike…cornerstone has time capsule and there are roman coins and all sorts of coins in it.” He mentioned that mass is on Sundays at 10 am and would enjoy it if newcomers came. Lastly, Reverend said there are not “formal tours but tours in conjunction with house tours.” Therefore, if a tour interests you, you may want to call ahead (203-488-7827) and talk to Reverend Jacobson. Feel free to post pictures on here due to the fact transportation is an issue for me. Reverend Jacobson is an extremely nice guy who glorifies his church.</p> <p>     The Stony Creek Quarry Corporation helped provide the stone to build this church (Stony Creek Architecture). “Since 1850, architects, designers and builders have sought Stony Creek Granite for its strength, workability and distinctive appearance. The old-world reliability and craftsmanship is preserved today, bringing the same timeless energy and permanence to contemporary applications,” a quote from Stony Creek Quarry website (listed in Works Cited). Beyond the village of Stony Creek, the stone has expanded national fame. There are stairs, panels, pavers, quarry-cut blocks and veneer that the quarry workers helped build. Veneers are part of home foundations; such as, chimneys, walls, or exterior stairs that lead up to a front door. All of which are in the Church of Christ. Like stated in our textbook on page 147, Norcross Brothers donated the granite used for the Church of Christ during 1901-1903. According to Wikipedi.com the Norcross Brothers were “prominent nineteenth-century American construction workers who were especially noted for their work mostly in stone.” Below to the left is an image from Google that is a rubble chinking detail created by the Norcross Brothers in the foundation “The Castle” which is a school in Massachusetts. Part of the rubble chinking technique was done to the granite on the sides of Church of Christ.</p> <p><br />     In a historical news article online, published on January 8th, 1989, it is said that the New Yorkers like to vacation in the seaside villages of Stony Creek and the Thimble Islands (which has been true since the 1850’s). Stony Creek, on the Long Island sound, remains hot property to this day (Libov). The citizens of Stony Creek are driven to protect their lands. Anthony DaRos, president of the Stony Creek Association and a marine contractor, had stated in the article that a dump/sewer system was supposed to be put in Stony Creek. After battles with the sewer company and the villagers, it was finally decided that the dump would not be placed there. The villagers consist of quarry workers, old-timers, and the New Yorkers. They are fragile when it comes to their land because they know how special it is.</p> <p><br />     The construction of the Church of Christ came from the quarry workers who ended up settling in the town. Their families live in their place there to this day. The ownership of the Church of Christ lies with the Pastor and those who have expertise with the church. If you are interested in listening to a sermon from the Pastor, please go to this website: <a href="http://church-of-christ.org/sermons/Silbano.htm">http://church-of-christ.org/sermons/Silbano.htm</a>. It is extremely beneficial and motivating. <br /> Here are some YouTube video’s that contain amazing views of the quarries. This will give an idea of how beautiful the neighborhood is where the Church of Christ stands. The first video about a ten minute walk through the Quarry Trails (<a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7DP8DpChpm0">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7DP8DpChpm0</a>). As well as this video on the Thimble Islands: <a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=40Nv9DSFqZM&feature=related">http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=40Nv9DSFqZM&feature=related</a>. <br /> <br />  <br /> </p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align: center;"><img src="http://www.cjpf.org/clemency/images/peacedove.gif" border="0" width="224" height="133" /></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p style="text-align: center;"><span style="font-size: large;">Works Cited</span></p> <p>Deford, Deborah. Flesh and Stone: Stony Creek and the Age of Granite. Stony Creek: Stony Creek Granite Quarry Workers    Celebration, 2000. Print. <br />Libov, Charlotte. "The View From: Stony Creek." The New York Times. NYTimes, 2010. Web. 14 Oct. 2010. <<a href="http://www.nytimes.com/1989/01/08/nyregion/view-stony-creek-enlisting-list-keep-community-s-charm-unusullied.html?pagewanted=all">http://www.nytimes.com/1989/01/08/nyregion/view-stony-creek-enlisting-list-keep-community-s-charm-unusullied.html?pagewanted=all</a>>. <br />"Salvation." Church of Christ. Branford Organization, 2010. Web. 13 Oct. 2010. <br />     <<a href="http://www.church-of-christ.ord">http://www.church-of-christ.ord</a>>. <br />"Stony Creek Architecture." Stony Creek Quarry Corporation. Quarry, 2010. Web. 18 Oct. 2010. <br />     <<a href="http://www.stonycreekquarry.com/default.shtml">http://www.stonycreekquarry.com/default.shtml</a>>. <br />"WikiAnswers." Answers.com. Answers Corp., 2010. Web. 12 Oct. 2010. <<a href="http://wiki.answers.com/Q/When_Was_The_gas_heater_invented">http://wiki.answers.com/Q/When_Was_The_gas_heater_invented</a>>.</p> <p> </p> <p><br /> </p>