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Stony Creek Granite Sites Foundations of America - QU 201 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&id=56&Itemid=68 Thu, 23 Nov 2017 11:17:39 +0000 Joomla! 1.5 - Open Source Content Management en-gb Waterbury Union Station http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=649:waterbury-union-station&catid=56:public-buildings&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=649:waterbury-union-station&catid=56:public-buildings&Itemid=68 Waterbury Station

West of downtown Waterbury at the intersection of Meadow and Grand street stands a tower, a landmark to New Englanders traveling on I-84 or looking to traverse on the New York, New Haven, and Hartford rail road. Covering 2.4 acres and standing at two-hundred and forty feet the aforementioned tower belonged to no other than Waterbury station.                                        


(Waterbury train station)

To delve into the history of Waterbury station one needs to start with the structure itself.  There are four sections to the building including two wings, the main block, and the clock tower.

All brick are laid on common bond on a Stony Creek granite foundation, at the roofline is a roll molding of terra cotta. The two wings have a tiled hip roof and stick out from the main block.  Both wings are narrower than other parts of the building and are similar to each other.  The main block is three two story round arched window openings, which were filled in near the top.  The main block is outlined in terra cotta with a vine design, bordered by pearl, egg and dart, and anthemion molding which are all architectural ornaments.  Spacing them are our round medallions of two rings of raised radial brick and a raised ring of fasces molding.  Atop is a course of terra cotta round-arched corbel table topped by egg-and-dart, a frieze with cherubs and projecting leaf molding. The level above has a series of small rectangular windows, three above each arch and one above each medallion. At the roofline is a cornice which is typically any horizontal decorative molding that crowns any building or furniture element similar to the one below but more complex, with carved modillions, a fluted frieze and wide carved cyma molding.  Also inside the building resides a printing press that was added to the northern part of the building for paper circulation.  The printing press is architecturally sympathetic and stays mostly out of the way, not disturbing the rest of the building.


The clock tower was not included in the original blueprints of waterbury station.  An executive for the railroad traveled to Italy and upon his return he insisted on a bell tower.  The tower is modeled after Torre Del Mangia in Sienna Italy.  Along with gargoyles the tower houses the largest clock in New England with sixteen feet in diameter and 5 feet tall roman numerals.  A bell was added in 1916.  Architectural historian Carroll Meeks in The Railroad Station: An Architectural History, states that the bell was chosen as a deliberate rebuke to architectural amateurs such as the rail executive.

The interior has made a couple changes over the years.  The main block and north wing have had a second story added in the seventies.  In the new offices on the second floor the original vaulted ceiling remains with large light colored tiles in herringbone pattern.  The windows contain the same lavish decorations as the exterior.  With two bands of terra cotta done with leaves and pearl molding.  The south wings interior which was originally a restaurant remained in use as a waiting room for passengers including brass ticket windows, a long mission style wooden bench, iron radiator grill, and marble baseboards and sills.

The history of the tower is nearly as rich as the structure itself.  Built in 1909 for $332,000 by Mckim, Mead, and White for the New York, New Haven, and Hartford Rail road.  In the early twentieth century Waterbury still growing worked with New Haven during the urban renewal project, to make room for the larger station.  Streets were adjusted and buildings demolished leaving the at that time new station and a small park.  The stations extravagant size and decor symbolized the city’s prosperity mostly through the brass industry and the importance of the railroad system to it.

         In the summer of 1909 the station welcomed passengers for the first time.  In its hight of activity the station served as many as sixty-six passenger trains a day during the peak of traffic.  A few years later the American Brass Company another large part what makes up Waterbury Connecticut, was constructed across the street from the station.  The American Brass Company includes a lot of the same architectural concepts that are included in Waterbury station.

The rail continued as an inner city service until the city declined the it in the late twentieth century.  In the seventies a newspaper that came to be known as The Republican American owned by William J. Pape occupied a portion of the station, designing it for its own uses.  At that time the south wing was designated for Metro North passengers.

Today the building’s interior is closed to travelers and its purpose is to house The Republican American. The clock tower still serves as one of Connecticut’s great landmarks and the platform outside the station continues to be a boarding spot for passengers daily.





Public Buildings Wed, 02 Nov 2011 02:23:53 +0000
The Arsenal (Central Park) http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=638:the-arsenal-central-park&catid=56:public-buildings&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=638:the-arsenal-central-park&catid=56:public-buildings&Itemid=68 Marijan Jurac

QU201-Prof. Leone


Stony Creek Granite is not only a stone rich in color and texture, but a time vessel rich in history.  The stone, about 600 million years old, brings us back to landmarks, each one with a specific story.  The landmarks all built strong and sturdy with a Stone that was built to last and stand out with its unique and unusual color.  Important landmarks and buildings were and still are built of Stony Creek Granite, weather it be a small portion or a whole monument or building, Stony Creek Granite has found its way into History and still lives on.

One of many important buildings located in New York City that are made with Stony Creek Granite is The Arsenal Building located on 64th St. and 5th Ave. in Central Park.  Currently the headquarters of New York City’s Department of Parks & Recreation and the Central Park Zoo, the building outdates Central Park by about ten years.  Designed by architect Martin E. Thompson, the building was given the look of a medieval fortress built.  Built in 1853 with stucco and crenulated cornice, the building stands out from other buildings in the park.  It greets its visitors with huge cast-iron gates.  Getting the name “The Arsenal”, the building was originally made to serve as a storage supply for ammunitions used by the New York State Militia.  However, the building was seized from the military by the State 3 years later.   Shortly thereafter The City bought The Arsenal for $275,000 and stripped the building of its ammunitions and military equipment.

After the building’s short military term, the only question left was, how would this building serve the city next?  Many New Yorkers questioned the building and often criticized its design. One of many critics was George Templeton Strong, a well known diarist, said in 1859, “I hope this eyesore would soon be destroyed by an accidental fire”.  Despite the critics The Arsenal building went on to serve New York City for decades to come playing several different roles.  The building served as a police precinct in 1857 weather bureau, makeshift zoo in 1871 and most importantly the first National Museum of natural history from 1869-1877.  Animals donated by P.T. Barnum, August Belmont and civil war general William Tecumseh Sherman were held in cages in the basement of the building that could be seen by the public.  The Animal display was also short lived due to a dangerous and unsanitary atmosphere.  In 1870 architect, Jacob Wrey Mold, who was the designer of creations around the park, remodeled the interior of the building.

During the period of 1914-1924 The Arsenal Building was reaching its breaking point as it began to deteriorate.  With missing bricks, broken windows, and too many structural defects The Arsenal was mocked by newspaper headlines as a “Neglected Landmark”.  The building’s last hopes were answered when the city decided to invest $75,000 in The Arsenal’s a restoration process.  Included in the restoration were a clock, extra storage space, and a conference room.  A secret passage and an underground spring were discovered during the reconstruction.  The secret passage way was said to be a secret exit for ammunition and arms if they were need in emergency.  Along with the reconstruction was the insertion of Stony Creek Granite, used for the entrance steps of the front entrance of the building.  Though the Granite was not polished but rough, it made a very appealing staircase to say the least.  While functionally providing traction for pedestrians, the entry steps were expected to be the most used and most worn part of the building.  Could Robert Moses have seen Stony Creek granite as more useful in strength than in appeal since he didn’t use the granite somewhere on the building where it could have been polished and flaunted its unique pink color?

During the last renovation in 1934 done by Robert Moses who was Born in New Haven, CT in 1888.  Robert Moses was the “master builder” during the mid 20th century. In many of his works he used Stony Creek Granite.  Did Robert Moses’s connection with Stony Creek Granite influence him to use it on the renovation of the Arsenal?  It must have, because he used Stony Creek Granite before 1934 in other magnificent works such as the Triborough Bridge, Queens Zoo, Astoria Park, Downing Stadium and many others.  After the reconstruction The Arsenal was the first Park Department Headquarters, which also served as the base for Robert Moses.  Moses became Commissioner of the Parks and Recreation offices held in the Arsenal.  The parks’ acreage tripled and the children’s parks increased by 658.  Today, the Arsenal building is still serving the city.  Although it is not holding ammunitions and arms, helping the city predict the weather, or exhibiting natural history.  The Arsenal is helping New York look forward to new reconstructions of NYC parks to better the community and city.  As the Arsenal still stands strong it can be written and savored in history that Stony Creek Granite contributes to that strength.


  • http://www.nycgovparks.org/sub_about/parks_history/history_arsenal_brochure/history_arsenal_brochure_pg2.html
  • http://www.centralparknyc.org/visit/things-to-see/south-end/arsenal.html
  • http://www.centralpark.com/guide/attractions/arsenal.html



Public Buildings Tue, 01 Nov 2011 18:47:58 +0000
Delmonico Building http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=627:delmonico-building&catid=56:public-buildings&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=627:delmonico-building&catid=56:public-buildings&Itemid=68 Delmonico’s restaurant is the epitome of elegance, from its interior designs of chandeliers and beautiful tablecloths, to its luxury cuisine. What ties this elegance and beauty all together, is the outstanding exterior of this building, on 56 Beaver Street in New York City, which on the side contains entrance steps made of Stony Creek Granite. This granite ties together the entry way for the offices of the Delmonico Building and the borders of the doors with its beautiful color and texture. Delmonico’s is not only famous for its impeccable design by James Brown Lord, but also for being the first restaurant to have hamburgers, tablecloths, printed menus, instead of verbal “specials” and guests were able to sit at their own private tables while enjoying original creations such as Oysters Rockefeller. Delmonico’s became a staple blueprint for future restaurants.

Delmonico’s was founded in 1827, by Switzerland natives, John (Jean) Del-Monico and Peter Del-Monico. John lived in the United States owning his own wine shop. He imported casks of wine and bottled them himself. Meanwhile, Peter had a prosperous candy shop back in Berne, Switzerland. On December 13, 1827, the two brothers established a café, which served cakes, ices and fine wines. Located on 23 William Street, the center of New York City’s downtown business district, the café become especially favorable to the European community. The restaurant’s name is seen as Delmonico’s, instead of Del-Monico’s. Rumor had it that the artist hired to make the sign mistakenly forgot to hyphenate the last name, but due to the known fact that the brothers were perfectionists, it was discovered that John and Peter named the café Delmonico’s on purpose, and also changed their last names to coincide with it. They did this in order to adapt to United States culture.

In 1831, the Delmonicos continued to expand their business by opening a restaurant right down the street at 25 William Street. This was one of the first restaurants in the United States to specialize in fine Continental cuisine. Because of this high demand for baked goods and luxury meals, the brothers began hiring family members for help. As common as this was to have family businesses, what the Delmonicos did differently was having their wives work in the front as cashiers, which was unheard of. Another rarity for the brothers was owning and operating their own farm on Long Island, New York, which provided many of the fresh vegetables of fruits used in Delmonico’s, since freshness and quality was a priority and promise for the brothers. The brothers didn’t stop there, since only three years later in 1834, another restaurant and hotel was built at 76 Broad Street, due to a tragic fire on William Street that wiped out most of the Wall Street district. Devastated but not broken, the Delmonicos planned to rebuild an even bigger restaurant on the intersection of Beaver, William and South William streets. This location became known as the “Citadel” because of the unique rounded corner. It had beautiful iron balconies and a marble entrance portico with four columns that were from the doorway of a villa in Pompeii. Although there are no Stony Creek Granite connections to this specific building certain attributes of this building later become prominent in the newest Delmonico’s building with Stony Creek Granite steps.

The new and improved Delmonico’s Restaurant was near the new Stock Exchange and held guests such as James Wallack, George Templeton Strong, journalist Richard Grant White, Prince Louis Napoleon (later Napoleon III) and many other lavish celebrities. Not only were high-class clientele constantly seen at the restaurant but it was a chosen place for private entertainment, like balls and assemblies, and for family dinners. Continuing momentum, after losing the restaurant-hotel to a fire on 76 Broad Street, and opening a new hotel at 25 Broadway, the Delmonicos left the hotel business and opened various other locations to focus on. Some locations were the Irving house Hotel, the former Grinnell mansion on 5th avenue, in 1862 until 1876 and going to the business district again by adjoining to the original Equitable Building from 1886 to 1891.

The Delmonico brothers were transforming American eating habits by storm and by 1889, Delmonico’s was the leading restaurant in the city and one of the most famous restaurants in the country. At this time, the kitchens were overseen by Charles Ranhofer, a famous chef who created original masterpieces such as Baked Alaska, Lobster Newberg, eggs Benedict, and later on adding larger variety’s of steak to make Delmonico’s a steakhouse as well to appeal to the changing tastes of the city.

In 1884, grand-nephew of the Delmonico brothers, Charles Crist Delmonico took control of the business. He obtained two properties at 4 and 6 South William Street, mirroring the famous “Citadel” with a vision to replace and create a new restaurant and office building. Charles Delmonico hired James Brown Lord to create the new glamorous building in 1990. Lord and Delmonico had history prior to the creation of the building at Beaver and William Street. Delmonico hired Lord in 1886 to design a new branch for the restaurant and even though it failed, Lord’s work was a successful foreshadow of things to come.

James Brown Lord, born and raised in New York, graduated from Princeton in 1879 and teamed up with the firm of William A. Potter. He assisted in the design of the Union Theological Seminary (built by the Norcross bothers 1882-1883, W.A. Potter & J.B. Lord), joined with Stanford White and Bruce White to design the King Model Houses. and later on solely designed many hospitals, like St. Luke’s and the Society of New York Hospital. These credentials shone through when Lord and Delmonico laid the cornerstone for the new Delmonico Building on July 10th, 1890.

On July 7th, 1891 the new building was open to the public. The first floor had cast-iron and steel frames that held a floor café and restaurant. The second floor was for ladies’ dining rooms and private parties. Further up to the eighth floor was the kitchen and between these were offices. Lord pushed the Renaissance Revival style through all to the exterior. He uniquely designed the corner as a separate front, which is flanked on either side with immense walls with giant arcades. The focus is on the three-bay-wide rounded corner façade with had columns and a semi-circular entrance. This idea creates the impression of a balanced, symmetrical design when viewed from the intersection of Beaver and William(s?) Street while also adding appropriate details to the side streets for the various functions it had. Two of the Pompeiian columns from the original building were used and became good luck charms as people touched them in passing into the restaurant. The color was radiant, which orange iron-spot brick with terra cotta. By section, the first and second stories are faced with light brownstone, called “Belleville Rock” on top of a brick and granite foundation. The main restaurant entrance is distinguished by a rounded portico with Corinthian columns which have “Delmonico’s” on them. The doorway has historic paneled wood. The office entrance, of Stony Creek Granite interest, has stucco framing with splayed stone jambs that were decorated with classical moldings. The stoop in front of the doorway is pink Stony Creek Granite which beautifully matches the granite walls around the planter to the west of the entry. The midsection is also brick with brownstone and terra cotta along with a curved corner that’s decorated with foliated spandrel panels. In the upper section, original brick chimneys can be seen along with slender pilasters and a brick penthouse. Timeless and breathtaking, the building continues to be an architectural staple for unique positioning, use of stones and brick and spirit.

In 1893, this beautiful building became the only downtown location of the Delmonico’s. Management continued to trickle down the family tree, as members such as aunt Rosa Crist Delmonico and sister Josephine Crist Delmonico. However, during the 1910’s huge expenses and poor management causes tension between Josephine and other family members, who were minority stockholders in the Delmonico’s restaurant. The situation became worse as the First World War undertook the entire nation. The war created shipping problems making the prices for food and necessary items too expensive, but also shining light on the opportunity to cater to the United State’s maritime’s need for office space downtown. In August of 1917 the Delmonico family settled together to sell the building to the American Merchant Marine Insurance Company. The Delmonicos continued to lease within the restaurant section of the building, but when the war created “meatless” and “wheatless” days in November of 1917, it became too difficult, so operations were officially finished. The uptown restaurant was still running until 1923 when prohibition shut it down along with real estate values rising in the Grand Central district. When the downtown, Beaver street, restaurant closed, it was a disappointment to all. It was as if history could no longer grow and morph in this piece of architecture, and the building was now becoming a part of history itself. The last to own the building was Time Equities, Inc. in November of 1995.  Owners prior to this purchase include restaurateur Oscar Tucci, which had the first and second floors running again as restaurants and following acquired by the City Bank Farmers Trust Company. It seemed like everyone wanted the luck and success the Delmonico’s restaurant has.

Currently, the Delmonico’s Restaurant is back in business, with a successful future to come. On its website, the current Delmonico’s team continues to praise its history and journey while also maintaining original menu options from the 1800’s.

In February of 1996, the Landmarks Preservation Commission found the building (with the link at the bottom of the page) “has special character and special historical and aesthetic interest and value as part of the development, heritage, and cultural characteristics of New York City” and designated the Delmonico building as a Landmark.

A video on the artistic history of Delmonico's:







Delmonico's Placemark

Public Buildings Mon, 24 Oct 2011 17:38:12 +0000
Jersey City Library http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=624:jersey-city-library&catid=56:public-buildings&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=624:jersey-city-library&catid=56:public-buildings&Itemid=68 Over the century, Stony Creek granite continues the American traditions of elegance, permanence and superior workmanship relied upon by architects and tradesman. The quality and beauty of the stone is utilized on both contemporary and traditional architecture designs. Some of the most renowned architectural artifacts made with Stony Creek granite include bridges, schools, railroads, commercial and private buildings, monuments, Statue of Liberty, graves and the Jersey City Library.

Jersey City library located at 472 Jersey Avenue, Jersey City, New Jersey was established an idea of Dr. Leonard J. Gordon of Jersey City who felt a public library was needed in the city. He called a meeting where he suggested his plan to his fellow citizens and successfully excited their interest and the public library began. Dr Gordon was the president among other board of trustees who suggested a convenient site for the building.  In 1889, he was one of seven men who met in the City Hall office of Mayor Orestes Cleveland to organize the first free public library for Jersey City. The appointed trustees chose him as their president after he had battled for years to convince both the public and the political officials that a municipal library was a necessity.

He was a prize-winning member of the 1875 Graduating Class of Bellevue Hospital Medical School, Dr. Gordon was a life-long civic activist. In addition to founding a medical dispensary for the indigent, he also convinced the Lorillard Tobacco Company, for whom he worked as a chemist, to open a 6000-volume reading room for all the company’s (mostly immigrant) employees.  His crowning achievement, however, was his push for and founding of the Free Public Library of Jersey City.  Dr. Gordon served as supervisor of the Library until his death in 1907 at his home at 485 Jersey Avenue. The Jersey City Parks was named after him as a memorial of his illustrious works.

P. Lorillard and Company offered the free library to the adult employees. Dr Gordon may have influenced such decision because he was Lorillard’s chief chemist and physician.

P. Lorillard and Company was a leading recognized brand-name manufacturers in America, one of the oldest manufacturers of tobacco products, and was the nation's largest manufacturer of tobacco. It became synonymous with the production of all manner of tobacco including snuff, plug, chewing, and smoking tobacco, numbering over 160 brands. In 1883, the company reported sales of over $10 million a year in domestic and foreign trade from the production of over 25 million pounds of tobacco products.

Stocked with 15,515 books, the new library opened on July 6, 1891 in rented, gas-lit rooms in two adjacent bank buildings on Washington Street near York. To go from one part of the library to the other, the public had to go out into the street. Clearly, a new structure was needed, one designed to house a large book collection and to provide seating capacity for a city with a population reaching the 200,000 mark.

Throughout the 1890s, the trustees and library staff acquired land at Jersey Avenue and Montgomery Street, hired a supervising architect, Professor A.D.F. Hamlin of Colombia University, and announced a design competition. The architectural firm of Brite and Bacon of New York was selected, contracts were awarded, and, on August 16, 1899, the cornerstone was set in place. On January 14, 1901 the new building, today's main library, was dedicated.

Physical expansion continued into the 1920s, and the main library itself was enlarged. The Depression, however, took its toll by curtailing any additional growth. It was not until 1962 that the library added a new building located at Five Corners. In recent years, the most important development in the library has been the introduction of automation. With the introduction of an online catalog, patrons can now search the collection from their homes as well as from a growing number of onsite computer terminals.

The Jersey City library was made out of Stony Creek granite, by buff brick Messrs Brite & Bacon, New York City architects, erected a plain, substantial structure of colonial design. It is four stories high, the main part of the building covers 48 x 190 feet of ground, and the stack-room, 34 X 38 feet, contains five floors of Library Bureau steel stacks.

The interior of the library building is finished and in use, but not all the carving planned by the architects for the exterior was completed. The first floor is designed that the keystone of each window head will in the future bear the name of an American famous in art, science, history, or poetry, while the now vacant niches are to be filled with busts of these honored countrymen.

The second story, circular disks of the oblong panels above the windows will have carved upon them book plates of publishers who have furthered the art of printing. In addition, names of men who have earned a place in literature will be cut into the frieze of the main cornice. Among the special features of the main reading-room on this floor are the racks beneath each window, filled with current magazines. This unique arrangement provides a mural decoration, and leaves the entire floor space for the use of readers. The private reading-room for women, the main catalog room and the children's catalog room, the wash-room, and the librarian's room, are all upon this floor, and all fittings have been most carefully chosen

The third floor largely devoted to the interests of students and to official needs. The trustees' room is finished in polished panels of California redwood, is conveniently fitted up with furnishings especially designed and executed by the Library Bureau.

The assistant librarian's room is suitably equipped with the best card indexes and labor-saving devices (those of the Library Bureau). The children's reading and reference rooms have tables and chairs graded in size.

The entrance floor has the newspaper file room, fitted up with special Library Bureau steel stacks. These stacks are supplied with roller shelves in which the bound volumes of the newspapers are put in on flat. The bicycle room, the staff lunch room, the

check room, and the law library are also upon this floor, as well as the wagon delivery room which feeds the 17 substations of the circulating system conveniently placed throughout the city.

The current state of economy has streamlined the budget and funding has become an issue. The Library Director Priscilla Gardner has said the city will only give the library $6 million this year to run its 10 branches. That is down from $7.7 million last year and below the $8 million she requested.

Under state law, the city must give the library $7.4 million, but that includes pension contributions for employees and the library's debt service, which the city pays.

Library patrons, staff members and representatives from the library's various programs asked the City Council to fully fund the budget.

Mary Quinn, principal librarian and manager of the Glenn D. Cunningham Branch, said the economy has placed an increased demand on libraries.  Municipal Funding Per Person for Library Service in Jersey City: $31.75. While the Projected Municipal Funding Per Person for Library Service in Jersey City: $24.74.











Public Buildings Sat, 22 Oct 2011 09:00:12 +0000
Faneuil Hall - Quincy Market http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=588:fanueil-hall-quincy-market&catid=56:public-buildings&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=588:fanueil-hall-quincy-market&catid=56:public-buildings&Itemid=68 Although Boston was founded in 1630 by the Puritans as one of the original colonies, the area of Faneuil Hall was founded in 1742, before Boston became an official city in 1822.  Quincy Market, the city’s first major project commenced in 1824, was built right in the heart of Faneuil Hall on the shipping wharf and just .46 Miles from Boston Commons.  Faneuil Hall was the perfect shipping location at the time.  On the outskirts of Quincy Market in Faneuil Hall itself, pink granite is evident in almost every building in the immediate vicinity.  In the heart of Quincy Market (shopping area) there is no Stony Creek or Milford granite.  It is mostly Quincy Granite because it was in abundance at the time, and very easy to transport.

Peter Faneuil was a wealthy merchant, slave trader, and philanthropist who donated the land for Faneuil Hall to Boston in 1742 just six months before his death.  At the time the construction of Faneuil hall was very controversial because people we not sure how having a central trading hub would affect farmers’ business.  Before the official opening of Faneuil hall the few markets that were built were destroyed by a disguised mob who was opposed to industrialization of the area.

The name Faneuil is French.  There is evidence that it was pronounced very differently during the time that it was built, as funnel.  Peter Faneuil’s actual gravestone is inscribed “P. Funel” although added long after his death.  The stone originally just displayed his family crest and not his surname.

The original builder of Faneuil hall was John Smibert from 1740-1742, 100 years before the first excavations of Stony Creek Granite and Milford granite.  In 1805 the building was remodelled by Charles Bulfinch using mostly Stately Granite.  All of Faneuil Hall, Quincy Market and its outskirts, were renovated in 1970 which is the most likely the time that the majority of pink granite was laid.

Stony Creek, Westerly Pink and Milford Pink granite are known for being durable, scratch resistant, and water repellent making them more durable than sandstone, which at the time, was less expensive and more readily available.  During the time that Faneuil Hall was being built Boston was still a major shipping hub.  With Faneuil Hall being right on Boston Harbor the original builder would have built most of the outskirts with pink granite because of its durability.  In 1876 Oliver Wendell Holmes and others gave speeches in Faneuil hall “in favor of public parks”, keeping public areas presentable as a place where people go to socialize and exercise.  At the time things like socializing were considered to be part of “being human”.  Milford Granite became popular from 1870-1940 so it is a safe notion that in making speeches about preserving parks and landscapes someone would have put forth using Stony Creek Granite as it is one of the most durable and eye pleasing granites around.  This decision would make sense for the area because of the fact that it is a major shipping hub and trading center so the foundation needed to be able to take its share of wear and tear.

Faneuil Hall, Quincy Market and its outskirts were renovated in 1970 by Benjamin Thompson Associates, which is the only viable time that a large part of the granite could have been implemented because there was no construction on the area before then.  It is possible that in the 1800’s and early 1900’s before things were as well documented as they are now that putting in slabs of stone in a staircase or in a walkway were not something of importance meaning that the stone could have been put in place anywhere from the stone’s initiation in the 1840’s to when Faneuil was renovated in 1970.

King’s Chapel Burial ground right outside of Faneuil hall is one of the oldest in the country with a few of the tombs dating back to 1776 and because of that it is hard to tell what the gravestones are laid from because of the wear and tear that has been done to them during the past 200+ years.  During the 1800’s and early 1900’s Boston was a very up and coming area.  The area directly around Faneuil was one of the most affluent areas of the time due solely to location being one of the most important aspects of privileged circumstances at the time.  Because of this many of the gravestones laid during this time period are made from pink granite because it was the most established.  Looking at pictures it is hard to tell if there is any pink granite in the cemetery.  Most of the tombs and gravestones in King’s Chapel burial ground are made from Quincy granite which was the most readily accessible at the time, but pink granite cannot be fully ruled out.  The many different types of stone in the burial ground help to tell who was affluent and who was poor, by the quality of the granite that their gravestone is made from.

Stony Creek / Milford pink granite was most popular right after the tail end of World War II.  During the period before World War II, because almost all of Boston became a place to work on things for the war in 1941, people could still bring in granite.  Stony Creek and Milford pink granite were among the most popular.  The halt in the Stony Creek Granite era was due to the beginning of the war and most efforts being shifted from the upbringing of Faneuil Hall to industrialization and innovation to help with the war effort. The great depression is another historical reason that Stony Creek Granite may not have been laid in Boston during its prime.  The Great Depression was the longest and most widespread depression in history.  During this time granite mining would have been seriously affected by the almost instantaneous drop in income and trade, meaning that people would not be able to afford items of luxury like this.  The pink granite companies also would have declined due to the depression making it hard to pay workers if they were not selling as much granite as they were previous to this.  The bell atop Faneuil hall was repaired in 2007 but previous to this the last known ringing of the bell was at the end of World War II in 1945.

The bank of America building at 100 Federal Street right on the outskirts of Faneuil, Abercrombie and Fitch 1 Faneuil Square inside the area of Faneuil Hall, and even the local Dunkin Donuts are in buildings made from pink granite.  The staircases leading down to and up from Faneuil Hall from the State Street orange line T stop are made of pink Milford Granite.

During the time that Faneuil hall was being built Quincy Granite was the largest quarry in the area making the granite readily available to the original builder John Smibert.  One of the reasons that the Faneuil Hall area had to be renovated (when the pink stone was moved in) would have been because although beautiful, Quincy Granite went through a decomposition process that caused parts of it to turn to clay.  When Faneuil Hall was in construction in 1742 the builders would have no way of knowing that Quincy granite went through this process and would have wanted the best granite at the time which was this Quincy granite.  When builders started to realize that the Quincy granite went through this process they would have wanted to save Faneuil Hall from the decomposition that this stone was going through and put in stronger and more durable pink granite.

In more recent years, Quincy Market has transitioned from being a meat and produce distribution center to being one of the most popular tourist areas in Boston.  Today the building consists of sit down restaurants, fast food stalls, and a large shopping center.  Flanking the sides of the Central building of Quincy Market are North Market and South Market that expand the area into even more restaurants, shops and offices.  Among the restaurants are Cheers, Dick’s last resort, and a variety of Mexican restaurants.  Some of the shopping cosists of Victorias Secret, Coach, Aldo, Aldo accessories, American Eagle, Urban Outfitters and Newbury comics.  In the two buildings on the side of the Center Quincy Market building there are also more diverse types of shops to accommodate tourists.  There is a fine arts gallery, a store that sells only Boston apparel, and store selling Historic information/gifts from the area.

Latitude: 42°21'36.72"N, Longitude: 71° 3'20.52"W


All pictures are Primary Source pictures - Samantha Eames








Public Buildings Wed, 05 Oct 2011 00:33:07 +0000
Pennsylvania Station, New York http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=587:pennsylvania-station-new-york&catid=56:public-buildings&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=587:pennsylvania-station-new-york&catid=56:public-buildings&Itemid=68 Pennsylvania Station, New York



"We want and deserve tin-can architecture in a tinhorn culture. And we will probably be judged not by the monuments we build but by those we have destroyed."

Google Placemark : http://blackboard.quinnipiac.edu/@@9907937BED1E6414CE893F7246971C68/courses/1/QU20107_11FA/db/_1517267_1/embedded/Pennsylvania%20Station.kmz

The original Pennsylvania Station was built in 1910 in midtown Manhattan, on West 34th Street and Eighth Ave and was under the ownership of the Pennsylvania Railroad. The building required the funding of one-hundred million dollars, which was a huge sum of money during the 1900’s.The original architects of this incredible building were Charles McKim (1847- 1909), William Rutherford Mead (1846-1928), and Stanford White (1853-1906), who first stated working together in 1879. They were quickly recognized for being one of the most admired and respected partnerships in the United States. Not only did these men design buildings such as the Penn Station, but also many commercial, residential, and institutional buildings as well. In fact, the three men designed the grand General Post office that stand just across the street from the Pennsylvania Station, which would later come in handy, since it was reconstructed to work as a railroad after the original was demolished

            These men commonly used a Beaux-Arts style as they designed their buildings. This style aided in the creation of many grand classical structures from the 1880's until the First World War which were modeled after the monuments of ancient Rome. Typically each of these buildings would be characterized with projecting facades or pavilions, massive columns often grouped, definite cornices commonly enriched with free-standing statuary projections above the cornice, enhanced moldings, tall walls, banisters, or attic stories windows enframed by free-standing columns, and pediment entablatures on top. The buildings were always associated with neat and orderly plans outlining the stylistic construction. Beaux-Arts usually favored light colored rich materials such as stone or brick, particularly limestone, granite (stony creek or pink), and marble which would lighten the city from its dark demeanor. The Pennsylvania Station used many if not all of these techniques in its architecture along with structural steel beams creating the huge waiting room, combined frank glass-and-steel train sheds and a magnificently-proportioned concourse. Between the demolition of over five-hundred buildings, fifteen million bricks, twenty-seven thousand tons of steel, five-hundred and fifty thousand cubic feet of Milford pink granite, the station towered over one hundred-fifty feet high. There were a multitude of eagle statues which were 5,700 pounds each and lined the grand entrances along with many different young women statues. One of the only remaining original structures of the building is the staircase which is made of brass and wrought iron. All the others have been replaced by escalator. The station had a façade for the taxis which was lined with 84 stony creek granite columns and those who traveled on foot would enter through a stylish shopping area. Both of these entrance areas merged together into one giant waiting room, even though it did not contain any benches and was never a room for waiting to be done. The room was a block and a half long and had a gracefully arching high overhead roof which at points was fifteen stories high. This steel and glass roof was able to bring daylight all the way down to the platforms 45 feet deep below street level. Enabled by the light granite interior, it was one of the largest indoor spaces in New York City and one of the largest public spaces in the world. Those who entered this building would have encountered such an appealing effect even as they hurried along with their normal lives. This structure was built with the intention of being the largest railroad station in the world and was finally completed on November 27th, 1910.


            The Pennsylvania Station became a commonly used way of transportation traveling far distances and being available daily.  It transported passengers places like Chicago, St. Louis, Florida, Boston and many more. It also served as great transportation for commuters from Long Island, New Jersey, and a common subway riding system within New York City. The Station underwent its heaviest usage during World War II, but saw a decline around the 1950’s when the interstate system and air transportation were becoming alternitive means of transportantion.

            Looking to rid itself of a large cost of operation in the 1950’s, the now less popular Pennsylvania Station, which covered four valuable blocks of land in Manhattan, decided to open their land rights to whoever was interested. With the way the highway systems were being built as well as cars were being bought and used, there was no doubt that the station would continually find itself being used less and less. Madison Square Garden on the other hand was flourishing and decided it was time to consider a more modern building capable of holding bigger crowds. This would allow for a larger multitude of people and therefore increase the complexes income. In 1962 the Pennsylvania Railroad decided to give up the Pennsylvania Station rights in exchange for a new air-conditioned station below street level at no cost. The new station would be smaller, but the Pennsylvania railroad would get 25% stake in the new $116 million Penn Plaza and Madison Square Garden Complexes being built. This new complex would be the fourth restoration on the Madison Square Garden and would house two sport arenas along with an entertainment complex .It was said that the new gain in revenue from these sports areas would bring so much profit as to outweigh the architectural value of the Pennsylvania Station. This change wouldturn these four blocks of distressed realestate land, into a heavily populous area full of benefits. Therefore, it was decided that the historical and incredible building known as the Pennsylvania Station would now be taken down as a matter of a business deal.


When the Pennsylvania station was demolished on October 28, 1963, it came as a shock to the public and seemed to be a step toward other means of transportation. Some agreed that the demolition was just and that with such a decline in railroad systems there was no need for such a massive station. On October 30, 1963 the New York Times editorial, “Farewell to Penn Station” is quoted saying,"Any city gets what it admires, will pay for, and, ultimately, deserves. Even when we had Penn Station, we couldn’t afford to keep it clean. We want and deserve tin-can architecture in a tinhorn culture. And we will probably be judged not by the monuments we build but by those we have destroyed." It is noted that some realize the insufficient funding and upkeep of the station and that it is up to the city to maintain its monumental buildings or else they will be destroyed. Irving M. Felt, Madison Square Garden Corporation president, also commented by saying that “Fifty years from now, when it’s time for [the new Madison Square Garden] to be torn down, there will be a new group of architects who will protest.” Felt realized that not everyone may have agreed with the plans, but to him and many others, when it comes to progress toward the future (and future profability) changes have to be made. Others, however, were livid about these plans and felt that the destruction of such a monumental and beautiful building should not be allowed. The city was being stripped of one of the finest buildings in order for a commercial building to be built and more money to be made. Various art and architecture institutions even took steps in effort to try and have the museum preserved. Around 300 people were recognized for marching, writing letters, signed newspaper ads, or spoke at hearing in protest. Unfortunately for them, all of the attempts made to save the station were quickly dismissed. Much of the debris was dumped in the New Jersey Meadowlands, where sculptures and left over fragments of the lovely station were left to deteriorate. The destruction of the original building created architectural uproar throughout the city and fortunately some of the statues and ornaments were able to be saved and put on display. Such as the statue called night, which used to guard the entrance to the original Penn Station, which now sits on display at the Brooklyn museum. All eight of the egal statues can also be accounted for, in the link below. Many of the Statues were sculpted by the famous Adolph Alexander Weinman, who commonly used Audrey Munson as his model. 



 After the destruction of the Pennsylvania Station, five architects joined together and decided to take all steps needed throughout the future in order to preserve New York City’s heritage. The assembly was named the Action Group for better Architecture in New York (AGBANY), which captured a great amount of publicity and also drew more attention the public about the destruction. The group’s chairman was Norval White and their headquarters were located in White’s apartment. Today more than 1,100 buildings are under guard of this group and other groups looking to keep the historic buildings safe. Because of this group and from this point on these sacred buildings, which give today’s people a sense of awe and wonder will be around and able to provide future generations with those very same experince. A listing of such preserved buildings can be found through the link below.


            Today’s Penn Station does not compare to what once stood at the corner of west 34th street and 8th avenue. However, one could get an idea as to what the architecture may have looked with regards to the Ottawa’s Union station built just a year after in 1912 as well as the Chicago Union Station. Although these stations would only be about half the size as the original Pennsylvania Station, they would present a good example ofthe architectural techniques used.  The once monumental station will now forever be replaced by the strictly profitable Madison Square Garden. The Penn Station has managed to make intended finacial rebound as a hub of transportation, and today about 500 million more people are using its convenience annually, with continued growth expectation.  By the 1990’s the Station had more than reached its capacity and as a possible solution Senator Daniel Patrick pulled together the political requirements and funding required in order to turn the Farley Post Office Building across the street into a recreated Penn Station. The Farley Post Office Building was also designed by McKim, Mead, and White and was very similar in structure and design, so between the location and architecture it was a perfect means of bringing back a glimpse of what the original Penn Station was like. This had also been one of the first buildings protected by the AGBANY after the demolition.  The budget for this project varies by source but an average $300- $484 million will be dedicated to the new Farley Amtrak concourse. One-third of the funding would be Federal, one-third would be city and state and one-third would be supplied by Amtrak. Not only is this new creation about lost historical needs, but also abount the future demand. The Pennsylvania Station Redevelopment Corporation, is an agency hoping to locate as many fragments from the original structure and bring them back to Manhattan as decorative pieces in the new Farley Post Office Building. Alexander E. Washburn, the president of this group, and his project associate Marijke Smit have been tracking these pieces in places like New York, New Jersey, and even in Kansas City. These additions to the new concourse will allow passengers a beautiful arrival into the city, but sadly will never compare to that of the original Pennsylvania Station. It is amazing how a quick change in development cause so many drastic changes over a short period of time.



picture 2- http://www.moynihanstation.org/newsite/2006/07/a_narrative_history_of_penn_st.html





Public Buildings Tue, 04 Oct 2011 23:15:57 +0000
Yale Peabody Museum http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=585:yale-peabody-museum&catid=56:public-buildings&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=585:yale-peabody-museum&catid=56:public-buildings&Itemid=68 The Yale Peabody Museum is located on 170 Whitney Avenue in New Haven, Connecticut. Yale Peabody Museum.kmz The museum has much history to its name because it is known as one of the oldest natural history museums in the entire world. In the year 1866, a man by the name of George Peabody founded this museum because his nephew, Othniel Charles Marsh, had asked him to. Money is always necessary in order to start up a business or project, and George Peabody had a lot of it. George Peabody was so wealthy that he was able to pay off his nephew Othniel’s education at Yale University, as well as contribute $150,000 to the museum he was starting up as a gift for future collections and artifacts for the museum’s exhibits. Unfortunately, three years after opening the Yale Peabody Museum, George Peabody passed away due to old age. At the time of his death, the museum’s only artifacts or main attractions consisted of minerals collected by Benjamin Silliman, a geologist. Now that George passed away, who was going to take over total control of the museum? 

Othniel Marsh had a lot going for him at a young age, and majority of it was because of his uncle George. Othniel followed in his uncle’s footsteps and was with him throughout the beginning of the museum’s making; he was very involved. Aside from being one of the first people involved with the museum, Othniel was also a professor at the University of Yale. So after George Peabody passed away, his nephew took control of the museum. In the year 1891, a man named John Hatcher, who was working with the museum, founded two skulls which Othniel Marsh later named as being a Torosaurus. The Torosaurus is now one of the main attractions at the Yale Peabody Museum, and is placed on top of a block of stony creek granite outside of the museum.

The Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History has various roles within its community. Its main role is being a public tourist attraction. People come from all around to see the exhibits posted up inside the museum. The exhibits are Life in Ancient Egypt, Birds of Connecticut, the Hall of Reptiles, Hall of Mammal Evolution, Hall of Native American Culture, minerals, Hall of Human Origin, dioramas of the North and South, and the Torosaurus. Since 2005, the Torosaurus has been one the best attractions for the public.

The Torosaurus statue had its opening day on October 22, 2005. It is made out of bronze and stands 9 feet tall, 21 feet long, and weighs 7,350 lbs. During its opening day, the museum held multiple family events in its honor awaiting the unveil lance of the statue. Michael Anderson sculpted the Torosaurus after the idea was brought up to him by Richard Burger, a previous director of the museum, and curator Jacques Gauthier in 1999. They believed creating an iconic statue for the front lawn would be a great idea for the public. Michael Anderson had been working with the museum since 1988 and knew the Torosaurus was one of the original dinosaurs that Othniel Marsh had agreed on about having something to do with the museum’s exhibits. As previously stated, O.C. Marsh already had two skulls of the dinosaur from John Hatcher. The skeletons marked back to the Cretaceous Period which was estimated to be 65 million years ago.

            The process of sculpting the Torosaurus was now beginning. This specific dinosaur was chosen because of how peculiar it was and Anderson felt as if no one in the public would know exactly know what it was, but could relate it to other dinosaurs of its kind. In order to create a replica of this dinosaur, Anderson needed to find skeletons from related dinosaurs or present-day animals that he felt would fit well. Two models of the dinosaur were being created so that the first one would help create a first look and then a much better view was available for the second model. The building process took many years because of all the estimating that was needed without having the exact bones of the dinosaur. The larger model was three times the size of the original model.

            A group of men from Lancaster, Pennsylvania were the ones who created the larger model of the Torosaurus. The way they worked was similar to how the Egyptians sculpted their monuments or statues with clay. After the clay was established, skin patterns from various dinosaurs were placed on top of the clay to try and create a pattern for the Torosaurus. Finally, the statue was bronzed from rubber mold in New York at Polich Work Arts. The mold weighed in at 2,000 lbs. and was broken up into 54 pieces. The mold was dipped into ceramic mixture, with 4,000 lbs. of plaster put on right before. 2,000ºF of molten bronze was poured onto it, and then coated afterwards to finalize it.

            After the sculpture of the Torosaurus was finally finished, its base needed to be created so it could actually be placed outside on the front lawn for the public; this was why Darrell Petit was then called in to the museum. Darrell Petit is a very well known sculpture and is known for his business involving stony creek granite, which is obtained from the stony creek quarries in Connecticut. Darrell Petit went through an incident in ice hockey which resulted in him losing his linguistic memory. Obviously that’s a life obstacle, but he started taking that into consideration with his sculptures by finding new words and experiences through each sculpture he made. Darrell Petit has been traveling across many quarries to figure out more and more about the material and procedure involved with stony creek granite. This helps him relate to the environment in which he wants to create his sculpture in. Petit’s ability has allowed him to create so many important and famous sculptures in his time; one of them including the base for the Torosaurus outside the Yale Peabody Museum. The base for this statue was made from 70 tons of pink granite that was mined from the quarries in Branford, Connecticut. This was the same granite that was used for the Statue of Liberty back in 1886. The stone, which lies below the Torosaurus, is surrounded by plants that were around during the time period of this dinosaur.

             The Torosaurus Project was funded by Elizabeth and Stanford Phelps and their grandchildren Garret, Ford and Max.

The Yale Peabody Museum is located in the city of New Haven. The building is three stories large and contains exhibits varying from minerals to dinosaurs to American culture. The following link shows the floor plan of the museum and where each exhibit is in relation to each other. ( http://peabody.yale.edu/exhibits/floor-plans ) There is not a massive amount of stony creek granite at the Yale Peabody Museum, but where there is some, it’s importance is significant in helping become well known to people from all around the world. 

Works Cited

Public Buildings Tue, 04 Oct 2011 23:05:12 +0000
Trinity Church, Boston http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=583:yale-university-library&catid=56:public-buildings&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=583:yale-university-library&catid=56:public-buildings&Itemid=68 Trinity Church Boston

First Trinity ChurchIn the winter of 1877, the Trinity Church that stands today in beautiful Copley Square in Boston was opened for worship. It was 149 years prior to that however, when the history of Trinity Church began. In 1728, the people of the King’s Church which was the first Episcopal Church in New England decided a third Episcopal church was needed in Boston. Six years later the building was constructed and the cornerstone was laid by Reverend Roger Prince of King’s Chapel. On August 15th 1735 the wooden Trinity Church opened for worship. In 1828 the wooden Trinity Church was taken down and in September of that year a second church was constructed designed in a Gothic nature. The new church was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1872 which spread across 65 acres, burned down 776 buildings and caused $73.5 million in damages. Around the same time as the Great Fire of 1872, Rector Phillips Brooks was working on building a new Trinity Church in Boston’s Back Bay in Copley Square and in the meantime the parish community worshiped in Huntington Hall.

Phillips Brooks

Phillips Brooks was one of America’s greatest preachers in the 19th century according to most. He was vibrant, determined and charismatic. He was known for his worked supporting the abolitionist movement and wanted former slaves the right to vote. He went to Boston Latin School and Harvard University where the Phillips Brooks House was named after him. He was ordained an Episcopal Priest in 1860 and was the Rector of the Church of Advent in Philadelphia for seven years. He then became Rector of the new Trinity Church that was his idea. His work on the Trinity Church and growing popularity then granted him the position of Episcopal bishop of Massachusetts in 1891. Brooks, after careful consideration and much deliberation chose Henry Hobson Richardson to design the new church in 1872.

All of the designs for the Trinity Church prior to Richardson’s were of the popular Victorian Gothic style but Richardson’s French inspired Romanesque won the Brooks and the Vestry over. Phillip Brooks loved Richardson’s design because it broke away from traditional hierarchical Episcopal design and instead was designed for the growing democratic and contemporary American church practices. Richardson designed a floor plan with a Greek inspired cross. The tower was low and wide and centrally located. Phillips loved tthis idea because it truly embodied his goals as a rector. He wanted a place where the congregation could be united and every parishioner was heard and created one united to spread the word of God. Phillips Brooks was the major contributor to the Trinity Church and it was his vision that inspired Richardson’s design. A statue of Phillips Brooks is located in the left exterior of the church that was sculpted by Augustus Saint-Gaudens in 1910.Phillips Brooks Statue

Henry Hobson Richardson was born in 1838 on the Priestly Planation in Louisiana and was the great-grandson of Joseph Priestly the discoverer of oxygen. H.H. Richardson went to Harvard University in 1855 and decided to become an architect. Since there were not any architect schools in America before the civil war, he went to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris for two years. The civil war at home in the south caused the family income to decrease and H.H could no longer attend school. He then worked for a French architect in Paris for another two years before coming back to Boston where he was married and got his first job constructing the Church of Unity in Springfield Massachusetts. He moved to Staten Island with his family and worked in New York City for eight years. It was at this time he was chosen by Rector Phillips Brooks to draft the third Trinity Church building of Boston. H.H Richardson's Romanesque revival design for the church would later help him receive national recognition. At the time of Richardson’s design of the church, granite quarries began opening everywhere by different companies. One of these quarries opened in 1887 by two contractors from Worcester Massachusetts, called the Norcross Brothers. James and Orlando Norcross were from Maine and moved to Worcester with their family in 1868 where they began the Norcross Brothers Contractors and Builders Company. James’s role in the company was office manager while Orlando was in charge of the construction processes. The brothers became very successful and constructed buildings all over the country and bought quarries in Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York and Georgia. The Norcross brothers developed a close relationship with Henry Hobson Richardson and Richardson wanted their granite in the Trinity Church.

H.H Richardson

Granite was chosen for the material of the building because of its strength and red sandstone was chosen for the trim. The Norcross brothers, who owned granite quarries all over the northeast decided to use Westerly granite from Rhode Island. The estimated cost for the church ranged from $355,000 to $640,000. The Vestry was very upset with this cost and stopped all of the work. Richardson revised his plan and the Norcross Brothers reduced their price to $435,000. The Vestry was happy with this bid and a contract was signed. There were a few obstacles with the actual construction of the church as well because the Boston Back Bay area was marshland. The granite was very heavy and in order to support the building a ninety feet square area was reserved for the building that was filled with wooden piles and concrete. Next, there were four granite pyramids support the piers. These structures are still supporting the church today and to keep the wooden piles from rotting the water levels are always closely monitored.

In November 1876 construction was completed. Artist John La Farge was chosen to paint the sanctuary. He also added multiple stained glass windows starting in 1883 using a new technique of layering opalescent glass. Edward Burne-Jones also added two stained glass pieces in 1882 called The Worship of the Shepherds and David’s Charge to Solomon. These windows were said to have been inspirations to Phillips Brooks when he preached to his congregation. In the days leading up to February 9, 1877 the day of consecration, La Farge and his assistants worked through the night adding finishing touches. In attendance on consecration day were the Bishops of the Diocese of Massachusetts, clergymen for other denominations, H.H Richardson, the Norcross Brothers, John La Farge, Alexander Rice the Governor of MassachGovernor of Massachusetts, Frederick Prince the Mayor of Boston and all of the people involved in building the Trinity Church. At the consecration the dean of Theological School at Cambridge read the Gospel, the Rector of Christ Church offered the prayers, the Rector of Emmanuel Church preached the sermon and the Bishops of Central Pennsylvania, New York, and Massachusetts conducted the Communion Service.

Although the Trinity Church is a main attraction for tourists visiting Boston and a stop on the famous Boston Duck Tours it is still an active Episcopal church. The Reverend is Anne Bonnyman, weekday services are held three times a week from September through June and four services are offered on Sundays. The parish is also dedicated to service in the community and provides Christian education for all ages. Many high level choirs began at the Trinity Church including Trinity Choir, Trinity Schola, Trinity Choristers, and Trinity Chamber Choir. The choirs are part of a major Boston Tradition called the Candlelight Carols which draws 5,000 attendees each December. Both H.H Richardson and John La Farge became very well-known and successful because of the Trinity Church and Richardson’s Romanesque style became very popular all over the country. Richardson died nine years later in 1886 but his Romanesque style had a major impact on American architecture.

Inside of Trinity

Richardson and the Norcross Brothers went on to construct thirty-three more buildings together and developed a great partnership. Richardsonian Romanesque as it became known truly embodied the democratic American spirit. Many town halls, railroad stations, courthouses, and libraries all over the nation were seen with clay roofs, polychromy, rough stone, heavy arches, and massive towers characteristic of the Richardsonian Romanesque style.   Trinity Church is the only church in America and building in Boston that has been named “Ten Most Significant Buildings in the United States” by the American Institute of Architects. The building was also voted the most important building in the United States by architects and it was named a National Historic Landmark in 1970.Trinity Church was the start of many new movements in American history and lives up to its honored name of most important building in the United States. The church is a symbol for everything this country stands for. Not only was a new style of architecture born that became a staple in American architecture but a new way of worshiping evolved that embodied the democratic and unified American way. Although the Trinity Church itself was not made with Stony Creek granite, the Norcross Brothers who built the building owned Stony Creek granite quarries. The Trinity Church was still a part of the granite movement in which granite was becoming the preferred building material because of its strength and beauty.Trinity Church of Boston


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DeFord, Deborah. Flesh and Stone: Stony Creek and the Age of Granite. Stony Creek, CT: Stony Creek Granite Workers Celebration/Leete's Island, 2000. Print.





















Public Buildings Tue, 04 Oct 2011 23:01:10 +0000
Grand Central Terminal http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=581:grand-central-station&catid=56:public-buildings&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=581:grand-central-station&catid=56:public-buildings&Itemid=68 Grand Central Terminal, NY


Grand Central Terminal

In 1869, American entrepreneur, Cornelius Vanderbilt, purchased a large area of land in New York between 42nd and 48th Street along Lexington and Madison Avenue for the construction of a new terminal. Here, the first Grand Central Terminal would be built; allowing Hudson River trains to arrive at a common East Side terminal with New York Central Railroad passengers. The depot received further expansion under the wishes of architect Bradford Lee Gilbert in 1898. Similarly, in 1900, Samuel Huckel Jr. renovated further interior design to make the station alluring. However, although the updated station received a “classical” facelift, public uproar began to breach as steam locomotives were seen as a public concern. Unfortunately, on January 8, 1902, smoke filled Park Avenue Tunnel after seventeen commuters were killed and over thirty were injured in a tragic train collision. Moreover, noise and air pollution proved to be frequent and after the catastrophic train accident, the community responded in an outcry for electric trains.

New York Central’s chief engineer, William J. Wilgus, was responsible for destroying the existing station in lieu of a new double level terminal. The arrangements would be costly, a whopping $80 million (roughly $2 billion in today’s terms), however, architects knew of the significance and potential of an electric railroad station. In 1903, an exclusive handful of architects were invited to compete and contribute designs for the new Grand Central Terminal. Featured amongst the group included the architectural firm, Mckim, Mead, and White; famous for their contributions to Pennsylvania Station (1910) and their renovations to the East and West wing of the White House (1903). However, it was the work by Reed and Stem of the St. Paul firm that captured the hearts of the committee. Shortly after, New York architects Warren and Wetmore submitted their own proposal, despite the success of Reed and Stem. Conventionally, in February 1904, The Associated Architects of Grand Central Terminal was created as an agreement between Warren and Wetmore and Reed and Stem to act as a single force. The team spent the next six years deliberating and revising blueprint plans for the new station and construction lasted ten years. Alas, on Sunday, February 2, 1913, New York featured its newest commodity, Grand Central Terminal. The new terminal contained massive marble stairways, seventy-five foot windows, and a ceiling with a mural of assorted stars and zodiacs. Furthermore, a secret passage was installed underground, used by United States Presidents to transport them directly to the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel where the men stayed during their visits to New York City. However, some of the most unique features of the new Grand Central Terminal include the various materials used to construct the station. Specifically, the granite that was used came from Stony Creek in Branford, Connecticut. The intriguing pink granite can be seen along the exterior base as it complements the  One-hundred and fifty-thousand people visited the new station on its opening day and from that day forward, New York City would never be the same.

Grand Central Terminal opened many doors for businessmen and commuters as development around the latest attraction escaladed. During the years between 1913 and 1917, Hotels, Clubs, and office buildings began to rise as opportunists saw the station as a new source of income. Grand Central grew such a buzz that the media started to use it in TV productions and films. Kyle McCarthy, an employee of MTA Metro-North Railroad, states, “Grand Central is one of the quintessential New York places. Whether filmmakers need an establishing shot of arriving in New York or transportation scenes, the restored landmark building is visually appealing and authentic”. Grand Central Terminal has been featured in films such as I Am Legend (2007), Men In Black (1997), and Superman (1978). Additionally, the station hosted greater ventures such as art galleries held inside Grand Central, as well as numerous exhibitions. With so much to offer, it was to no surprise that in 1947, over 65 million people traveled through Grand Central Terminal (equivalent to 40% of the United States population).

Although the station received a tremendous amount of positive feedback, it faced its first dilemma in 1954 when plans to demolish Grand Central Terminal for a six-million square foot office tower were placed. The plan never went through, however in 1963, the rear of the station was replaced with a fifty-nine-story Pan Am (now, MetLife) Building near the New York Central Building. The second battle Grand Central faced started on August 2, 1967 when New York City formed the Landmarks Preservation Commission. This group was created in response to the destruction of Pennsylvania Station and formally declared the new terminal as a landmark subject to the protection of law. Furthermore, the Landmarks Preservation Commission was responsible for ensuring the Terminal’s safety. A year later, Penn Central, the conglomerate of a merger between Pennsylvania Railroads and New York Central, leased the Grand Central Terminal to UGP Properties, Inc. in 1968. The same developer working alongside UGP introduced the idea of a fifty-five story tower, designed by Marcel Breuer, above Grand Central. What did this mean for the new terminal? The entire Main Waiting Room and a portion of the Main Concourse would have to be knocked down. Unfortunately for UGP Properties, the Landmarks Preservation Commission did not approve of the project. A second proposal was presented by Breuer and UGP Properties; however, the plan was not approved. The Landmarks Preservation Commission did not want to jeopardize any part of the Grand Central Terminal for the construction of another building. Unfortunately for New York, Penn Central filed an eight-million dollar lawsuit against the City; challenging the strength of the City’s landmarks law in response to the previous events including UGP Properties and Marcel Breuer.  The lawsuit traveled all the way to the United States Supreme Court when finally, on June 26, 1978, the decision to uphold New York’s landmark law was determined. Therefore, Grand Central Terminal dodged the wrecking ball and continued to remain a National Historic Landmark, as declared by the National Register of Historic Place in December 1976.

Inside Grand Central Terminal

Although Grand Central Terminal was spared from the crane and wrecking ball, the station still suffered. Consequently, the lack of maintenance within the station caused the building to fall apart. Reports claimed that eventually the roof was leaking and stonework on the interior and exterior of the building began to deteriorate. Moreover, pollution and dirt from cars and consumers stained walls and surfaces. Such inflictions to the appearance of the Grand Central Terminal may have deterred travelers; however, in 1983 Metro North began an operation within the station. The process of repairing and improving the Grand Central Terminal would cost nearly $4.5 million dollars. Moreover, the project would ensure that leaky roofs and damaged skylights would be replaced.

In 1988, Metro North ordered a Master Plan from Beyer Blinder Belle, the architects responsible for the renovation of Ellis Island. This revitalization plan would cost $425 million and would help restore, what was, the beautiful interior and exterior of the terminal back when it was unveiled in 1913. Furthermore, an investment of $160 million in April 1990 was inherited to upgrade utilities and services such as electricity, gas, and water. The new plan would also ensure the re-establishment of the Main Waiting Room. Here, the space would be reconstructed and refurbished to be used for public exhibitions and special events.

After the restoration of the station, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority gained long term control of Grand Central Terminal in 1994. The 110 year lease from American Premier Underwriters, Inc. enabled the MTA to enter an agreement with GCT Venture Inc.; a partnership with developers such as LaSalle Partners Incorporated and William Jackson Ewing. This venture facilitated a revitalization plan based on the Master Plan introduced from Beyer Blinder Belle in 1988. The Metropolitan Transportation Authority adopted the concept for Grand Central Terminal and construction was set to begin in 1996 with the cleaning of the Main Concourse Sky Ceiling. The city of New York benefitted from the project because it produced more than 2,000 construction related jobs. A Rededication Celebration of Grand Central Terminal culminated on October 1, 1998 and brought together both national and international media attention. This hereby marked the beginning of a new chapter for the New York City landmark.

Finally, the station was completely restored back to the same grandeur it was in 1913. Now, Grand Central Terminal is a midtown destination for travelers and those who wish to dine in any of the exquisite restaurants, such as Michael Jordan’s The Steak House N.Y.C, and cocktail lounges located inside. With over thirty casual international eateries and fifty unique specialty shops, ranging from Banana Republic, Kenneth Cole, and M.A.C. Cosmetics; one could mistake the terminal for a mall. However, it is their exceptional dedication to transportation that sets apart Grand Central Terminal from other stations. For this reason, it remains listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the greatest station in America since 1976.






Public Buildings Tue, 04 Oct 2011 22:53:37 +0000
Bill Memorial Library http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=579:bill-memorial-library&catid=56:public-buildings&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=579:bill-memorial-library&catid=56:public-buildings&Itemid=68 The Bill Memorial Library

Original Library

The Bill Memorial Library is located in Groton, CT. On October 15, 1888, Frederic Bill sent identical letters to a group of Groton citizens where he stated that he wanted to found a library to honor the memory of his two sisters, Eliza and Harriet. He selected about 1700 books and provided cases to be put in the upper room of the First District Schoolhouse, which was where the Groton Heights School is now. LibraryIn his selection of the books, he wrote that “in the volumes collected there may be found that which will tend to stimulate a high ambition, strengthen good resolve, cultivate the taste and afford pleasure to all who may read them.” It opened on November 20, 1888 for the distribution of 1750 volumes. However, over the next year Mr. Bill had new plans drawn up for the library. He chose the site that was the summit of Groton Heights overlooking the Thames River. The library was dedicated on June 18, 1890. The Bill Memorial Library was designed by Stephen C. Earle of Worcester, Massachusetts and the building was made of Stony Creek granite. Red Maynard freestone was used for the trim and there was a red slate roof. The Bill Memorial Library is an example of Richardson Romanesque, named after architect Henry Hobson Richardson. the national historical landmark, Trinity Church in Boston, MA, is the masterpiece of Richardson. This revival style uses the 11th and 12th century southern French, Spanish, and Italian Romanesque traits. There is strong massing and round Romanesque arches. In addition there are short columns, varying entrances, and large spaces of blank wall followed by contradicting groups of windows. Lastly, there are towers that are cylindrical and colonial caps in the walls. However, Mr. Bill wanted to enlarge the main reading room and make space for a natural history museum. Additions were made in 1907 to enlarge the main reading room and make space for a natural history museum. A collection of birds was added to a collection of butterflies and paintings. The butterflies and paintings are still in the library today. In 1907, the addition began and the building remained unchanged until 1994 when there was an addition made for a new reference room, offices, and restrooms.

Stephen C. Earle : The Original Architect

Stephen C Earle

Stephen C. Earle was the original architect that designed the Bill Memorial Library. Earle was an architect in the late 19th century that designed many buildings in Connecticut and Massachusetts. He designed many university buildings, commercial buildings, churches and more. Original Library PlansHe was born in Liecester, MA to a well known Quaker family. However, he moved to Worcester when he was 14 when his father passed away. He attended architectural training in the office of Calvert Vaux one of New York’s best architectural and landscape firm. In addition, he studied at the Cooper Union for architectural drawing and perspective. He entered military service when the Civil War started and he served as a medical corpsman. In 1863 he left the war and went back to Worcester to work for the office Elbridge Boyden. However, in 1865 he left for a Europe for seven months. In 1866 he opened up his own office for architecture. Earle undertook the commission for the New Chapel Library at the Massachusetts Agricultural College at Amherst.

Tuthill and Wells Architects LLC : The Modern Architects

The renovations to the Bill Memorial Library continued again in 1994 to add more space for volumes, offices, and public facilities. They discovered a source of Stony Creek granite when they were remodeling the building. Therefore, the addition was also designed using the original details from 1907. Tuthill and Wells Architects LLC administered the building project of 1994. Bruce Tuthill, Peter Wells and Charles King established King and Tuthill Architects in 1986. King retired in 1996 and Peter wells became a full time partner so the name was changed to Tuthill and Wells Architects LLC. They specialize in work on public libraries. They have completed more than 47 libraries in the past 16 years. Renovations and historic buildings count for 28 of their jobs. Usually they renovate the libraries for expanding needs to update their electric equipment or upgrade to current safety and handicap codes. In addition, the firm works to restore old buildings to their original condition.

Mr. Bill

Frederic Bill

Frederic Bill was born in Groton and he attended school locally. He was a teacher in Groton before he decided to retire and travel and sell books in the United States and Canada. He joined his brother Gurdon in the publishing industry in 1856 in Springfield, Massachusetts. The Civil War began in 1861 which started his interest in the manufacture of linen goods with Tracy & Bill Company in New York City. He bought the company from his partner in 1870 and later sold the business to retire. He lived on a farm on the Thames River in Groton until his death. Mr. Bill founded, built, and endowed the Bill Memorial Library in addition to giving support to the Groton Congregational Church, funded Groton Heights School in 1912, and supported Connecticut College, which also includes architecture the utilizes Stony Creek Granite. Mr. Bill's first wife, Lucy F. Denison Bill, died April 2, 1894, and on August 14, 1895 he married Julia Avery, the first librarian. The family name is preserved in the stone mansion at Avery Point, a branch of the University of Connecticut. The Bill library offers more than just books. A taxidermy walrus head, a sword that is believed to have killed Col. William Ledyard, the American commander at Fort Griswold during the Battle of Groton Heights in 1781, who was killed by his own sword by a British officer who he surrendered at the fort, and an ancient Egyptian mummy hand. The mummy hand is the most prized possession. It is said that 20 years ago a group of boys broke into the library and broke each finger off of the mummy making wishes on each one. Four of the fingers were recovered following the incident.

History of the Area

Fort Griswold

The New London harbor on the Thames River was a port for many privately owned army ships that fought against British supply vessels and merchant ships during the Revolutionary War. They were licensed according the rules of Congress by the State of Connecticut. They captured more and more British shipping each year as they increased in numbers. Hannah’s rich cargo included supplies for British officers that were stationed in New York City and helped notify events that were going to occur. It was captured and marked the peak of the exploits in the New London harbor. New London is home of the New London Ancient Burying Ground  and the New London Cemetery which include headstones that are made of Stony Creek granite. The warehouses in New London were also flourishing and bringing a lot of money to the ship owners and merchants. However, they were a possible target for the enemy. Officials stated that there was a need for barricades around the harbor but construction was slow. In 1781 the structure was the largest on the New London side and it was named Fort Trumbull. However, it was unfinished and very vulnerable from land. East of the Thames River on Groton Heights was Fort Griswold. Fort Griswold controlled the harbor and the country side around it. When the British were interested in distracting Washington from marching south they created a diversion by attacking New London and destroying the “Rebel pirate ships”. Benedict Arnold was in charge of the expedition and he was a native of Norwich, Connecticut so he knew the harbor well. On September 6, 1781 the British Regulars were on both sides of the river’s opening and the people of the town were forced to leave. A few ships were able to flee but most of them were trapped. Arnold led 800 men into the city and they destroyed goods and supplies that were there. The fire caused buildings and ships to also go up in flames. Approximately 143 buildings in the town were destroyed. The Battle of Groton Heights began when the British force of 800 that were on the east side of the Thames River were slowed by the woods and swamps. New Jersey loyalists who were responsible for moving the artillery were not able to keep up with the Regulars who were able to come close to Fort Griswold that morning. However, the fort had been armed with approximately 150 men under the control of command of Colonel William Ledyard. They chose to defend the fort against the superior force that was coming. The British commander, Colonel Eyre, sent a flag to surrender. However, Ledyard refused. Therefore, the British immediately advanced to Fort Griswold. Fort GriswoldWhen they reached the ditch they were faced with an artillery barrage which eliminated many of their men. As the troops continued on and tried to enter the southwest bastion they were held back and Colonel Eyre was extremely wounded. Hand to hand combat and musket fire were used as the men reached a cannon and turned it against the garrison. Long spears were used and the Major was killed. Some of the Regulars reached the gate and managed to open it while enemy force marched in. Colonel demanded his men to stop the action but both sides continued. The results of the rest of the events are debated between the Americans and the British. Americans say that after Ledyard let go of his sword in surrender he was killed with it and a massacre began. Before this, less than ten Americans had been killed, and more than 80 of the garrison were dead and more than half were wounded. The British does not mention this massacre and the battle had only lasted about 40 minutes. Following the battle Major Montgomery was buried in the parade ground of the fort. The rest of the British that were killed were placed in unmarked graves and the wounded were carried to the river. The Americans that were wounded were placed on an artillery cart that lost control and crashed into a tree which caused a lot of pain. The men were then transported to Avery House. The house stood for over two hundred years at Latham Street and Thames Street known as the Ebenezer Avery House. It was purchased by Stanton Avery from California and donated to the Avery Memorial Association in 1971. However, the surroundings of the house became different from the time which the Avery House was built and the Park and Forest Commission decided to have the house taken apart board by board and re-assembled to its present position at Fort Griswold. It is restored and furnished by The Avery Memorial Association and it includes antiques of the period. The house is used on the weekends and during the summer for the enjoyment of its visitors.Those who were prisoners that were able to walk were placed on a ship. The attempt to destroy the fort failed when a patriot distinguished the fire. Arnold reported the casualties at 51 deaths and 142 wounded but more of the wounded men died aboard the ship. Fort Griswold became the military defense in at least four more wars. The water battery had to be assembled a few times but the fort kept its original form. Groton is home to the Monument to Col. William Ledyard who was killed in 1781 in the Battle of Groton Heights. The monument is present in the Ledyard Cemetery. Groton is also home to the Groton Public Library which is made of Stony Creek Granite.

The Current Library

Current Library

There are currently around 21,000 things in the adult and children’s collection. The main room contains current best sellers, current non-fiction, classics, large print books, video tapes, DVDs, and books on tape and CD. There are newspapers, magazines and paperbacks in the reading room. Also, the children’s room consists of popular and classic fiction, non-fiction, picture books and books on tape. There is a reference room that allows for quiet study, reference, the public access computers and young adult collections. In addition, there is a genealogy and local history room for research. As a member of the Connecticut Library Consortium, the Bill Memorial Library takes part in cooperative buying, interlibrary loan, continuing education workshops and other activities. Lastly, the Bill Memorial Library is a Connecticard Library, a book return delivery through Connecticar and a participant in iConn, the statewide database.






Public Buildings Tue, 04 Oct 2011 22:19:50 +0000