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Stony Creek Granite Sites Foundations of America - QU 201 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&id=54&Itemid=68 Fri, 17 Nov 2017 17:36:34 +0000 Joomla! 1.5 - Open Source Content Management en-gb Lincoln Memorial Monument, Washington, DC http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=356:lincoln-memorial-monument-washington-dc&catid=54:monuments-a-parks&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=356:lincoln-memorial-monument-washington-dc&catid=54:monuments-a-parks&Itemid=68 Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809. He became the 16th president of the United States. Lincoln memorial is located in Potomac Park, Washington, DC. The building began in 1914 and was finally finished in May 1922. The monument is 190 feet long and 119 feet wide. The monument is made up for Stony Creek granite and concrete. Henry Bacon designed the memorial after the ancient Greek temples. of thirty-six columns, representing the thirty-six states that were in the Union, are are carved into the frieze directly above. When the monument was completed in 1922 the names of the forty-eight states in the union were added in the exterior attic walls. Lincoln’s second Inaugural Address is carved into the south side chamber walls. Four years after the monument was built, the Piccirilli brothers created the statue of Lincoln seated in the chair. The statue itself is nineteen feet high and weights 175 tons.



Monuments & Parks Wed, 02 Nov 2011 05:00:00 +0000
Penns Grove High School Vietnam War Memorial http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=622:penns-grove-high-school-vietnam-war-memorial&catid=54:monuments-a-parks&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=622:penns-grove-high-school-vietnam-war-memorial&catid=54:monuments-a-parks&Itemid=68 Penns Grove High School Vietnam War Memorial 


‎"This rock is a seed, it’s the foundation, the foundation of America" (Leone, 2011). First extracted in 1858 by Benjamin Green, Stony Creek granite has become an important part of America. Seen in many famous architectural, municipal, and cultural pieces throughout the US, Stony Creek granite has proved to many designers and architectures why it is the best stone to work with. Known for its strength, unusual yet breath taking appearance, and reliability, the granite has been used in the base of the Statue of Liberty, the building of the Penn Station, and the library steps of Quinnipiac University.

  Upon its discovery by Green, the Stony Creek granite quarry was divided into three quarries as time passed. The Stony Creek Red Granite Company, Norcross Brothers and Guilford’s Beattie Quarry offered different types of the Stony Creek Granite. The Stony Creek Red Grantie Company’s quarry contained the granite of outstanding quality. This specific Granite can be seen in the post office area in Grand Central Station located in New York.

Although the Stony Creek Granite quarry was divided into three different companies, each company offered different thing. The Norcross Compan was known for being able to create large blocks of the crude stone. For the West Point Monument, Norcross had to blast a block 20 x 50 square feet long and weighed 75,000 pounds. A boat and then train transferred the block to West point.

Located in Salem County New Jersey, resides a small town Penns Grove. With a population of only 5,000 residents, Penns Grove is located near the Delaware River and the Carney Point Townships. Despite its small size, Penns Grove does have plenty of diversity. Consisting of 48.5% Caucasian, 39.7% black and .37$ Native American. Although Penn Grove’s diversity is an important factor, 29.1% of its population considered to be impoverished. The main schools in this town are Penns Grove Middle School and High school.

altIn 2010 Alumni of Penns Grove High School unveiled the Vietnam War Memorial on the High Schools grounds in honor of their fallen classmates. Sculpted entirely of Stony Creek granite, the one of a kind monument currently sits under the shade of a few trees on the lawn of the former High School. Standing at approximately 4 feet tall with a slanted top smooth top and rough unfinished bottom, the monument has the names of all of the soldier graduates of Penns Grove High School. Beneath their names read, “to honor their sacrifice in Vietnam."

  After being approved for allowing of the building of the monument in March 2009, Nick Santore, former principal and alumni of Penns Grove kicked the project in gear. Mike Devonshire, an architect and alumni of Penns Grove High School, derived 6 different possible schematics for the monument for Santore to choose from. “ ‘It was a concept that came out a couple years ago from a conversation I had with Mr. Santore,’ said Devonshire. ‘I did some sketches and he picked the one he liked and we went with it’. ” The design was to have the sculpted and shaped part of the rock emerging from crude rock on the bottom to represent the lives of the soldiers. “All these guys were cut off in mid-creation,” said Devonshire. Just like the monument, the soldiers lives were cut short; all between the ages of 18- 25 the young men risked their lives to save their country, but died in the line of fire. These men were supposed to go onto college, marry, start a family; however, that was all taken away from them when they decided to stand for their country’s rights.


Once the design had been chosen the project the next step was to raise the money to fund the project. First starting with only a $1,000 donation from one of the father’s of fallen soldiers, Santore began his hunt for donations to fund the Memorial. It could be seen that this project impacted many lives of people in the community; over 180 people donated to the cause because .  Both Santore and Devonshire shared a close connection to most of the men listed on the monument, thus causing them to feel more connected to not only the Memorial but also the entire process that led up to the final unveiling of the Vietnam War Memorial. “ ‘It’s a tribute to these guys,’ said Devonshire. ‘You have to think about all the stuff that we have been able to go through our entire lives, just think about it, because they never got to experience it.’ ” Other groups that participated in the raising of funds were Penns Grove Veterans of Foreign Wars and Penns Grove–Carneys Point Regional School District. Once all of the funds were raised, the sculpting of the design for the stone was place in full effect.

When discussing the selection of the stone to use for the Memorial, Devonshire said that without a doubt he knew that he wanted to use Stony Creek granite. The stones impressive beauty of its unoriginal mixture of colors and strength qualities captured the attention of the architect. “ ‘When it came time to choose a material, there was no guessing. I wanted granite from Stony Creek, it is an amazing, beautiful stone,’ ” (Devonshire, 2010).

  Stony Creek granite can be traced back to 600 million years old and can withstand temperatures up to 1300ºF or 704.4ºC. Formed from the cooling of magma under the Connecticut River years ago, the granite laid there for years solidifying. It wasn’t until the last ice age when the Connecticut River shifted that allowed for the revealing of the rose and white quartz and black granite to be revealed, thus deputing the Stony Creek granite.

  After the creation of the railroads, stony creek granite could be transported to different parts of the country thus increasing it trade profits. As the mining production of the quarry began, many immigrants were provided with jobs. A typical employee of the Stony Creek Quarry would be of either the Irish, Scottish, or Spanish descent. Back in the early 1900 it was not easy to quarry the precious granite, which is why the process required so many employees. Over 1,800 men would be employed for just one of the quarries. Before the help of machinery, one had to clean and remove any loose soil surrounding the crude rock and then drilled holes by hand into the rock. These holes were then filled with dynamite powder and blown apart into typically 20 ton sized block. Sometimes the explosion would result in the formation of smaller pieces of stones that were futile; however, employees tried to prevent this from happening as little as possible. One of the largest pieces of stony creek granite every formed stood at approximately 127 feet tall. Today hydraulic drills are used and the quality of the dynamites has greatly improved. Also the amount of stone that would have taken employees to cut in three years can be completed in less than a month due to today’s technology.


After a year and half of working on the Vietnam War Memorial, it was ready for its public debut on September 18. Students, members of the community, and families of the soldiers gathered together to pay tribute to the lives of the soldiers. Siblings, parents and other relatives to the soldiers spoke during the ceremony. Edward Wetzel, the younger brother to the late Charles Wetzel thanked everyone who worked to bring the memorial to life.  He stated, “I am impressed by the sensitivity implicit in the design of the memorial. The partly finished stone fittingly symbolizes the unfinished lives of these young men. They never had a chance to really experience the many joys and sorrows of a full life. They shall remain forever unfinished” (Wetzel, 2010).


Names of Soldiers from uppermost left corner to right 1) 2) Henry Robert Hocknell Jr. 3) Charles Wetzel  4)Tommy Rogers 5)Robert Allen Layton 6)Charles Wetzel 7) Tommy Rogers 8) Bobby Ferelli










Monuments & Parks Thu, 20 Oct 2011 22:41:39 +0000
Grant's Tomb http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=609:grants-tomb&catid=54:monuments-a-parks&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=609:grants-tomb&catid=54:monuments-a-parks&Itemid=68 Ulysses S. Grant was the 18th president of the United States. When Grant died, a tomb, in his memory, was built for him. New York architect, John Duncan, was chosen to design the tomb of the deceased president. The granite that was used in Grant's tomb was stony creek granite that came from the Stony Creek Red Granite Company that was founded began in 1889 and was eventually taken over by Thomas Pearson of New York. Construction of the president's tomb did not start until 1891, six years after his death.Ulysses S. Grant After desecration and reconstruction, Grant's tomb serves as a memorial and also as a grand site for tourists to come and admire still to this day.

Ulysses S. Grant was elected as the 18th president of the United States in 1868 and started his presidential term as part of the Republican Party on March 4, 1869. He was then re-elected in 1872, and ended his presidency on March 4, 1877. Before his presidency, Grant was a graduate from West Point Academy and then became a general in the United States Army. Abraham Lincoln appointed Grant as the Commanding General of the Army in 1864. Ulysses S. Grant, in 1865, ordered General William Tecumseh Sherman to move his army south while Grant and his Army of Potomac found Robert E. Lee’s army in Northern Virginia. William Tecumseh Sherman, also being a very famous general in the U.S. Army also has a monument dedicated to him in 1989 in New York City. His equestrian monument, made of stony creek granite, was sculpted by Augustus Saint-Gaudens and the architect behind the monument was Charles McKim. On April 9, 1865 at the Appomattox Court House, Grant wrote out terms for the surrender of Robert E. Lee. Not only did General Grant play a major role in the surrender of Lee’s army, he also was the Major General at the Battle of Shiloh, the Siege of Vicksburg, and also, many years ealier as a young officer, took part in the Mexican-American War. With many years in the military and great success as a general, it was clear that Grant was a major popular icon in the United States.

Under his first term as president, Grant had come across numerous issues, considering the Civil War had just ended. During his re-election in 1872, Grant was attacked by the Liberal Republicans because they wanted amnesty for Confederate soldiers. This is where Charles Sumner coined the term “Grantism”, when Sumner accused Grant of political patronage, nepotism, and being an autocrat. Sumner was a leader of the Radical Republican party from Massachussetts. After Grant retired from his presidency in 1877 he shortly after became a partner in a financial firm with Ferdinand Ward. It was a brokerage firm that facilitated the buying and selling of financial derivatives. However, in 1884, the company Ward & Grant went bankrupt and Ward fled. It was said that the firm went bankrupt because of the failure of the Marine National Bank of New York. After the bankruptcy, Grant was diagnosed with throat cancer. For the remainder of his life he worked in writing a memoir to pay of his debt to support his family. Ulysses S. Grant died on July 23, 1885.

Grant's Funeral Procession
Before Grant died, discussion about where he would be buried took place. Many people believed that he should choose to be buried at West Point. However, Grant declined this burial site because he knew that his wife, Julia Grant, would not be able to be buried next to him at West Point. Mayor William R. Grace said that he would set aside a piece of land in one of New York’s parks for Grant’s burial site. When Ulysses died, the Grant family decided to bury him in Riverside Park in Manhattan. The Riverside Park has one of the highest elevations in New York and overlooks the Hudson River. When Julia Grant eventually died in 1902, her body was buried in a twin sarcophagus next to her husband’s. The burial site at Riverside Park allowed the two loved ones to rest in peace together. Grant’s funeral took place from New York City Hall all the way to Riverside Park. It consisted of about 60,000 marchers and took over five hours to pass. Over one million people had witnessed the funeral procession. Grant’s remains were placed a temporary tomb in Riverside Park because the Grant Memorial Association, GMA, was working on finding an architect to make the perfect fitting tomb for the passing president.

The first president of the GMA was former president, Chester A. Arthur. The first secretary of the GMA was Richard T. Greener, who was the first African American graduate of Harvard and a great supporter of Grant. Another important person in the GMA was its fifth president, Horace Porter. He was a friend of Grant’s from aiding him in war and being his presidential secretary. Porter served as the president of the GMA right until he died in 1921. The GMA is still the association that supplies funding for President Grant’s tomb. Exterior of Grant's Tomb

The GMA held a competition of over sixty architects to see who would design and oversee the construction of Grant’s tomb. The GMA finally came to the conclusion of choosing New York architect John Duncan to construct Grant’s tomb in Riverside Park. Duncan’s previous works consisted of “The Washington Monument at Newburgh”, “The Newburgh Monument” and “The Tower of Victory”. Duncan, designed the tomb which incorporates designs from the tomb of Napoleon, the tomb of the Roman emperor Hadrian, and the Tomb of King Mausolus at Halicarnassus, which was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. However, Duncan's broad, ambitious plans for the tomb had to be changed because there was not enough money to support the original blue prints. Over $600,000 dollars would be raised by 90,000 people to construct Grant’s tomb. Even though the money donated for the tomb was mostly public donations, some companies and persons stand out. For instance, the Western Union Company had donated $5,000 to the project. The former governor of New York, Alonso Cornell proposed a fundraising goal idea of 1 million dollars. Also, the Consumers Coal Company donated 0.375 cents to the fundraising for every ton of coal they sold. Becoming more organized, the GMA finally started construction in 1891.The crypt of Grant's tomb

Duncan also knew McKim, Mead, and White because he had once worked on the same street of millionaire mansions as the architectural firm. At 7th 54th West Street in Midtown, John H. Duncan designed this mansion. McKim, Mead, and White designed 9-11th 54th West Street in Midtown which belonged to James Junius Goodwin, a banker and cousin of J.P Morgan. John H. Duncan, according to the GMA, was the “right man for the job” of constructing Grant’s tomb with his vast neoclassical ideas and experience.

Grant’s tomb is over 150 feet long and the exterior consists of more than 8,000 tons of granite, including the pink Stony Creek granite, and the interior consist of mostly marble. In 1928, another architect, John Russell Pope suggested more ideas for Grant’s tomb. In his suggestions an equestrian statue in the plaza was added as long with busts of Grant’s closest acquaintances such as General Sherman and General Sheriden in his crypt. An artist, Dean Fausett, painted murals in the tomb reflecting Grant’s battles in war. More additions of detailed artwork were added to the tomb. Sculptor, J. Massey Rhind, sculpted the epitaph on Grant’s tomb that reads “Let us have peace”. These words were taken from Grant’s republican nomination speech. Also, on each side of the epitaph are two eloquent sculptures assumed to be representing Peace and Victory. On each of the four pendentives in the interior of the tomb allegorical representations show Grant’s life by Rhind sculpting a scene of birth, military life, civilian life, and death. In 1966, another artist, Allyn Cox, painted murals on each of the three lunettes inside Grant’s tomb. Cox was also an acquaintance of the architectural firm McKim, Mead, and White where they all worked together on the Dumbarton Oaks mansion, which is located in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington D.C.  McKim, Mead, and White also worked with Stony Creek Granite at Grand Central Station, the William Tecumseh Monument in New York, and Columbia University. Even though Duncan was the initial architect for the tomb, many other people such as architects, designers, and artists added to the appearance of the 18th president’s tomb making it more detailed, meaningful, and special. Grant’s tomb is the second largest tomb in the Western hemisphere, with the Garfield Memorial being the first. Mainly, the exterior of the Grant tomb contains Stony Creek Granite because the inside of the tomb is mostly marble. The two eagles in the front are made of the granite.Epitaph on Grant's tomb

Unfortunately, in the 1960s and the 1970s, the National Park Service (NPS) and the Secretary of Interior of the Clinton Cabinet, Bruce Babbitt, took over maintenance of the tomb, mismanaging the tomb, as it took on desecration and a decline of patriotism. General Grant’s tomb fell to vandalism and was regarded as a public disgrace. Graffiti was an extensive problem as the tomb was covered in it. Also, two of the reliquary trophy cases inside the tomb were destroyed. Empty bottles of alcohol, marijuana baggies, and cocaine vials were found around the tomb. Also, the tomb was no longer used as a memoir for the deceased president, but as a bathroom facility and shelter for homeless people. Under the negligent NPS, who was in charge taking care of the tomb, discoloration and water damage destroyed the rotunda and cracks started to appear in the granite. In the 1990s, a man by the name of Frank Scaturro noted and documented the extensive damage of the tomb and reported it to the NPS who was responsible for the negligence of the tomb. As they took no action, Scaturro went to president Bill Clinton and Congress in 1993. Frank Scaturro, with the help of the government and attention of the media, formed a new Grant’s Monument Association that would restore the tomb. About $1.8 million dollars went into the restoration of Grant’s tomb. $ 1 million dollars donated to the resotration actually came from the NPS. On April 27, 1997, Grant’s tomb was fully restored as it celebrated its 100 years and its return as a historic monument once again.

Interior of Grant's tomb
As a large historic and memorial masterpiece, General Grant’s tomb is a work of art. For the construction of his tomb, as mentioned, marble and granite were used. Stony Creek Granite was used in the construction of Grant’s burial site in 1891 which was quarried from Bear Island of the Thimble Islands off Hoadley Point in Guilford, Connecticut, home to Beattie Quarry. Bear Island was originally called Goat Island. This was because many Swedish immigrant quarry workers who lived on the island kept herds of goats for milk.  In 1870, a New Yorker, Thomas Pearson, purchased Bear Island and quarried granite that was used for bridges across the Connecticut River at Saybrook, Middletown, and Hartford, such as Bulkeley Bridge. The pink granite from Bear Island also provided granite for the Lincoln Memorial and the Statue of Liberty which was dedicated October 28, 1886.

The Grant Monument association, a non-profit organization, keeps watch over Grant’s tomb and watches the condition of the tomb as well. The GMA has not just presented Grant’s tomb as a memorial to celebrate his life, but also presents it as a tourist attraction. The GMA, still till this day, has created a visitor center that allows people to go inside and see the interior, and the exterior of General Grant’s burial site. Each year on April 27, which is the date of Grant’s birthday, a ceremony is held at the tomb to celebrate Grant’s life.


 Works Cited:


DeFord, Deborah. Flesh and Stone: Stony Creek and the Age of Granite. Stony Creek, CT: Stony Creek Granite Workers Celebration/Leete's Island, 2000. Print.

Monuments & Parks Wed, 12 Oct 2011 21:17:14 +0000
Winfield Memorial & Riverside Park http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=589:winfield-memorial-a-riverside-park&catid=54:monuments-a-parks&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=589:winfield-memorial-a-riverside-park&catid=54:monuments-a-parks&Itemid=68

This monument dedicated the seven local men who fought in the service during World War I of 1914-1918.  Since 1926, Winfield Plaza has provided New Yorkers to a sculpture made out of bronze and the pedestal out of Stony Creek Granite, called the Winfield War Memorial and Victorious America.   

Winfield was once the name given to this area in Northwestern Queens, bounded by Queens Boulevard to the north, the New York Connecting Rail Road to the east, Mount Zion Cemetery and Maurice Avenue to the south, and New Calvary Cemetery to the west. The adjacent town of Woodside was called so because the area sat beside what was then the Winfield Woods - a.k.a. "Suicide's Paradise" - where, legend has it, despondent early colonists went to commit suicide.The village, later considered part of Woodside, was developed in 1854 and named after General Winfield Scott (1786–1866), who distinguished himself in the Mexican War (1846-1848) and was general-in-chief of the army at the outbreak of the Civil War (1861-1865).

Located in Laurel Hill Boulevard & 65th Street, Woodside, New York is a symbolic figure of a woman in a long dress and a laurel wreath on her head, just like the statue of liberty, “representing America stands with a shield held in her proper left hand and a sword in her proper right hand…with medieval armour details on the chest” (nycgovparks). It was created by sculptor James S. J. Novelli, an Italian-American sculptor known for his dedication to “keeping alive the memory of our country’s heroes and fallen soldiers…” (murphy). 

The statue was by Italian-American sculptor James S. J. Novelli. Born in Sulmona, a province of Aquila, Italy, in 1885, his family settled in New York when he was five years old. At an early age he impressed his teachers at P.S. 23 with his natural artistic skill. Novelli returned to Italy in 1903 to study, and while a student, earned an honorable mention for the artwork he submitted to the International Exposition in Paris, France in 1906. He graduated from the Royal Academy of Rome in 1908.

 Returning to New York, where he resided at West 23rd Street in Manhattan, Novelli was a popular sculptor for funeral and war monuments.  Besides the Winfield War Memorial sculpture he had also built the Clason Point War Memorial (1928) in the Bronx, a seven-foot high bronze sculptural relief of a female figure and set within an 11-foot tall, gray granite stele. The Saratoga Park War Memorial (1921; stolen and destroyed in 2000) in Brooklyn. Which was installed on a 9’6”-high stele, and two flanking stones of Milford pink granite bore bronze honor rolls inscribed with the names of the dead. The bronze mausoleum doors in Calvary Cemetery (1923) for which he won the Henry O. Avery Prize for sculpture. In the 1930s, Novelli worked on the Parks monuments conservation crew. However, during the Great Depression, his artistic career languished. After growing increasingly despondent, Novelli took his own life in 1940.

The monument was a gift of the people of Winfield, and commissioned at a cost of $5,000 under the sponsorship of the Winfield Honor Roll Association.  Current Owner: Administered by City of New York, Department of Parks and Recreation, The Arsenal - Central Park, New York, New York 10021

Due to its location at 65th Place and Laurel Hill Boulevard adjacent to the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway, the Winfield Memorial had suffered various indignities over the years. In 1958, completion of the nearby section of the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway bisected the community, and orphaned the park triangle and monument to a location perilously close to an adjacent to an off-ramp. In 1969 and 1989 the statue was knocked from its perch by vehicles, and on the second occasion the head was severed from the body and reattached. The monument suffered from weathering, frequent attacks of graffiti, and other assaults by vandals; it received an in-house reconditioning in the 1990s by Parks crews.

In 1999, through a City capital contract, the sculpture was cleaned, repaired, repainted, and recoated. A replica of the Stony Creek Granite pedestal replaced the one that had suffered over the years, and the new landscape design was meant to beautify the site and better protect the statue. Although these provisions were made, the site and the sculpture suffered extensive damage when they were struck by a car moving at high speed in December of 2001. The sculpture remains in storage, and awaits funding for restoration. This picture represents the empty statue that once stood in the parks.

To contact for a present day status of the statue:

By Phone

Please visit 311 Online or dial 311 for all Parks & Recreation information;
outside of NYC, call (212) NEW–YORK.

By Mail

You may also write to the Parks Department at:
The Arsenal
Central Park
830 Fifth Avenue
New York, NY 10065

“Novelli a Forgotten Sculptor" , By Josephine Murphy






Monuments & Parks Fri, 07 Oct 2011 05:34:03 +0000
Echlin Building http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=586:echlin-building&catid=54:monuments-a-parks&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=586:echlin-building&catid=54:monuments-a-parks&Itemid=68 Reserved for Gary Gurecki

Monuments & Parks Tue, 04 Oct 2011 23:11:44 +0000
Lincoln Birthplace Memorial http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=584:lincoln-memorial&catid=54:monuments-a-parks&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=584:lincoln-memorial&catid=54:monuments-a-parks&Itemid=68 The Two Lincoln Memorials and Stony Creek Pink Granite

Every eighth grader at Woodbury Middle School in Woodbury, Connecticut looks forward to a certain weekend in May.  That weekend for every eighth grader about to “graduate” from middle school and transition to high school is the last glorious moment to be together as middle-schoolers.  This trip is planned starting the spring of seventh grade; who to room with in the hotel and what to bring for the snacks on the 8 hour bus ride.  The weekend trip to Washington, D.C. for WMS eighth graders seems like the most important trip in life.  Not only is the bus ride with friends a blast, but the shopping and sightseeing aren’t too bad either.  Washington, D.C houses the Washington Memorial, The Holocaust Museum, and one of the favorites, The Lincoln Memorial. 

When “The Lincoln Memorial” is entered into Google, many websites says that the Lincoln Memorial is made out of Stony Creek pink granite.  But what many fail to realize is that there are more than one Lincoln Memorial.  The lesser-known Lincoln Memorial, and the one that also contains the Stony Creek pink granite, is the Lincoln Memorial in Hodgenville, Kentucky.

The United States is home to four national historic sites dedicated to our 16th President, Abraham Lincoln.  The one that makes the people of Kentucky proudest is the Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Park. Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809 in a log cabin near Hodgenville, Kentucky.  The Lincoln Birthplace Memorial is built on the knoll above the sinking spring where many believe the Lincoln cabin originally stood.  Today people come from all over the world to see the grand memorial built to honor his birth. Inside the memorial, visitors can see a log cabin similar to the one where Abraham Lincoln was born and spent his earliest years.  This project began in 1906 when the Lincoln Farm Association began a fund raising campaign for the project, in which over 100,000 Americans donated nearly $350,000.  The Norcross Brothers Construction Company of Worcester, Massachusetts, the nation's first general contractor and one of the most important construction companies of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, won the contract for constructing the Lincoln Birthplace Memorial Building in 1907. Construction began on February 12, 1909, the centennial of Abraham Lincoln's birth, with the laying of the cornerstone and speech by President Theodore Roosevelt.  A promising young architect by the name of John Russell Pope was chosen by the Lincoln Farm Association to design the Lincoln Birthplace Memorial.  Pope immediately began brainstorming and drawing up blueprints, and his promising talent did not fail him in the extravagant and elegant first design he drew up.  But, unfortunately, as Pope's plan was introduced in February 1908, the Lincoln Farm Association had collected only $100,000 of the estimated $250,000 needed to complete the Memorial Building.  More funds tried to be established by Congress, but it was no use.  Between February and October 1908, less than one year before the centennial of Lincoln's birth and the projected dedication of the memorial, the Lincoln Farm Association decided to modify the design because of its limited financial resources.

In October 1908, Pope produced a set of eleven drawings that depicted the finished product as the Memorial Building.  The memorial would no longer be a memorial museum and landscape, but a more modest memorial building to enshrine the birth cabin with a landscaped approach.  Pope placed the Memorial Building on this natural height of the knoll and used its incline for a dramatic stairway approach.  Four sets of Stony Creek granite stairs ascend the terraced hill, nearly thirty-seven feet wide at the base, the stairs narrow to thirty feet at the summit.  The open area at the foot of the stairs provided the visitor a dramatic perspective of the Memorial Building high in the distance, a goal to be reached by gradual ascent and allowed for a very powerful and meaningful setting. 

As John Russell Pope was seen as a very promising architect, he still acquired ideas from other architects, as future architects came up with designs similar to Pope’s.  Pope’s first blueprints of the Lincoln Birthplace Memorial had many stems of similarities to other’s designs.  Historians believe the main facade in Pope's preliminary memorial building design is based on McKim's 1907 Morgan Library in New York, which has a similar three-part organization.  Pope’s designs looked very familiar to the design of the present Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.  And it is even speculated that the Lincoln farm may have been inspired by the 1902 McMillan Commission Plan to re-establish Pierre Charles L'Enfant's original plan of the nation's capital, specifically, the portion of the Mall that included the Washington Monument, the reflecting pool, and the Lincoln Memorial.  Pope was also influenced by none other than Stanford White, the famous architect known for the design of the first Madison Square Garden.  Pope may have been influenced by a series of monumental columns designed by Stanford White, including the Detroit Bicentennial Column of 1899. White adapted this design for the 143-foot Prison Ship Martyr's Monument in Greene Park, Brooklyn, New York, of 1904-1909. Pope placed the Memorial Building and column at opposite ends of a long, rectangular grass plaza.  Therefore, the bird’s eye view of the design looked very familiar to the National Mall set up of the Washington Memorial, reflecting pool and Lincoln Memorial.  But Pope was not the only one who required inspiration from others’ works.  The formal landscape Pope conceived for the Memorial Building was very similar to the McKinley National Memorial, which included the Milford pink granite in the interior and exterior domes.   Designed by New York architect Harold Van Buren Magonigle, the McKinley Memorial was dedicated in September 1907; four months after Pope began work on plans for the Lincoln farm. The pink granite mausoleum is circular, and more significantly, the building is set on a terraced knoll ascended by four sets of broad marble stairs with wide abutments. There also sit long rows of trees that line both sides of the approach as in Pope’s design, originally a reflecting pool that was drained by 1930.  The entire arrangement recalls Pope's landscape treatment for the Lincoln Memorial Building.

In addition, scratching a plan for a formal museum, Pope's revised plan called for one large viewing room that left enough space for the cabin and interior pedestrian space to surround it.  The Memorial Building measures fifty by thirty five feet and encloses a single chamber. Constructed of Connecticut pink Stony Creek granite and reinforced concrete, the building is set on a low terrace.  And the birth cabin is located behind bronze stanchions in the center of the Memorial Building.  Pope's design of the building included many symbolisms related to Abraham Lincoln, including fifty-six steps leading up to the building to represent the fifty-six years of Lincoln's life. Sixteen windows in the building and sixteen rosettes on the interior ceiling are there to remind visitors that Lincoln was the sixteenth president. And the Beaux-Arts building was designed specifically to house the "symbolic" birth cabin of Abraham Lincoln.  Over the entrance is carved "With Malice Toward None with Charity for All," and on the rear inside wall are inscribed the life stories of Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks.  Finally, when the cabin was restored and placed within the walls of the Memorial Building, its size was reduced slightly. It is now 12 feet wide and 17 feet long and its walls are 11 logs high. The spaces between the logs are chinked with clay, and a clay-lined log chimney stands at one end. A small window gives the only light, and the doorway is so low that a man of average height must stoop when he is entering.  The building is set on a terrace of Stony Creek pink granite, which also is used in the monument introducing the memorial when people first drive in

Finally, on November 9, 1911, three thousand people gathered at the foot of the Memorial Building for the dedication of the Lincoln Birthplace Memorial.  President William Howard Taft, a member of the LFA Board of Trustees, delivered an address, but what was to be the "Nation's Commons, the meeting-place of North, South, East and West," was rapidly eclipsed by plans to erect a Lincoln memorial in Washington, D.C. Congress approved funds for the Lincoln Memorial on February 9, 1911, and the nation's attention quickly turned to this latest addition to the Mall.  Articles appeared and little mention was made of the completion of the Lincoln Birthplace Memorial.  Yet today the site is still popular among the tourists.  Also among the exhibit is the Lincoln family Bible with the signature of his father and mark of his mother. Many visitors stay to see a brief orientation film about Lincoln's early life in Kentucky as well.        

The Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., a monument known to represent and honor our 16th President, stands 190 feet long, 119 feet wide, and almost 100 feet high.  Congress approved the bill and sponsored to construct this memorial in 1910. Designed by Henry Bacon, construction began in 1914, and the memorial was opened to the public in 1922. The Memorial is visited by millions of visitors each year and is the site of many large public gatherings and protests.  There are conflicting reports about the materials this statue is made from.  Some websites claim Massachusetts granite makes up part of the memorial, while others provide consensus that the specific granite is actually Milford pink granite.  Milford pink granite is just as popular and widely used as Stony Creek granite, and therefore, there can be confusion between the two. This Milford pink granite is one of Milford, Massachusetts’s greatest known assets.  This Milford pink granite can be found on the foundation steps up to the memorial, around the base of the memorial to represent the South, as well as the lower steps in the Lincoln Memorial.  A portion of the decoration in the walkway up to the Lincoln Memorial is a quartz cobblestone set off by unpolished blocks of Massachusetts granite. Recent renovations by the National Park Service have since removed the local Potomac cobblestones and replaced them with exotic stones. The foundation steps of the memorial consist of granite from Milford, Massachusetts also.  The color is slightly pinkish due to the presence of large crystals of orthoclase feldspar, and the flecks of dark biotite are also visible.  As renovations continue to occur on monuments, there was talk in the past year of renovating the Reflecting Pool in front of the Lincoln Memorial.  As Milford pink granite is a very beautiful and popular granite, there has been talk of tying in more Milford pink granite to the new renovations of the pool to go along with the pink granite in the Lincoln Memorial, claims the GW Hatchet.  While there is still confusion among many as to the specific granite contained in the Lincoln Memorial, there is no doubt that our Stony Creek pink granite from Connecticut can be spotted in the Lincoln Memorial at President Lincoln’s birthplace in Kentucky.

The book, Flesh and Stone:  Stony Creek and the Age of Granite, states that “The great beauty and strength that distinguish Stony Creek granite resulted from a unique progression of dynamic Earth processes that operated at intense pressures and temperatures deep within ancient mountain belts,” (8).  Stony Creek granite is said to be just pluton that solidified before it reached the Earth’s surface, and by definition is rock composed of relatively large crystals of a specific mineral.  No one really knows the precise origin of Stony Creek granite, but reputable geologists of the book, “Flesh and Stone:  Stony Creek and the Age of Granite”, believe that Stony Creek granite originated far from Branford where it is found today.  It is said that Stony Creek granite was once part of South America, and due to many earthquakes, that piece of South America broke off and collided with the eastern shore of North America.   That being the geological explanation for what makes Stony Creek granite what it is today, the industry of Stony Creek granite boomed following the Civil War.  During that time, Stony Creek’s rugged seaside landscape, with made it easy and cheap to transport by sea this unusually heavy cargo, transformed.  They were expanding, but it would be many years before granite was commonly used by American builders because it was so hard to work with.  Benjamin Green came along in 1858 and changed the granite life for good by opening the first quarry in the Stony Creek section of Branford.  It was the perfect location, for the land was at the present Hall’s Point between the Sound and the railroad.  He was able to then ship his granite by sea or rail, and at the height had up to 50 workers.  Unfortunately, in the 1860s Mr. Green suffered a severe accident, and he moved to New Haven while his nephew took over the quarry.  While in New Haven, Mr. Green purchased a railroad sidetrack and opened a granite stone yard.  He advertised he could fill orders for monuments, building stones, and cemetery work in short notice.  But tragedy struck again when Green’s nephew passed away from pneumonia, and his estate was unable to keep the quarry so it was closed and the land sold.  Even through all the rough times of Stony Creek granite quarry, it was the quarry that started everything.  After the Stony Creek granite quarry opened, many more quarries opened as well.  And Stony Creek quarry is still famous for providing one of the most popular and beautiful granites in the country.


DeFord, Deborah. Flesh and Stone: Stony Creek and the Age of Granite. Stony Creek, CT: Stony Creek Granite Workers Celebration/Leete's Island, 2000. Print.









Monuments & Parks Tue, 04 Oct 2011 23:02:40 +0000
St. Mary's Church http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=580:st-marys-church&catid=54:monuments-a-parks&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=580:st-marys-church&catid=54:monuments-a-parks&Itemid=68 Reserved for Emily Healy.

Monuments & Parks Tue, 04 Oct 2011 22:40:02 +0000
Depew Memorial Fountain http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=572:depew-memorial-fountain&catid=54:monuments-a-parks&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=572:depew-memorial-fountain&catid=54:monuments-a-parks&Itemid=68 Depew Memorial Fountain Depew Memorial Fountain is a freestanding fountain located in the center of University Park in Indianapolis, Indiana. It was built between 1913 and 1919 in memory of Richard J. Depew. After Depew’s death in 1887, his wife Emma Ely commissioned the fountain in memory of him.  When Mrs. Depew died in 1913, she left $50,000 from her estate to the city of Indianapolis for the construction of the fountain “in some park or public place where all classes of people may enjoy it.”

Dr. Richard J. Depew was a well-known physician in the Indianapolis area. He was born in 1915 and practiced medicine in St. Omer, and later in St. Paul, Decatur County for years. He made professional trips on horseback and was a bachelor until late in life. He married Emma Ely Depew and moved to Indianapolis where he later died in 1879.

University Park 1920University Park is a one block square, bordered by Vermont, Pennsylvania, New York, and Meridian Streets. It was originally designated as property for a state university in 1827. However, this idea was never actually executed. About twenty-five years later, campus buildings were constructed for the city’s first high school. After the school was vacated in 1860, the site was used to prepare Union troops for a confrontation with the Morgan’s Raiders during the Civil War. The southeast corner of the park once contained a lumberyard, while the north side contained a cow pasture and a children’s playground.  J.B. Perrine leased the east side in 1850 for an exhibition ground. Band concerts, balloon ascensions, and fireworks were held here. “The finest exhibition of fireworks ever given in the city was made there on the 4th of July, 1860.” Many plans were made for this property, but none were completed. After the war was over, the people of Indianapolis raised money to transform the land into a park and laid out naturalistic series of curvilinear, radiating paths.

George Edward KesslerGeorge Edward Kessler redesigned University Park in 1914 for a park and boulevard system. His design called for a central circle with diagonal concrete walkways and heavy plantings at the corners and intersections of the park. Kessler was a German American pioneer city planner and landscape architect. Over the course of his career, he completed over 200 projects and prepared plans for 26 communities, 26 park and boulevard systems, 49 parks, 46 estates and residents, and 26 schools. Some of these include his first work, Merriam Park in 1880, The Paseo in the early 1890’s, and The Louisiana Purchase Exposition in 1904. Kessler was a founder of the American Institute of Planners as well as an original member of the United Sates Commission of Fine Arts. After his death in 1923, the Indianapolis road he was supervising was named Kessler Boulevard in his honor.

According to Art World Volume 1, there is no detail of the Depew Memorial Fountain that forces a viewer to ask questions. “The mind glides from each figure and detail easily and quickly to another and therefore takes in the whole composition one glance and so, easily and quickly seizes the intent of the work.”

Statues of the Children dancingThe fountain has five levels and is made up of bronze figures arranged on a Stony Creek granite base with three basins. There are also three tiers. The lowest is plain, while the second contains carved granite half-clam shells, which have water flowing from them. Eight children draped in leaves, seaweed, water lily pads, and netting are holding hands in a ring and frolicking around the fountain. The third tier contains 16 jumping fish, 8 carp and 8 catfish, which seem to be dancing with the children. “The frieze of jumping fish was introduced and the upper figure was designed which, with the element of music, furnishes the motif for the dancing children” (Art World Volume 1). Rising from the tier is a pedestal base spreading into a water basin.

The upper basin is the fourth level of the fountain, which cascades water over the edge. This basin is carved with frog faces. In an article from Art World Volume 1, Calder states, “I have been concerned to embody the mysterious loveliness of unsophisticated nature- its wild frankness and vigor-…”.  On top of the column is the fifth level of the statue, which holds a woman in a toga with a cymbal in each hand. Her left foot is raised as if she is doing a dance. A memorial plaque is located on the large granite basin. It reads: “Depew Memorial Fountain.  A gift to Indianapolis from Emma Ely Depew in memory of her husband Richard Johnson Depew M.D. whose long and honorable life was spent in untiring service to his fellow men.”

Henry BaconHenry Bacon designed the plaza for the Depew Fountain. Bacon was an American Beaux-Arts architect best remembered for the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. He studied at the University of Illinois, Urbana in 1884, but left to begin his architectural career as a draftsman. He eventually served in the office of McKim, Mead & White in New York City. Here, he worked on projects including the Rhode Island State House and served as McKim’s personal representative in Chicago during the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893. In 1897, Bacon left McKim, Meade, & White and founded Brite and Bacon Architects with James Brite. Bacon was in charge of architectural design and construction while Brite was in charge of financial administrative and contracting aspects.

Karl BitterThe original design of the fountain was by Karl Bitter, a Viennese native, who became well known under the patronage of Richard Morris Hunt.  He was born and trained in Vienna and in 1889 while on leave from the army immigrated to the United States out of protest regarding military service during peacetime. After arriving in America, Bitter was discovered by the architect of choice of New York’s rich and famous, Richard Morris Hunt. Bitter’s extraordinary organizational skills led him to be named head of the sculpture programs in the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition held in San Francisco, California. Bitter worked on Pennsylvania Station in Philadelphia, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and the doors of Trinity Church in New York. He died in 1915 and had only completed a small model of the Depew Memorial Fountain.

Bitter's Design of the Depew Memorial Fountain

A. Stirling Calder finished Bitter’s design of the Depew Memorial Fountain. Bitter left an incomplete plastic sketch, but Calder set it aside. He said, “I believe that it is impossible for one artist to develop freely another’s work.” Although the general model was thrown away, the theme of youthful joy was retained. “The ideal Mr. Calder has sought to give expression to was one of joyous, vigorous, innocent youth seeking and outlet for energy and the natural pursuit of pleasure, hence the dance” (Architectures volume 37-38).  The granite for the fountain was cut and set by George Brown & Co.

Leif Ericsson Memorial in IcelandCalder is best known for his Ericsson Memorial, a gift to Iceland from the American people, but he considers the Depew Fountain to be his best. Calder was an American sculptor and teacher. At the age of 16 in 1885, Stirling attended the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and studied under Thomas Eakins. The following year he apprenticed as a sculptor and worked on his father’s extensive sculpture program for Philadelphia City Hall. He modeled the arm of one of the figures. In 1890 he moved to Paris where he studied at the Academie Julian under Henri Michel Chapu. In 1892, he returned to Philadelphia to begin his career as a sculptor. He taught sculpture and anatomy at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, the Pennsylvania Museum School of Industrial Art, the National Academy of Design in NYC and the Art Students League of New York. In 1912, he was named acting-chief under Karl Bitter of the sculpture program for the Panama-Pacific Exposition.  For this exposition he completed three massive sculpture groups, The Nations of the East and The Nations of the West, and a fountain group.

Women dancing around fountain celebratingThere have been events in the news about the fountain over the years. On April 21, 1926, young women did interpretive dancing around the Depew Memorial Fountain, marking the 10th anniversary of the fountain. These women were from the Albertina Rasch ballet and mimicked the bronze sculptures of the fountain.

Depew Memorial Plaque Most recently, an article from June 1, 2011 discussed the fountain. The dedication plaque from 1919 was stolen from the Depew Memorial Fountain. According to the executive director of the Indiana War Memorial, “this is a priceless artifact that belongs to every citizen of Indiana.” This fountain has history dating back to the 1900’s, making it a historical landmark. It is evident that the Depew Memorial Fountain is an important object to the city of Indianapolis.

Placemark: http://maps.google.com/maps?ll=39.771963,-86.156991&z=18&t=h&hl=en

Works Cited:









Monuments & Parks Tue, 27 Sep 2011 18:12:01 +0000
The Statue of Liberty http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=422:the-statue-of-liberty&catid=54:monuments-a-parks&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=422:the-statue-of-liberty&catid=54:monuments-a-parks&Itemid=68 The Statue of Liberty is a monument that stands for everything the United States believes in. She is the most famous symbol of freedom, hope, opportunity and independence. Lady Liberty is located on Liberty Island in New York Harbor. The French were avid believers in independence and human rights. The United States could not have received independence without assistance from the French during the American Revolution. The people of France, wanted to give the United States a gift that stood for independence and hope.

The statue represents the Roman goddess of freedom, Libertas. Lady Liberty is holding a torch and a tablet that is inscribed with, July 4th, 1776 in roman numerals, representing American Independence Day. The statue symbolizes hope and freedom for all Americans and all who enter the United States. It is said that Lady Liberty’s torch lights the way for all people to come into the land of the free and to bring all people into safety no matter what race, ethnicity or gender. All individuals are welcomed to the United States. Lady Liberty’s crown represents the seven seas and continents of the world.


Frederic Bartholdi, a French architect, designed the beautiful and large statue. He was born in Colmar, France on August 2nd, 1834 and passed away on October 4th, 1904. Barholdi began as a painter but became famous as a sculptor. His passion was to make large elaborate sculptors. His first work was of General Jean Rapp, leader of Napoleon Bonaparte’s army. Bartholdi was eighteen years old when he created the twelve-foot sculpture. He also did several other statues such as the Marquis de Lafayette Statue, in Union Square, NYC in 1876. Bartholdi fountain in Bartholdi Park was created for the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition. Bartholdi Park is in Washington, D.C, among many others. His most famous work however, was the Statue of Liberty. He got his inspiration from a French law professor and politician, Edouard Rene de Laboulaye. Bartholdi got his idea and began designing the statue in 1867. Bartholdi then consulted architect/engineer Eugene Emmanuel Violett-le-Duc. They presented their ideas to the French government and people at the Hotel du Louvre in 1875. The French government and Bartholdi’s crew began constructing the Statue of Liberty in the winter of 1875. The Statue was given to the US on June 17th, 1885 as a gift to the US as a token of friendship from the government of France. In 1871 Bartholdi and a French activist and intellectual, Edouard-Rene Lefebvre de Laboulaye, met and decided upon creating an enormous statue representing independence. Bartholdi, Laboulaye and the American government decided on the New York Harbor as the perfect place for the statue to stand. In 1871 Bartholdi visited the United States twice to observe the area and sketch the design of the statue. Bartholdi believed that New York Harbor was the best place for the statue. He said that it was “where people get their first view of the New World.” When immigrants came to America they would be warmly welcomed and protected by everything that the Statue of Liberty stands for. Batholdi was very charismatic and convinced both the Americans and the French of his design. He got many people very excited and willing to help do what they can to help. He was amazed by the grandness of New York and loved it. He wanted the Statue to be colossal like the rest of the city.




The architect and engineer, Violett-le-Duc had passed away in the middle of the construction in 1879. Viollet-le-Duc was a French architect and theorist. He was famous for restoring medieval buildings. He restored many well-known buildings such as, the Notre Dame de Paris. Gustave Eiffel, another famous architect and engineer took over the project. Eiffel was born on December 15th, 1832 and passed away on December 37th, 1923. He was a structural engineer. He had designed the Eiffel Tower for Paris World’s fair Exhibition. Gustave Eiffle also constructed the Cathedral Saint Mark of Africa, joined the effort to construct the Panama Canal and designed La Ruche, in Paris.





Lady Liberty’s right arm and torch were the first pieces to be completed. When they werecompleted in 1876, they were sent to the Philadelphia International Centennial Exhibition. People were able to walk inside of the torch for fifty cents. All the proceeds went to completing the pedestal of the statue. Throughout the six months that the exhibit was open, May 10th through November 10th, over eight million people came from the United States and around forty million came from around the world. Bartholdi finished Lady Liberty’s head and shoulders by 1878 and were on display in Paris for the World’s fair in June.  The display offered a chance for everyone to see the amazing parts, which granted Bartholdi the right to hold a lottery to raise enough money to finish just the Statue of Liberty, not including the pedestal. By 1870, an estimated 250,000 francs had been raised and donated for the completion of the statue.


The Franco-American committee sent out an “Offical Notification” on July 7, 1880 to the American government. The notification announced that they had enough money to complete the project and that they would be finished by 1883. Finally, Gustave Eiffel constructed the framework of the steel tower in 1880. The inner and outer structures were assembled over a course of three years. In 1884, the statue was finally complete. On July 4th, 1884 the statue was presented to Americans in Paris. On June 17th, 1885, the statue was dismantled in 350 pieces and transported to the US in 214 crates about the French ship Isere. When the parts arrived at Liberty Island, it took four months to re-assemble the statue on its pedestal.


The statue of Liberty has a total weight of 225 tons; the statue itself was 179,200 pounds of copper and 250,000 pounds of iron. It was covered in a copper sheet that was about the thickness of a penny. The Statue of liberty is 305 feet tall, which is equivalent to a twenty-two-story building. The Statue of Liberty is made out of copper and is green because the copper has naturally oxidized. The pedestal of the Statue of liberty is made out of Stony Creek granite from Beattie's Quarry in Leete’s Island in New Haven County, Connecticut. John Beattie was born in 1821 in Edinburgh, Scotland and moved to Canada when he was a child and continued to move around the country until he settled in Connecticut, where he bought many large properties in the Stony Creek District. He had one of the largest industrial enterprises of his time. His projects consisted of; lighthouses, hotels, railroad bridges and elevators. The Beattie quarries contracted not only in Connecticut, but also everywhere from including big cities of New York and Boston. The granite that constructed the Brooklyn Bridge abutments and the North Lighthouses were also from his quarry. John Beattie received government contracts to build the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty with Stony Creek granite from 1876-1886. While the Statue was being built in France, the pedestal was being worked on in Liberty Island. Beattie gathered a team of immigrants from all over the world that came to America to create the pedestal.

In 1876, the American and French governments agreed that the Statue would be built in France funded by the French government. The pedestal and the re-assembling of the statue onto the pedestal was the Americans responsibility. Americans had many issues raising money to build the pedestal. The American committee began to raise $125,000, which ended up being half the amount needed to complete the pedestal. Constructed came to a stop in the fall of 1884 until the committee raised an additional $100,000. Joseph Pultizer was in charge of fundraising the additional money. Fundraising was slow in the beginning until he used his magazine to his advantage. He was the owner of, New York World magazine. On March 16th, 1885, Pultizer used his magazine to his advantage, were he was able to gain publicity and funds from American’s. The fundraising was finally complete on August 11th, 1885.


Architect Richard Morris Hunt designed the base’s structure. In April 1886, the pedestal construction was finished. The pedestal was fifty-three feet long and was eighty-nine feet high. It was built of Stony Creek granite from Beattie’s Quarry in Leete’s Island. Beattie’s workers carefully extracted, sorted and picked the best stones and loaded the stones onto a ship to be transported to Hoadley’s Point. From there they were shipped to New York City. In 1883, Emma Lazarus wrote the poem that is inscribed on the pedestal, “The New Colossus.” Finally on August 5th, 1884 the six-ton cornerstone was laid and inscribed. He gave his design for the base at no cost at all. Hunt designed a neoclassical pedestal. Hunt’s design was made of concrete with a steel back. There were doors, a frieze (painted or sculpted designs) of forty- shields. The forty shields represented the forty states at that point in time. In addition there were many platforms for observing a beautiful view of New York Harbor. Hunt was born on October 31st, 1827 and passed away on July 31st, 1895. He was a very famous American architect. Hunt’s most famous work is the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty. In addition, many of the elegant mansions and buildings on 5th Avenue, NYC was built by Hunt. However most were destroyed and torn down except for the Hostelling International building, which is located in between 103rd and 104th street in Manhattan.


Bartholdi originally named the statue “La Liberte e’ clairant le monde” which means “Liberty enlightening the world.” Today the statue is referred to as, The Statue of Liberty or Lady Liberty. The statue stays true to its name. It really did and still does enlighten not only Americans but to all other countries. It is a symbol of hope and opportunity. The statue of liberty stands for freedom. It shows people the way to happiness and away from their suffering. Her torch lights the way to life and opportunity in the United States. The base of the Statue is inscribed with, The New Colossus, a poem by Emma Lazarus. It says, "Give me your tired, your poor, 
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free. 
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. 
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me. 
I lift my lamp beside the golden door." The poem is on the statue’s pedestal and truly moves every individual who reads it.

The French-American committee for the Restoration of the Statue of Liberty was established in 1981. They held a Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island fundraisers to raise money to complete renovations. The French-American committee raised $230 million for the renovation in1982. The renovation repaired; holes from salt from the water, distortion of the iron framework and corrected previous attempts that were not resolved. Nine years after the statue was completed, the United States government funded a $19,500 job to create a special energy plant to light up Lady Liberty’s torch. In addition, many renovation and alterations created a more durable lighting system inside the interior of the statue. The torch was constantly changed and modified throughout the years. Finally, in 1984, the torch was ordered to be rebuilt the way it was originally. Liberty weekend began on July 3rd and lasted until July 6th, 1986. Its purpose was to celebrate the Statue of Liberty. It was a big ceremony unveiling the Statue of Liberty. President Ronald Reagan made a speech, thanking the French for the gift and for its maintenance. Many famous performers were there to perform such as; Neil Diamond and Frank Sinatra.

There are 345 stairs inside of the statue of Liberty, along with twenty-five windows for people to enjoy the view. People are able to walk inside of the statue; in the base, original torch and crown. After the attack on the Twin Towers on September 11th 2001, Liberty Island closed until December. However, the monument remained closed until August 3rd, 2004. The actual statue remained closed for fire regulations for many years, however people could go into the museum and in the pedestal if they have a monument access pass. Today, to go into the crown and torch you need specific passes that need to be ordered at least two days in advance. There is a limit to how many people can receive passes in a day and are prohibited from bringing anything except a camera. Very famous and proficient people who put their heart and souls into building the true symbol of freedom crafted the statue. Lady Liberty was built to last a lifetime. She still stands tall even through fifty miles per hour winds, lightening, salt-water damage amongst many other aspects and will continue to guide her people to a good life. As long as she is still standing watching over, there will always be hope and an overall sense of security.


 Work Cited

Flesh and Stone. Stony Creek and the Age of Granite. Deborah Deford. Stony Creek, CT 2000


"New York Architecture Images-STATUE OF LIBERTY." Nyc-architecture | New York Architecture- Historic and Contemporary. Web. 06 Oct. 2010.



"Statue of Liberty National Monument - Frequently Asked Questions (U.S. National Park Service)." U.S. National Park Service - Experience Your America. Web. 06 Oct. 2010.



"Statue of Liberty Construction." Endex Engineering - Structural Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Construction Management. Web. 06 Oct. 2010.


Monuments & Parks Wed, 10 Nov 2010 01:28:49 +0000
The Battle Monument at West Point http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=420:the-battle-monument-at-west-point&catid=54:monuments-a-parks&Itemid=68 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=420:the-battle-monument-at-west-point&catid=54:monuments-a-parks&Itemid=68 Stony Creek Granite has been around for some 600 million years, and has been used in all types of construction from sea walls, kitchens, to breathtaking buildings and monuments.  Even though granite, which originates from southern Connecticut, has been around for millions of years it has only been used on a large-scale use for a couple of centuries.  Stony Creek granite was quarried in Branford, Connecticut usually from one of three major quarries.  The Stony Creek Red Granite Company, Norcross Brothers, and Guilford’s Beattie quarries are the three well-documented quarries which exported this magnificent pink-granite.  All three quarries are very well-known for historical buildings, monuments, sculptures, etc. including the base of the Statue of Liberty, the post office at Grand Central Station, South Station in Boston, and the Brooklyn Bridge. One of the more prominent sites where Stony Creek granite was used was at the Battle Monument at West Point Military Academy in West Point, NY.

West Point Military Academy was institutionalized because many influential men in the United States’ history decided an institution dedicated to the arts and sciences of warfare was necessary.  The soldiers and legislatures who were heavily involved in the Academy’s founding ranged from George Washington, Henry Knox, and John Adams, who all wished to eliminate the need for foreign engineers and artillerists.  The current President of the United States, Thomas Jefferson, signed the legislation which started the Military Academy in 1802.  Thereafter, West Point Military Academy was based upon honorable conduct and strict military discipline while having engineering being the core curriculum.  Being a student at West Point was and still is today a very big honor due to the fact that its reputation has only greatened since its founding.  West Point’s campus is a collection of the United States’ military history and many important monuments have been erected here, mostly dedicated to those soldiers who have served the United States.

One of many monuments and statues at West Point Academy is the Battle Monument at Trophy Point.  The Battle Monument was dedicated in 1897to 2,230 fallen soldiers in the Civil War, all of whose names are carved on the shaft of the monument. “Following the Civil War, Americans’ attention turned toward commemorating the men who courageously served during the conflict. Nowhere was this sentiment more movingly expressed than at the Battle Monument of the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York (1897)” (Deford 162). In 1863, a committee was formed to construct a proper memorial to honor those fallen.  The committee was assembled of graduated West Point soldiers who survived the Civil War, the “War of Rebellion.” They decided to form a committee to honor those fallen with some sort of monument.  The final inscription at the bottom of the monument sums up the reasoning perfectly: “…this monument is erected by their surviving comrades.”  The funding for the monument came out of soldiers’ pay.  The higher the rank, the higher dollar amount was taken out.  Over a one year period, 1864-1865 about $14,400 was raised.  These funds were sufficient, but the necessary amount to fully fund the monument wasn’t available until 1890.

The year after the committee was assembled in 1863, West Point Academy held a dedication ceremony of the site of the monument – Trophy Point.  On June 15, 1864 the ceremony took place and many influential members were present.  On the day of the site dedication, instead of the monument, there was a stand where the orator was going to speak.  The grounds were beautifully decorated with flags and emblems resembling pride of the Union and the United States.  To begin the ceremony a procession took place from the West Point Library to the place where the stand was located.  Upon the arrival of the procession a national salute was performed and a prayer began the ceremony delivered by Reverend Dr. French.  During the ceremony, the generals were adamant about the audience refraining from applause during any point to uphold the solemnity of the event.  After prayer, the band played “Hail Columbia,” (can we get a link to this song in the FOA article?) which was followed by General McClellan’s speech.  The ceremony was concluded with “The Star Spangled Banner” and “Yankee Doodle.”  Below is the actual program of that day:



Assistant-Marshal. — Capt. Wilkins, 3d Infantry.

1. Military Academy Band.

2. Battalion of Cadets.

Assistant-MarsJtal. — Capt. Smtth, 8th Infantry.

3. Detachments of Troops, Stationed at and Visiting the Post.

4. Carriage containing the President of the Executive Committee,

the Chief Marshal, and State Executives.

Assistant-Marshal. — Lieut. Hamilton, 2d Artillery.

5. Senior Memher of the Committee, Orator, and Chaplains.

6. The Executive Committee.

7. Military and Academic Staff, Board of Visitors, and Invited Guests.

AssistanLMarshals. \ CaPt davies' 16th

(Capt. Barlow, Engineers.



1. Prayer ................ Rev. Dr. French

2. Music — Hail Columbia ............... Military Academy Band

3. Oration .............. f. ............... Maj. Gen. McClellau

4. Music — Star-Spangled Banner & Yankee-Doodle. . . M. A. Band

5. Benediction ................ Kev. Dr. Sprole

6. Dirge ............................... Military Academy Band


All the committee needed now was a design plan and an architect to construct their vision for the dedication to the fallen soldiers. The committeeevaluated many architects and design plans to find the plan which fit their vision perfectly.  Architects like Richard Morris Hunt and Arthur Rotch were considered to design the monument.  Hunt is well-known for the façade of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty.  Rotch is well-known for various building amongst prestigious schools including Wellesley College, Bowdoin, and Phillip Exeter Academy.  The group who was commissioned for the project was McKim, Mead & White.  The drawing which the prominent and greatly talented Stanford White submitted was exactly what the committee was looking for.  White’s drawing was a tall standing column made of single piece of granite.  White wanted to make sure the column wasn’t going to compromise the beauty of West Point’s campus – subtle beauty.  Stanford White was a famous architect who built many homes, buildings, and monuments which are still standing today. He helped construct the Washington Square arch, the Second Madison Square Garden, many of the Newport mansions, and the Boston Public Library, just to name a few.

On top of the majestic 46 feet high shaft, a bronze figure was to top off the monument.  The bronze figure surmountedon top of the granite sphere, also at the top, was sculpted by Frederick MacMonnies.  This figure at the top was named “Lady Fame” or “Victory” due to the victorious pose she takes.  The pose she takes and even her name, display that fallen soldiers diedfighting for a worthwhile cause.  During the time of the monument’s construction Stanford White believed the original bronze statue of “Lady Victory” was awkward and not proportionate to the rest of the column. It was reconstructed by MacMonnies in 1894 and put back on top of the column in 1896.

Along with deciding which architectural company to use and which design was best fitting, the committee needed to decide where to get the granite.  The Norcross Company was the number one candidate out of the three most well-known quarries in Branford, Connecticut where the pink Stony Creek granite derived from.  The reason why the Norcross Company was chosen was because it was well-known for its ability to produce large stones from ledges of great length without seams.  The blast which produced the slab for the monument was a block 20 feet wide and 50 feet in length without a single crack!  Once finished the column produced was and still is the tallest single piece of polished granite in the western hemisphere standing at 46 feet tall.

The largest single piece of granite produced thus far, during the late 1800’s, the turning, shaping,  milling and polishing took two years to produce while the transportation, due to the size and weight of the column, took another seven weeks.  Crating and shipping of the stone was necessary in order for the 93-ton monument to travel the 191-mile trip to West Point, NY.

Finally on May 31, 1897 the Battle Monument was completely finished and entirely dedicated, 33 years later.  It all began with surviving graduates of West Point deciding a monument should be constructed to those fallen in the Civil War. From there the long process of finding an architect and granite, building, transportation, and necessary touch-ups began.

The battle monument at West Point Military Academy still remains today, overlooking the Hudson, just as magnificent as it was in 1897.  The only change to the Battle Monument was the change in 1894 to “Lady Victory.”  This monument shows the strength and durability of Stony Creek Granite and will forever be a part of history for all to see.  It is very relevant to United States’ history because it commemorates the fallen soldiers during the United States’ rebellion period, the Civil War.  People will forever be able to go and visit this monument and remember all of the fallen soldiers during the Civil War, while remembering all fallen soldiers.

For more information:





Deford, Deborah. Flesh and Stone: Stony Creek and the Age of Granite. Stony Creek, CT: Stony Creek Granite Quarry Workers Celebration, 2000.

Bing's Bird eye view:


Google earth:

Battle Monument at West Point Military Academy.kmz

Monuments & Parks Mon, 08 Nov 2010 21:07:13 +0000