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Flesh and Stone Foundations of America - QU 201 http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php 2017-11-21T06:02:08Z Joomla! 1.5 - Open Source Content Management Hand and Ox 46 2010-09-29T21:34:34Z 2010-09-29T21:34:34Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=361:hand-and-ox-46&catid=35:in-the-beginning-&Itemid=57 <p>Hand and Ox 46</p> <p>Katie DeGrazia</p> <p>Hand and Ox 46</p> <p>Katie DeGrazia</p> Geology Terms 14 2010-09-22T01:48:25Z 2010-09-22T01:48:25Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=338:geology-terms-14&catid=35:in-the-beginning-&Itemid=57 <div style="color: #333333; font-family: Tahoma, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 76%; background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-color: #ffffff; line-height: 1.3em; margin: 8px;"> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><strong>Geology Terms</strong></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Transform Boundary</strong> - the location at which plates scrape past one another alone a strike-slip fault line</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span>* (ex: San Andreas fault of California: formed where the N.American and Pacific plates meet)</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Subduction Zone</strong>- the location at which lithospheric plates sink or are thrust into the Earth's interior</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Rift Zone</strong>- a zone of tension that acts to pull continental land masses or ocean basins apart</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*over time, rifts become deep valleys with elevations allowing sea water to enter; rifting can form new ocean basins;</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">it is unknown whether or not this pattern can create a large new ocean</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Quart</strong>z- one of the three minerals found in granite; made mostly of silicon and oxygen</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*medium to dark grey, translucent in color </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Potassium Feldspar</strong>- one of the three minerals found in granite; made mostly of potassium, silicon, aluminum, and oxygen</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*its reddish color comes mainly from traces of iron in its structure </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Plutons</strong>- masses of rock formed by magma that crystallizes underground</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*named for Pluto, the Greek god of the underworld </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Plate Tectonics</strong>- the theory that describes how lithospheric plates move</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*explains how lithospheric plates "bump" into one another eventually colliding which can produce high mountains</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: x-small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span>(ex: India is colliding with Asia, forcing the Himalayan mountain chain)</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Plagioclase Felspar</strong>- one of the three minerals found in granite; made mostly of sodium, calcium, silicon, aluminum, and oxygen</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Mineral</strong>- a naturally formed, non living solid that has a characteristic chemical composition and crystal structure</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*all minerals occur as crystals, but not all crystals occur as minerals (ex: rock candy is crystallized but not a mineral)</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Magma</strong>- molten rock</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: x-small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*</span><span style="font-size: x-small;">m</span><span style="font-size: x-small;">agma is usually less dense that its surroundings, and so it rises towards the Earth's surface, sometimes as quickly as 10ft per year </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Lithospheric Plate</strong> - plates of rock that form the outermost shell of the Earth; today six major and numerous plates form this shell</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*Stony Creek granite is part of the N.American plate; granite did not form in its present location but traveled from New England </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">on this drift </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Lava</strong>- magma that erupts on the Earth's surface; the vent from which the lava emerges is called a volcano</span><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Igneous Rock</strong>- rock formed by the cooling and solidification of magma or lava</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Granite</strong>- igneous rock that crystalizes underground and is composed of relatively large crystals of a specific suite of minerals</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Gondwanaland</strong>- composed of what we now know as Africa, South America, Australia, India, the southeastern United States, and parts of China and Europe, and names for a zone of specific rocks in India.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Gondwana</strong>- an enormous, ancient continental mass</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Crystal</strong>- a solid, bounded by flat (planar) faces, composed of a regular, highly ordered, three-dimensional arrangement of atoms</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*can be traced back to the Greek word </span><em><span style="font-size: x-small;">krystallos, </span></em><span style="font-size: x-small;">meaning "ice;"</span><em><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></em><span style="font-size: x-small;">internal order creates its symmetrical appearance</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Continental Drift</strong>- the movement of continents across the surface</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*constant slow motion for billions of years to date </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Collision Zone</strong>- the location at which one lithospheric plate collides with another</span></p> </div> <div style="color: #333333; font-family: Tahoma, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 76%; background-image: initial; background-attachment: initial; background-origin: initial; background-clip: initial; background-color: #ffffff; line-height: 1.3em; margin: 8px;"> <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><strong>Geology Terms</strong></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Transform Boundary</strong> - the location at which plates scrape past one another alone a strike-slip fault line</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span>* (ex: San Andreas fault of California: formed where the N.American and Pacific plates meet)</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Subduction Zone</strong>- the location at which lithospheric plates sink or are thrust into the Earth's interior</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Rift Zone</strong>- a zone of tension that acts to pull continental land masses or ocean basins apart</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*over time, rifts become deep valleys with elevations allowing sea water to enter; rifting can form new ocean basins;</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">it is unknown whether or not this pattern can create a large new ocean</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Quart</strong>z- one of the three minerals found in granite; made mostly of silicon and oxygen</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*medium to dark grey, translucent in color </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Potassium Feldspar</strong>- one of the three minerals found in granite; made mostly of potassium, silicon, aluminum, and oxygen</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*its reddish color comes mainly from traces of iron in its structure </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Plutons</strong>- masses of rock formed by magma that crystallizes underground</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*named for Pluto, the Greek god of the underworld </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Plate Tectonics</strong>- the theory that describes how lithospheric plates move</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*explains how lithospheric plates "bump" into one another eventually colliding which can produce high mountains</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: x-small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span>(ex: India is colliding with Asia, forcing the Himalayan mountain chain)</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Plagioclase Felspar</strong>- one of the three minerals found in granite; made mostly of sodium, calcium, silicon, aluminum, and oxygen</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Mineral</strong>- a naturally formed, non living solid that has a characteristic chemical composition and crystal structure</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*all minerals occur as crystals, but not all crystals occur as minerals (ex: rock candy is crystallized but not a mineral)</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Magma</strong>- molten rock</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: x-small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*</span><span style="font-size: x-small;">m</span><span style="font-size: x-small;">agma is usually less dense that its surroundings, and so it rises towards the Earth's surface, sometimes as quickly as 10ft per year </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Lithospheric Plate</strong> - plates of rock that form the outermost shell of the Earth; today six major and numerous plates form this shell</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*Stony Creek granite is part of the N.American plate; granite did not form in its present location but traveled from New England </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">on this drift </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Lava</strong>- magma that erupts on the Earth's surface; the vent from which the lava emerges is called a volcano</span><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Igneous Rock</strong>- rock formed by the cooling and solidification of magma or lava</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Granite</strong>- igneous rock that crystalizes underground and is composed of relatively large crystals of a specific suite of minerals</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Gondwanaland</strong>- composed of what we now know as Africa, South America, Australia, India, the southeastern United States, and parts of China and Europe, and names for a zone of specific rocks in India.</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Gondwana</strong>- an enormous, ancient continental mass</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Crystal</strong>- a solid, bounded by flat (planar) faces, composed of a regular, highly ordered, three-dimensional arrangement of atoms</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*can be traced back to the Greek word </span><em><span style="font-size: x-small;">krystallos, </span></em><span style="font-size: x-small;">meaning "ice;"</span><em><span style="font-size: x-small;"> </span></em><span style="font-size: x-small;">internal order creates its symmetrical appearance</span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Continental Drift</strong>- the movement of continents across the surface</span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="white-space: pre;"> </span><span style="font-size: x-small;">*constant slow motion for billions of years to date </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Collision Zone</strong>- the location at which one lithospheric plate collides with another</span></p> </div> Flesh against Stone-7 2010-09-20T22:58:50Z 2010-09-20T22:58:50Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=335:flesh-and-stone-7&catid=35:in-the-beginning-&Itemid=57 <p style="text-align: left;">    Flesh against stone stands for the hard-working Italians, English, Irish, Swedes, and Finns. Some 600 million year old stone grabbed their attention. On page seven it describes how a man needed shelter. Maybe it was out of boredom that he used “brute force” to get stone rather than dragging an unattached rock from a distance. Whatever the case may be, for centuries people acquired the skills to use various stones for shelter.</p> <p>      <strong>Thimble Islands (Stony Creek)</strong><img src="http://www.backbaypress.com/images/aerial-land-05.jpg" border="0" width="466" height="286" />   </p> <p>    Over time, these people developed more skills that taught them how to use different materials in the stone. For example, by “putting wood into crevices, adding water, and letting the swelling wood split harder stone.” For this, they created beautiful sections of stone (the stone resembles what Professor Leone gave everyone in class). It is amazing that at this time, their descendants had already created roads, churches, and pyramids.</p> <p style="text-align: center;"> </p> <p style="text-align: left;">    “They put iron and steel between their flesh and the stone and bit into the hard face of the Earth.” These inhabitants were brave and strong. With the technology used today, those stone segments could be made in a matter of a day; whereas centuries ago, humans made it from flesh. The stone still stands to this day, sturdy and majestic. That says a lot about our ancestors.</p> <p> <img src="http://www.coastalsailing.net/Cruising/Destinations/LIS/Thimbles/Pix/image003.jpg" border="0" width="410" height="282" /><strong>Stony Creek-The Thimble Islands</strong></p> <p>Sources:</p> <p><a href="http://www.amazon.com/Flesh-Stone-Stony-Creek-Granite/dp/0918172292">http://www.amazon.com/Flesh-Stone-Stony-Creek-Granite/dp/0918172292</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.google.com/images?um=1&hl=en&biw=1259&bih=583&tbs=isch%3A1&sa=1&q=granite+thimble+island&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai">http://www.google.com/images?um=1&hl=en&biw=1259&bih=583&tbs=isch%3A1&sa=1&q=granite+thimble+island&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai</a>=</p> <p>Other links:</p> <p><a href="http://eurasian.com/canada/granite/stony_creek.html">http://eurasian.com/canada/granite/stony_creek.html</a> -what stony creek granite looks like</p> <p><a href="http://www.thimbleislandcruise.com/">http://www.thimbleislandcruise.com/</a> -thimble island cruise information</p> <p style="text-align: left;">    Flesh against stone stands for the hard-working Italians, English, Irish, Swedes, and Finns. Some 600 million year old stone grabbed their attention. On page seven it describes how a man needed shelter. Maybe it was out of boredom that he used “brute force” to get stone rather than dragging an unattached rock from a distance. Whatever the case may be, for centuries people acquired the skills to use various stones for shelter.</p> <p>      <strong>Thimble Islands (Stony Creek)</strong><img src="http://www.backbaypress.com/images/aerial-land-05.jpg" border="0" width="466" height="286" />   </p> <p>    Over time, these people developed more skills that taught them how to use different materials in the stone. For example, by “putting wood into crevices, adding water, and letting the swelling wood split harder stone.” For this, they created beautiful sections of stone (the stone resembles what Professor Leone gave everyone in class). It is amazing that at this time, their descendants had already created roads, churches, and pyramids.</p> <p style="text-align: center;"> </p> <p style="text-align: left;">    “They put iron and steel between their flesh and the stone and bit into the hard face of the Earth.” These inhabitants were brave and strong. With the technology used today, those stone segments could be made in a matter of a day; whereas centuries ago, humans made it from flesh. The stone still stands to this day, sturdy and majestic. That says a lot about our ancestors.</p> <p> <img src="http://www.coastalsailing.net/Cruising/Destinations/LIS/Thimbles/Pix/image003.jpg" border="0" width="410" height="282" /><strong>Stony Creek-The Thimble Islands</strong></p> <p>Sources:</p> <p><a href="http://www.amazon.com/Flesh-Stone-Stony-Creek-Granite/dp/0918172292">http://www.amazon.com/Flesh-Stone-Stony-Creek-Granite/dp/0918172292</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.google.com/images?um=1&hl=en&biw=1259&bih=583&tbs=isch%3A1&sa=1&q=granite+thimble+island&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai">http://www.google.com/images?um=1&hl=en&biw=1259&bih=583&tbs=isch%3A1&sa=1&q=granite+thimble+island&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai</a>=</p> <p>Other links:</p> <p><a href="http://eurasian.com/canada/granite/stony_creek.html">http://eurasian.com/canada/granite/stony_creek.html</a> -what stony creek granite looks like</p> <p><a href="http://www.thimbleislandcruise.com/">http://www.thimbleislandcruise.com/</a> -thimble island cruise information</p> Migration of Granite 10 2010-09-20T21:26:37Z 2010-09-20T21:26:37Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=327:migration-of-granite-10&catid=35:in-the-beginning-&Itemid=57 michelle Laccetti 16 <p>kj</p> <p>kj</p> Earth Forces 2010-09-20T03:09:46Z 2010-09-20T03:09:46Z http://www.foundationsofamerica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=302:earth-forces&catid=35:in-the-beginning-&Itemid=57 201-16-Delucia-M <p>Earth Forces</p> <p>Earth Forces</p>